Vision Africa 2063- Diaspora Engagement for Sustainable Development & Investment Opportunities

 

African Union Mission, Washington, D.C., USA.

 

AUM Synthesis Report, From Prior African Union Mission Consultancies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diaspora Engagement

Synthesis Consultancy Report

 

Belai Habte-Jesus, MD, MPH

Global Strategic Enterprises, Inc

 

January 2012

 

 

 

The Contributors to the AUM Consultancies

 

  1. Development of Policy Briefs: Azeb Tadesse
  2. Communication and Media Strategy:             Julia Wilson
  3. AGOA Report: David Shifferaw
  4. Latin America (3 countries):             Alison Moses
  5. Latin America (4 countries):             Gilberto Amaya
  6. Knowledge and Data Management: Mr. James Kwarteng

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

African Diaspora Map until 1873

by

the late Professor Joseph E Harris of Howard University

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Engaging the African Diaspora

                                                                                                                                                                                   

  1. Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..                         05
  1. Terms of Reference and Policy Framework……………………………………………………………………….                   08

 

  • Abstract: Motivation, Purpose, Approach, Results, Conclusions…………………………………………….. 11            
  1. Executive Summary………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..                   15
  1. Evaluating the AUM Consultancies: Introduction……………………………………………………………………                   20
  2.         The African Diaspora in the US; Partners for African Education Sector Development……………….. 24
  • Service Delivery and Health Care: Role of Diaspora and Information & Communication Technology 28
  • Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa ………………………………………………………………………………               34                                                                                                                                                                                                                              
  1. Understanding the African Diaspora in the USA……………………………………………………………………………                 38
  2. The African Diaspora Health Initiative/ADHI………………………………………………………………………………..  49
  3. Evaluating AGOA and AUM Trip Reports…………………………………………………………………………………….                   60

XII.             Evaluation of African Growth and Opportunity Act………………………………………………………………………                88

XII.            The Synthesis SMART Work Plan and How it was designed…………………………………………………………                   135

  1. The Larger Picture: Global African Diaspora- future research………………………….…………………………. 144

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Introduction

1.1 Integration of prior consultancies. This synthesis report integrates a series of prior consultancies undertaken by the African Union Mission in Washington DC, and provides a unique insight into diaspora engagement policy development activities aimed at the sustainable development and investment opportunities available within Member States of the African Union .

1.2 Project focus. The project focus is to provide the African Union Representational Mission with a framework for assessing research-based information; strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, limitations and threats of the various consultations carried out. The Synthesis report is designed to facilitate the development of a coherent strategy for engaging the diaspora.

1.3 Objectives. The African Union Representational Mission seeks to utilize the Synthesis report for analyzing and formulating policies; and to improve the coordination of policies affecting diaspora communities towards Africa’s socio-economic development.

1.4 Expected Output. A policy framework document that integrates input from all consultations carried out into a single insightful report.

1.5 Scope of Work. The scope of work includes reviewing prior consultations that address diaspora issues and will comprise analyzing, integrating and consolidating the content of consultancy reports into a coherent report. .

1.6 Insightful connection of prior consultations. The previous consultations executed include evaluation of the African Growth and Opportunity Act, Latin-America study tour, , mobilization of the African Diaspora in the Americas, data and Knowledge management, development of policy briefs, development and training of African Union Representational Mission staff and volunteer corps on communication and media strategy. This Synthesis report connects themes and ideas as a means of providing meaningful insights and perspectives.

1.7 The Report: The report development process involved review of all consultancy reports and the development of a scientific methodology for analyzing; organizing and integrating information gleaned from past project documents into a single document that provides new insight, information and perspective towards formulating SMART policies and strategies .

1.8 The Approach: The synthesis integration process involved reviewing the best practice in the business of writing such reports, and adopting the most relevant methodology, to match the specific needs of these rather dynamic series of topics covered under the prior consultancy reports. The Synthesis report is not a summary but an insightful integration of the consultancy reports to provide new knowledge and perspective within the terms of reference of AU Mission. The Diaspora Engagement process is expected to utilize a creative win-win partnership approach that responds to the changing needs and expectations of the respective stakeholders within the Diaspora and AU countries communities.

 

1.9 Context of the Synthesis Report. The synthesis exercise is a process of integrating and making insightful connections between different work, reports and consultancies. It is an integration of a series of reports that address diverse topics relevant to the Diaspora and AU Countries such as recent visits to Diaspora communities in the Americas, evaluation of AGOA reports, African Diaspora Health Initiatives, policy recommendations on Diaspora engagement, use of modern multi-media communications tools such as audio-visual, digital, cyber and print based ICT (Information, Communication Technology) and SMN (Social Media Network) means to engage the Diaspora communities and AU countries.

 

1.13 Increasing Diaspora investment in Africa. The Diaspora Africans continue to make a significant contribution to Africa. Besides several institutional development and investment activities, the Diaspora are known to provide about 40 Billion worth of remittances annually to their respective AU communities.  These series of current family support investments need to be strategic and sustainable with possibilities of creating maximum returns to all stakeholders. Therefore, this Diaspora Engagement Consultancy is not working in a vacuum but in an already established process and needs to enhance what is working and give insightful connections and provide new tools for improvement in areas where there is need significant change of direction.
1.12   Enhancing family support systems. One of the most visible and significant contributions to home countries by the diaspora has been the support they provide to their families, relatives, and communities. This support has been in the form of remittances, whose combined total is approaching the $40 billion range. Remittances now make up a significant percentage of GDP in most African countries; Guinea Bissau 48.7%, Eritrea 37%, Cape Verde 34.2%, Burundi 22.8%, Algeria 4.7%, Morocco 11.2%, Ghana 6.6%, and Ethiopia 4.4%. These remittances can be formalized through standardized financial institutions, which encourage the utilization of modem economic investment tools that provide a wider benefit to all stakeholders.

1.14 New perspective of Brain circulations and resource generation. The theme of the synthesis report is promoting Diaspora engagement process for mutually beneficial sustainable development and Investment opportunities that matches the changing global realities. The report examines the changing constituency environment and the role of the Diaspora among their respective host and home communities, and explores both “push’ and “pull” factors from the perspective of new research in the impact of “brain-drain”, “brain-gain” and “brain-circulation” within the context of galvanizing resources, knowledge, technology and investment opportunities. Continuous engagement demands continuous inter-active multi-media communications for improving resource generation and knowledge based technology transfer.

1.15. Integrating with AU and UN perspectives. The Diaspora engagement is considered a unique tool for promoting sustainable development and investment opportunities for AU countries, within the larger MDG (Millennium Development Goals) and Comprehensive Trade and Investment opportunities framework, to access pubic/private institutions and connection with community enterprises. The Synthesis report explores the process of promoting interactive win-win Diaspora engagement partnerships for African development & investment opportunities! There is a need to integrate public and private sector strategies by assimilating the best of each approach to enhance the changing technological and management knowledge and practice.

The report is organized in a format that highlights, terms of reference, the abstract, executive summary analysis, discussions, recommendations and conclusions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Terms of Reference and Policy Framework
  2. Vision & Mission

African Union is a unique Pan African continental body, which is charged with spearheading Africa’s rapid integration and sustainable development.

1.2 The Goal

Strategic partnerships. The goal of the African Union Representational Mission in Washington D.C. is to forge strategic partnerships with the United States government, for profit and nonprofit developmental organizations, and the African Diaspora towards the political, social and economic development of Sub-Sahara Africa. The AUM strives at fulfilling the aspirations of an integrated, prosperous and peaceful Africa, driven by its citizens and representing a dynamic force in the international arena.

1.3 The mandate

Promoting institutional relationships. The mandate of the African Union Representational Mission to the United States is to develop, maintain, and consolidate constructive and productive institutional relationships between the African Union and the government of the United States of America, the Bretton Woods Institutions, non-governmental and academic organizations engaged in Africa issues and policy, and Africans in the Diaspora.

1.4 How the Mission performs its tasks.

Promoting Cooperation & partnerships. It performs these tasks by promoting unity, solidarity, cohesion and cooperation among the peoples of Africa and developing new partnerships worldwide. The Mission’s Headquarters is located in Addis Ababa, capital city of Ethiopia.

1.5 Enactment of effective policies.

Promoting Africa’s development. A critical component of promoting Africa’s development is the enactment of effective policies. Synthesizing inputs from the Consultations into policy briefs will spur the Mission’s decision-making process.

Objectives

Framework for information management. The Synthesis report provides a SMART Framework that is specific, measurable, and appropriate, realistic, and time sensitive framework for managing Diaspora Engagement Information, comprising of the attributes (strengths, weaknesses, or challenges and opportunities and etc.) that will facilitate the policy formulation, analysis and implementation process.

1.6 Approach

The Diaspora Engagement Management Information System uses the standard scientific qualitative and quantitative analysis methodologies, and evidence based approach to explore stakeholder’s perspectives, that include individual and focus group perceptions supported by data collected via interviews, surveys, discussions and analysis of written reports. These factors provide insightful connections with the vision and mission of African Union and it’s stakeholders.

  1. Communication, Media and Information Dissemination Policy framework

The Diaspora Engagement policy framework utilizes a logical structure that is established to organize policy documentation and communication materials into groupings and categories that makes it easier for stakeholders to find and understand the contents of various development and investment opportunity policy, contractual and service documents.   Kindly stick to the objectives specified in the original communication , media and information management consultancy.

2.1 Principles of policy framework. The following 11 principles of policy framework are considered useful tool for utilization of Diaspora Engagement communication resources that improves information ownership, stewardship, quality, integrity, collection, analysis, reporting and dissemination.

The Diaspora Engagement Policy Frame work need to follow the principles of good governance that promotes transparency and accountability that are measured by the process of information collection, storage, processing, availability, coverage, reporting, pricing/budgeting, distribution, copyright, and preservation.


2.2.Availability of information.
Information on Diaspora engagement in sustainable development and investment opportunities of AU countries, should be made available easily, widely and equitably to all stakeholders via modern multi-media based ICT(Information, Communication and Technology ) and MSN (Social Media Network) tools of audio-visual, digital, cyber and print communication outlets.
2.3. Coverage. Diaspora engagement information need to be increasingly available on Multi-Media Communication platforms via print, digital and electronic basis to all constituents and stakeholders.   These include: all published material or material already in the public domain; all policies that could be released publicly; and all information created or collected on a statutory basis (subject to commercial sensitivity and privacy considerations); all documents that the public may be required to complete; corporate documentation in which the public would be interested.


2.4. Collection, Distribution and dissemination.
The Diaspora engagement and other AUM activities should utilize the latest information gathering mechanisms that utilize ICT (Information Communication Technology) and SMN (Social Media Network) based audio-visual, print, electronic and digital tools that include computers, data bases, sound and visual information recording systems, cameras, and radio and TV broadcasting equipment that is appropriate to collect, process, distribute and disseminate to all stakeholders.

Pricing/budgeting. There should be appropriate budgeting to cover the cost of developing, analyzing and distributing and dissemination of Diaspora engagement related information. Free dissemination of AU-held information is appropriate where:

  1. Dissemination to a target audience is desirable for a public policy purpose; or a charge to recover the cost of dissemination is not feasible or cost-effective
  2. Budgeting and Pricing to recover the cost of dissemination is appropriate where there is no particular public policy reason to disseminate the information; and a charge to recover the cost of dissemination is both feasible and cost effective.
  3. Budgeting and Pricing to recover the cost of transformation is appropriate where pricing to recover the cost of dissemination is appropriate; and there is an avoidable cost involved in transforming the information from the form in which it is held into a form preferred by the recipient, where it is feasible and cost-effective to recover in addition to the cost of dissemination.
  4. Budgeting and Pricing to recover the full costs of information production and dissemination is appropriate where the information is created for the commercial purpose of sale at a profit; and to do so would not breach the other pricing principles.

2.5. Ownership. All Diaspora Engagement related AU-held information, created or collected by any person employed or engaged by the AU is a strategic resource ‘owned’ by the AU as a steward on behalf of the public.
2.6. Stewardship. AU departments and Diaspora Stakeholder institutions are stewards of AU-held Diaspora Engagement information, and it is their responsibility to implement good information management.


2.7. Collection.
AU departments involved in Diaspora Engagement should only collect information for specified Diaspora Engagement related public policy, sustainable development, investment opportunities and operational business or legislative purposes.
2.8.Copyright. Information created by departments is subject to AU copyright but where wide dissemination is desirable, the AU should permit use of its copyrights subject to acknowledgement of source.
2.9. Preservation. AU-held Diaspora engagement information should be preserved only where a public business need, legislative or policy requirement, or a historical or archival reason, exists.
2.10. Quality. The key qualities underpinning AU-held Diaspora engagement information include accuracy, relevancy, timeliness, consistency and collection without bias so that the information supports the purposes for which it is collected.
2.11. Integrity. The integrity of AU held information will be achieved when all guarantees and conditions surrounding the information are met; the principles are clear and communicated, any situation relating to AU -held Diaspora engagement information is handled openly and consistently; those affected by changes to AU-held information are consulted on those changes; those charged as independent guardians of the public interest (e.g. the Ombudsman) have confidence in the ability of AU departments to manage the information well; and there are minimum exceptions to the principles.

2.12 Research & development. The future of any enterprises is determined by its ability to conduct research and development for improvement. As such the policy framework should facilitate and encourage research and development opportunities by making information and resources available for academic and operational research institutions. Such collaborative work should be encouraged to be part and parcel of the Diaspora Engagement Programs, so that the process becomes dynamic and changes to the changing needs and opportunities in the future.

                                                                                                    

III. Abstract

(Motivation, Purpose, approach, results, conclusions)

3.1 The motivation. The driving force and motivation for galvanizing the Diaspora connections and engagement is creating win-win partnerships towards Africa’s sustainable development and investment opportunities.

3.2 Perspectives from Regional Bodies. The UN declaration of 2011, as the Year of People of African Descent, is a special milestone and focus, that galvanizes a unique connection of African Diaspora communities, considered the sixth regional AU constituency, and their respective communities across the world; towards the on going sustainable development and investment opportunities in AU countries. The AUM motivation to galvanize the Diaspora connections and engagement towards Africa’s sustainable development and investment opportunities is an idea whose time has come!

3.3 Galvanizing Diaspora Connections. The Synthesis report is designed to assist in the policy statement of intent or commitment towards the formulation of subjective and objective decision-making processes comprising Diaspora engagement.

3.4 Purpose: Sustainable linkages of AU countries with Global African Diaspora communities

The main purpose of this synthesis report is to make insightful connections between prior AUM consultations, that address the critical qualitative and quantitative research, on how best to link Global African Diaspora and their respective public and private institutions, with the sustainable development activities of AU countries, by increasing and integrating the number of potential investors and stakeholders in the continent.

3.5 The target: AUM Global and American Audiences

The key audiences for AUM communication and media strategy include Africans and Africans in the global Diaspora; international organizations and companies that target Africa for trade/business; mainstream and specialty media; US State Department and other US government departments; the Bretton Woods Institutions- World Bank, IMF, UN; other embassies in Washington, D.C.; Global African Diaspora professional and cultural communities.

3.6 Approach & solution: Insightful win-win connections

This synthesis report provides the African Union Mission with insightful connections and integration of prior consultancies, within a framework for assessing information; strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, limitations of the various consultations carried out to facilitate coordination of policies that impact Africa’s sustainable development. Previous consultations include evaluation of the African Growth and Opportunity Act, Latin-America study tour, Knowledge sharing/study tours, The Africa Diaspora Health Initiative (ADHI), mobilization of the African Diaspora in the America’s, Data and Knowledge management, development of policy briefs, development and training of African Union Representational Mission staff and volunteer corps on communication and media strategy.

3.7 The tool: Qualitative and Quantitative Methodologies supported by ICT and SMN

Institutional and enterprise engagement. Engaging the African Diaspora and their respective constituent host communities, via qualitative and quantitative research methodologies, supported by modern ICT (Information Communication Technologies) and SMN (Social Media Network) tools is considered a viable process for linking public and private institutions to the sustainable development activities, such as MDGs; and diverse investment opportunities of the African Union countries. The Diaspora engagement process is expected to be based on developing win-win partnerships, which promote the individual and collective interests and competencies as well as enterprises of the respective communities and stakeholders.

3.8 Key Strategy. The key strategy is to proactively engage African Diaspora and their respective public and private institutions and enterprises, as win-win partners towards investing in the cultural, trade, tourism, infrastructure development and business enterprises opportunities of AU countries. The focus is to promote a series of short and long term strategies for sustainable development and investment opportunities of AU countries via SMART Work Plan that is Specific, Measurable, Appropriate, Realistic and Time Sensitive. Modern multi-media communication tools such as print, audio, visual, digital, and cyber ICT & SMN are considered important mechanisms for effective interactive communication, dialogue, research and presentations and information dissemination with individual and collective stakeholders across time and space. Each strategy needs to be evaluated with qualitative and quantitative tools that promote compliance with the expectations of key stakeholders, with viable evaluation methodologies and circulations of results towards interactive and responsive agenda development that address the changing needs and challenges of future generations. The Diaspora Engagement processes need to be transparent, accountable as well as proactive and competitive with the emerging global challenges and opportunities.

3.9 Result: Converting challenges into Opportunities via proactive participation

Promote proactive participation. The collective information from the consultancy research indicates that, there is a great need for the proactive participation of all stakeholders for an effective engagement of the Diaspora and their respective communities. The proactive engagement process should include a series of wide and in-depth consultations with all stakeholders, via their respective embassies, community and professional associations, etc. The AU countries need to quantify the different development and investment opportunities at their disposal and make them available in a way that is easily accessible by the Diaspora communities. Additionally, they need to develop a data base of the Diaspora communities and their respective interests and potential. The experiences of the various consultancy reports such as the AGOA projects and the AUM field trip reports that explored the current status of African Diaspora populations in the Americas, clearly indicate that Africans and people of African descent have a great opportunity to proactively explore on how best to engage public and private institutions in line with their respective interests and aspirations.  The promotion of modern research and communication tools, such as ICT and SMN are considered a viable tool for effective interactive communication across demographic and professional landscape between the Diaspora and AU countries. It is expected that the outcome of such win-win interaction, can create the impetus and intellectual backdrop for future integrated and insightful connection of all stakeholders.

 

3.10 Understanding the past to charter a better future.                                                                                             

Promoting knowledge based future. It is critical to know and remember the past, and understand the current experiences of people of African descent, to charter a better future for the next and subsequent generations. The memory and perspectives of past the 500 years of African interactions with the international communities, has been by and large, dominated by diaspora slavery, and continental Africa colonialism, except the unique experiences of Ethiopian and Liberian communities in the eastern and western geographic landscape of Africa. Ethiopians sustained its independence from time immemorial, while Liberians returned from exile and slavery and created a new independent state in the west coast of Africa. These are diverse and interesting perspectives of free African societies. These unfair and dishonorable past relationships have produced a unique perspective for ensuring the need to sustain desirable engagement processes that propel the current African generation to appreciate their rightful place in the globalized world.

3.11 Changing African Diaspora. The more recent experience of the new African Diaspora, especially of the past 50 years or so, is changing the old paradigm of slavery/colonialism towards sustainable development and investment opportunities in their respective communities. However, there is active awareness of the continuous challenges of the more recent series of man made and natural disasters, and civil wars that has created a large number of internally and externally displaced people in Africa, and subsequent social, economic and ecological crisis that is forcing younger and unprepared youths to migrate into unfriendly Asian and European territories that needs a collaborative approach to protect these rather vulnerable modern migrating communities. As such, human capital development within the focus and objective galvanizing resources that addresses current and future opportunities is critical to be responsive to the changing needs of AU countries and the Diaspora communities and their respective wider global communities.

 

 

3.12 Opportunities: Interactive engagement for Development and investment

Insightful connections. The key factors that connect the Diaspora and AU countries are the cultural, historical shared interests and heritage towards desired win-win partnerships for sustainable development and investment opportunities. The central themes of each of the AUM consultancy reports are focused towards developing shared values and interests, that are promoted with business enterprises, comprehensive trade and investment opportunities between AU countries and Diaspora Africans and their respective communities; that promote individual and collective enterprises.   This synthesis report provides insightful connections of the critical issues raised in the consultancy reports, focusing on how best to engage the Diaspora, and their respective communities, with AU Countries’ development activities. As the UN Millennium Development Goals for each AU countries and Diaspora communities could be an ideal focus of engagement for sustainable development and investment activities, comprehensive trade and investment opportunities within the global trade agreements that promote good governance, transparency and accountability are considered unique opportunities for public and private sector areas of interactive engagement.

3.13 Replacing past distrust with verifiable engagement process. The consistent theme of all the consultancy reports is that, the overriding challenges of Diaspora Africans and AU counties is that the African stakeholders have not been consulted widely nor negotiated appropriately in their interactions both with the current AGOA projects, and past colonial expeditions into Africa, and the forced slavery migrations out of Africa, and the more recent forced migrations of their vulnerable youths and professionals. The past Diaspora slavery and Continental colonialism experiences did not allow people of African descent to be compensated appropriately for their skills, labors and creativity. The legacy of these exploitative institutions has created the current isolation, marginalization and psychological distress of the African populations across the world.

3.14 Connecting Diaspora and AU countries. Connecting the Diaspora and AU countries to the dyamic globalized world with beneficial and sustainable development and investment opportunity activities can change the past paradigm of isolation, discrimination and disconnection. Current literature is rampant with statistical analysis of the scale of historical and current marginalization of people of African Descent with no option appraisal of what is the best approach to solve them. As such, it is critical to change the perceptions of distrust and potential abuse, which has paralyzed the creativity, innovations and entrepreneurship of the African communities for over five centuries in the Diaspora. However, the more recent mixed and at times positive experiences of modern African Diaspora in North America, especially for the past five decades, can be useful in changing the old paradigms of distrust, that was experienced during past centuries of slavery and colonialism, and the current alarming experiences of African Diaspora in the Middle East and European countries, by replacing it the with new perspective of potentially verifiable trust, for creative business opportunities. A proactive, inclusive, confidence building exercise, and deliberate engagement process of all stakeholders is key for positive engagement of the Global African Diaspora and those in the Americas in particular.

  1. Recommendations & Conclusions

4.1 Win-win engagement.   The effective utilization of modern information communication technologies such as public and private communication channels that include: radio, video, print, online and conferencing avenues, as well the more recent Information Communication Technology & Social Media Networks can be an excellent tool for meaningful and inclusive engagement of all stakeholders. The detailed review of AUM field trips, that explored past Diaspora history, and current global developments, indicate that Continental Africans and Africa Diaspora communities are not proactively and competitively engaged in the process of chartering their future, by participating proactively with all relevant stakeholders in the current global market.

4.2 Integrating with global economies. Modern Africans living and working in the AU countries, and those in the Diaspora, need to integrate with the global technologically advanced economies to access their fair share of the global market. The future green energy technology, and integrating global economy demands to have access to the rich and diverse African natural resources and cultural heritage respectively. The UN declaration of 2011 as the year of people of African descent and AU declaration of the African Diaspora as the sixth constituency have created a new momentum for a series of Diaspora Engagement initiatives.   To harness all these goodwill and well intentioned initiatives, it is critical to appreciate that all future Diaspora and African engagements need to be deliberative, participatory and inclusive from beginning to end, by encouraging opportunities for win-win engagement from conception, design, implementation and evaluation of all AU Countries citizens and African Diaspora and their respective communities for sustainable development and investment activities.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Executive Summary

 

(Purpose, problem, solution, project overview, approach, recommendation and conclusion)

 

4.1 Introduction

The Executive Summary is designed to summarize the Synthesis Report, by providing an overall definition of purpose, problem identification, solution, project overview, suggested approach, recommendations and conclusions.

4.2 The Purpose: Insightful connections for Diaspora Engagement in investment & development

Activities.

The purpose of this report is to integrate prior AUM consultancies that explore proactive means of engaging African Diaspora and the international communities, with investment opportunities and sustainable development activities of AU countries. The research and evaluation of this synthesis report is in line with the recent African Union declaration that the African Diaspora communities scattered around the world, constitute the Sixth African Union Regional Constituency, and are encouraged to participate actively in the sustainable development activities of AU countries. Most recently the 2010 UN declaration of making “2011 as the Year of People of African Descent” and their eventual full integration in the global socio-economic activities with full participation and engagement gives special meaning and urgency for the policy implication of this report.

4.3 The Problem: Qualitative and Quantitative Research to identify challenges

 

4.3.1 Qualitative and Quantitative methodologies. The prior consultation reports, that are the basis of this synthesis project, have utilized an integrated set of qualitative and quantitative research methodologies in identifying challenges and opportunities, that included individual and focus group interviews, perception/impression surveys and extensive literature reviews supported by the use of highly competent professionals who have first hand active knowledge of the diverse Diaspora communities in the Americas. Past problems of disconnection, isolation, discrimination and negative socio-economic indices aggravated by continued conflicts and poor problem solving skills and competencies with serious long term adverse effects have been identified as critical challenges in both the Diaspora and AU countries. The desire to connect and create positive changes are witnessed among several Diaspora communities as well as inter-governmental activities that promote investment, trade and cultural exchange activities that promote enterprises and good will among the different diverse set of communities. The AGOA Evaluation Report and African Diaspora Health Initiatives provide unique insights from inter-governmental and professional perspectives as to how best to link and connect AU countries with Diaspora and their respective host communities.

4.4 integrates this rather interesting and diverse set of AUM consultancies, that included field trips to Latin American countries with evaluation of an existing US-Africa trade policy referred to as AGOA, which is one of the most creative US-Africa trade policies, that is put in place of a “Comprehensive Free Trade & Investment Agreement” between the US and African countries.   The US government’s African Growth and Opportunity Act is designed to encourage African Countries to promote Free Market Economy.   AGOA seems to follow other US policies that promote, free trade policies among closed communities such as the “most favored nation” status or special trade partnerships promoted by the US – China relationships in the 1980s. The report integrates the main research and evaluation findings of the AUM consultancies into one short document without losing details and focus of the five reports.

4.5 Project overview: Connecting common themes of linkages between Africa and the Diaspora

4.5.1 On going living connections. In depth review of prior consultations show an on going living connection of people of African descent for over 500 years across Africa and the Americas that is sustained to present day. The initial connections were made via an Arab and European led forceful kidnapping or the Slave Trade of African citizens, while the immigrations of the past 50 years or so are willful migrations, by Africans seeking better lives, or running away from conflicts, and civil war in the continent. The AGOA evaluation report indicates that regardless of its mission to encourage African Countries to move towards free market, good governance, global trade, and investment opportunities; the results of the past 11 years have focused on oil and gas export mainly from Nigeria and Angola, leaving behind some 50 states products and infrastructure development. By comparison, the ADHI (African Diaspora Health Initiative) has focused on a participatory process towards achieving maternal and child health, which is part of the focus of the Millennium Development Goals. The linkages project supported by ICT and Social Media Network tools will connect both with individual and collective entities that represent public-private institutions, and enterprises of people of African descent all over the world with a focus in the Americas.

4.6 Approach: Converting challenges into opportunities

4.6.1 Promoting negotiated agreements/contracts. The initial African interactions with the international communities such as the forceful migrations of the Diaspora, and colonialism of the continent were not negotiated freely towards win-win outcome of all stakeholders. As such, both the Diaspora and continental Africans, did not fair well in their international contacts in the past. The core issue was lack of fair, legally binding contract negotiations and mechanism of its implementation, which allowed fair compensations for goods, services, resources, skills, labor, products, and over all contributions of people of African descent. In effect, past transactions were allowed to abuse the interests of Africans be it at home in the continent, or abroad in the Diaspora. The current global market pricing system does not demand appropriate value for the products, skills and resources of of people of African descent. As a result, today, the overall human development indices, and infrastructure development activities, and overall prospect of people of African descent all over the world, are not found to be competitive in the current global market. Progress with the Millennium Development Goals, current global trade agreements, as well as the 11 years experience with Africa Growth and Opportunity Acts (AGOA), all indicate that the overall individual and collective potential of people of African descent needs a structured development and investment strategy in the immediate, short and long term, so as to charter a better future in the post 2007 global financial crisis and subsequent world economic order dominated by a series of austerity measures across the world.

4.7 Promoting structured investment opportunities. The recommendation towards a structured investment and development strategy, which addresses the individual and collective interests and potential of African Union countries and Diaspora populations, and over all people of African descent in the intermediate and long term, is the focus of this report. Focusing in infrastructure development that promotes activities towards knowledge based society using modern ICT and Social Media Network is considered an important tool for accessing sustainable development and investment opportunities.

4.8 Present status: Progress with MDG and Free Market Economy

 

4.8.1 Progress with MDGs by 2015. The common thread of all prior AUM consultancy reports indicate that there is a pressing need to change this paradigm of exploitation, isolation, discrimination and disenfranchisement of people of African descent once for all. The Latin America visit reports clearly show that people of African descent that settled across the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts have integrated with the local populations, and by and large are found at the lowest socio-economic, and development strata of life due to the legacy of the oppressive system they endured during the slavery and subsequent era of discrimination and disenfranchisement. Their respective progress with the eight Millennium Development Goals by 2015 shows a serious lag that demands a more aggressive local and international investment at individual and collective level. Each community has developed its own individual and collective approach for development and yet it is not integrated for effective results.

4.9 Lessons from AGOA and ADHI. The AGOA has a lofty ideal of encouraging African Countries to move towards free market economy, good governance and global trade and investment agreements, etc. It appears to be more the result of the efforts of US interest groups such as the Corporate Council on Africa, and Africanist groups like Constituency for Africa, and pressures from the Congressional Black Caucus, US Civil Rights leaders such as Ambassador Young and Rev Sullivan like groups that supported the series of African Summit projects, rather than inter-governmental partnership between the African and US public and private enterprises. The intentions might be noble, but the impact as measured by the evaluation report indicates that the experience of the past 11 years of AGOA project has gravitated towards oil and gas exports, leaving behind many AU countries and their respective diverse set of trade products. There is a need to make the project more inclusive of public and private constituencies in African Countries and their respective diverse exports. A broad based continental consultations and participation is needed to make it accessible and user-friendlier to the changing needs of African countries. By comparison the ADHI (The African Diaspora Health Imitative) appears to have based its focus on maternal and child health as a response to the challenges faced by many African countries in their progress towards MDG goals. The socio-economic and development indices and progress of Millennium Development Goals by 2015 appear to be lagging among most African populations. Good governance, transparency and accountability, that are considered to be the foundations of all transformative development and investment based global integration activities, are found to be rather behind in these communities. There is a need for a strategic appraisal and adjustment of these activities to ensure appropriate progress to the MDG by 2015.

 

4.10 Towards a solution: Engaging in infrastructure, and enterprises development

Special efforts are made to seek a common thread that integrates the five reports towards focusing on ways of engaging African Diaspora and their respective public and private institutions and communities. Engaging the Diaspora for win-win partnerships in the sustainable development activities and investment opportunities of African Union Countries is considered the common link of all the consultancy reports. Citizens in Africa and Diaspora continue to be the least integrated communities in this globalized world. The current challenges and opportunities of integrating African and global communities within the construct of advancing technologies, and global business enterprises, towards integrating global economy continues to be the challenge and opportunity of our time. Engaging the Diaspora and their respective investment and development communities in the basic and advanced technologies, infrastructure development, such as ICT and Social Media Network, etc. and capacity building activities in human resources, technology transfers and enterprise development activities continue to be the foundation and bridge to the next century.

 

4.11 The methodology- integrating The AUM Initiative Consultancy reports.

The methodology deployed to address the AUM consultancies is based on standard scientific qualitative and quantitative approaches that use individual and group interviews, surveys and use of quantitative data respectively, to explore the different aspects of the development and documentation of the consultancy reports.

The previous AUM consultations used for this synthesis report executed include:

  1. Development of policy briefs
  2. Data and Knowledge management
  3. The African Diaspora Health Initiative
  4. Communication and media strategy
  5. Evaluation of the African Growth and Opportunity Act
  6. Latin-America study tour

 

 

 

 

 

4.12 The Global Perspective

 

4.12.1 Matching the diverse Global Diaspora perspectives. The study tour report shows that the African Diaspora are scattered through out the world, making them a dynamic global community, with significant diverse and untapped individual and collective potential. In the American region alone, it is estimated there are over 250 million people of African descent. They live and work in countries that stretch from Canada to Brazil, on both the Atlantic and Pacific coasts, forming a wide spectrum of rather impressive, at times vulnerable, and yet, dynamic, diverse, cultural, socio-economic and demographic constituencies of their respective countries.

4.13 Engaging the Dynamic Global Diaspora. Engaging this dynamic Global Diaspora population to the continually evolving African Union countries’ sustainable development and investment activities, in a meaningful way, via individual and collective, interactive public and private institutions is the theme of this report. Considering the time that has lapsed and the current global socio-economic developments, Diaspora Engagement in Africa’s development and investment opportunities is an idea whose time has come. The recent UN declaration of the year 2011, as the Year of People of African Descent, in the context of the upcoming deadline of year 2015 – for the UN Millennium Development Goals, makes this synthesis report a fairly interesting project in its context and policy implications as it deals with the idea of how best to engage the sixth African Union Constituency, the Diaspora engagement.

 

4.15 The context of UN and AU priorities.

 

4.15.1 Harnessing the increasing the Diaspora remittances. The Diaspora Engagement idea has got a lot of traction in the current global economic crisis environment, as the resources generated and transferred in transactions such as remittances are second only to Direct Foreign Investment figures. In the United States alone, the world wide international migrants have almost doubled from 76 million to 150 million in 35 years. As migration increased, flows in the form of personal and collective remittances, investments, information and knowledge, tourism, trade have continued to grow at unprecedented rates. In the US alone, remittances are the second-largest twenty five percent (25%) source of financial resources to developing countries just behind foreign direct investment (FDI/Private Capitol Flows) at forty two percent (42%).

4.16 Integrating the Diaspora and diverse resources. Integrating diverse resources such as remittances, public and private flows, such as foundations, corporations, NGOs, religious and university colleges, as well as community investment networks etc. is the focus of this synthesis report. The desired single policy framework document, integrates the diverse Diaspora resources towards linking and engaging with the Diaspora Communities in the Americas in the ongoing sustainable development activities of AU countries and their respective communities. Engaging the Diaspora in the integrated public and private resource flows, and the dynamic enterprise culture of the global economic integration is the focus of this report. The recent global economic downturn and subsequent planned series of austerity measures makes the timing of this report even more urgent. The consistent economic growth of African countries is considered as a special resource that could advance the recovery of the global economy. The Diaspora Engagement program can be a unique engine of this potential win-win global economic recovery process.

  1. Recommendations

 

5.1 Integrating with AU Goals and AUM Mission Objectives.

5.1.1 Forging Strategic Partnerships. The African Union, established as a unique Pan African continental body, is charged with spearheading Africa’s rapid integration and sustainable development. The goal of the African Union Representational Mission in Washington D.C. is to forge strategic partnerships with the United States government, for profit and nonprofit developmental organizations and the African Diaspora towards the political, social and economic development of African countries. As such, this synthesis report enhances the AU role of forging strategic partnerships with the global community via the Diaspora linkages for sustainable development and investment opportunities of AU countries.

5.2 The AU Mission

5.2.1 Integrating a peaceful and prosperous Africa. The African Union Mission strives at fulfilling the aspirations of an integrated, prosperous and peaceful Africa, driven by the active participation of its citizens, and representing a dynamic force in the international arena. As such, the mandate of the African Union Representational Mission to the United States, is to develop, maintain, and consolidate constructive, and productive institutional relationships between the African Union, and the government of the United States of America, the Bretton Woods Institutions, non-governmental and academic organizations engaged in Africa issues and policy, and Africans in the Diaspora.

5.3 African Union Perspective

The African Union performs it tasks by promoting unity, solidarity, cohesion and cooperation among the peoples of Africa, and developing new partnerships worldwide. The Mission’s Headquarters is located in Addis Ababa, capital city of Ethiopia. This Synthesis Project is part of the overall task of engaging the African Diaspora in the activities of AU and AUM in the Americas and around the world in sustainable development and investment opportunities of AU countries.

5.4 Enactment of effective policies

 

A critical component of promoting Africa’s development is the enactment and implementation of effective policies that promote sustainable development and investment opportunities. It is expected that synthesizing inputs from the consultations into policy briefs will spur the Mission’s decision-making process and policy formulations. The lessons from the five consultancy projects revolve around the promotion of win-win partnerships within the principle of good governance, which encourages extensive participation that promotes transparency and accountability of all stakeholders, towards sustainable development activities.  The use of modern multi-media communication tools such as ICT and SMN are considered highly valuable a format that creates inter-active and reliable communication with all key stakeholders.

 

5.5 Institutionalizing Good Governance

The experience of forced migration of Diaspora ancestors and its lingering negative impact on its descendants, demands that all the private and pubic stakeholders among the Diaspora communities, and African Countries, need to be transparent and accountable by actively engaging all stakeholders in all projects from its inception, design, operation and evaluation. As such the Diaspora historic experience of non-engagement in decision process that resulted in their forced exodus out of Africa, and its long term adverse impact on the socio-economic development status and future negative implications, clearly indicate the need to seek their participation in this noble cause of Diaspora engagement today.

5.6 Connecting talent/technology and capacity building. Good governance based capacity building initiatives can assist the Diaspora to invest their time, talent, resources and institutional contacts for sustainable development via public and private investment bonds, professional and community networks. However, one cannot ignore the enormity of the challenge of implementing such a noble objective in an environment where a wide margin of disparities persists between the local and Diaspora communities. It is therefore critical to make the engagement beneficial to all stakeholders in the short and long term basis. The AU countries need to make a list of potential investment areas and development activities with detailed modalities of engagement after consulting widely with Diaspora communities. The approach and process could vary according to the skill and resource mix of potential investors and the competencies of the development partners involved.

 

5.7 Linking with UN MDG Programs

 

Creating a Global Partnership for Development by 2015 is one of the eight Millennium Development Goals that the global community has set for itself. Past experiences and current socio-economic developmental status of people of African descent, and the overall African Diaspora across the world will benefit from the UN Millennium Development Goals. These global challenges expect countries to demonstrate good governance, and commitment to reduce/eliminate poverty, achieve universal primary education, promote gender equality, reduce infant mortality, improve maternal health, combat infectious disease such HIV/AIDS, ensure environmental sustainability and create global partnerships for development by 2015. The synthesis report addresses the progress of these issues among the Diaspora communities in the Americas, by evaluating AGOA, Latin America Tour Reports, and The Africa Diaspora Health Initiative and explores strategies on how to accelerate this process by engaging the Diaspora communities directly with relevant institutions in the AU and their respective countries.

5.8 In line with Millennium Development Goals

5.8.1 Connecting to modern global communication technology. The continuous and evolving development of new technologies, that is matched by improving management expertise, has accelerated the globalization process, by connecting communities, integrating markets, and social institutions worldwide. The African Union and the Diaspora African communities around the world are part of this unique phenomenon of modern global connection. They have a historic opportunity, to galvanize their resources and evolving experiences and expertise, towards win-win partnerships for sustainable development activities that benefit their respective communities. Their visibility and effectiveness, in galvanizing resources to wards achieving the Millennium Development Goals, and sustainable growth opportunities in their respective communities, depend on their ability to access the evolving technology based knowledge transfer tools such as information, technology, communication and SMN-based social media outlets, as well as their ability to participate and engage in the socio-economic and good governance activities in their respective communities.

5.9 Accelerating MDG progress. The Diaspora communities, like their counter-parts in African countries, are at different stages of engagement in the sustainable development activities, and the current focus in 2011 is expected to advance this larger goal. The overwhelming African Diaspora in the Americas, share a long history of disenfranchisement, isolation and disparity in access of socio-economic development activities. Substantial proportions of the Diaspora are way behind in their progress to achieve MDGs in their respective communities. As such, the progress of the respective Diaspora communities in achieving Millennium Development Goals by 2015 needs to be seen in the context of the over all, socio-economic development activities of their respective home countries. There is a need for a proactive focused developmental and empowering activities focused at individual and collective community settings that respect their evolving interests within current global economic trends. Some of the expected future engagement needs to be focused towards accelerating progress of MDG by 2015 and beyond.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Evaluating The AUM Consultancies

 

The AU consultancies are a series of reports that address the different perspectives of AU Countries and Diaspora communities towards developing linkages and connections that support the sustainable development and investment opportunities of African countries.

 

5.1. Purpose. Insightful connections with Diaspora communities

In its attempt to understand the past relationships, current trends and future potential relationships, the AUM has initiated a series of consultancies that explored both inter-governmental relationships as well as the current African Diaspora communities in the Latin American countries.

5.2. Broad-based strategy. The five AUM consultancy projects cover a wide spectrum of issues from trade, to community linkages, to exploring effective media communications tools, to and policy development framework. The consultancies reports show that the AUM has embarked on a broad-based process of understanding the challenges and the opportunities of the African- US trade relationships, and potential linkages with African Diaspora communities in the Americas, by commissioning a needs assessment consultancy work as well as the evaluation of the current US-Africa trade policy.

5.3. The Approach

The AUM consultancy projects have all used both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies that included focus group interviews, systemic quantitative surveys, trends and patterns analyzed and reported accordingly. The process involved evaluating current projects such as the evaluation of the African Growth and Opportunity Act of the USA; linkages with Diaspora communities in the Americas; the effective means of data and knowledge management process; and the development of a viable, and effective communication and media strategy needed to fulfill its unique mandate in the Americas. It is hoped that the outcome of this report will contribute significantly to this larger policy framework, and strategic vision of sustainable development in to the future. The reports are fairly detailed and have strong recommendations that are summarized and integrated in this synthesis report. The key research questions of what, who, why, how, when, where are utilized to evaluate the consultancy reports using qualitative and quantitative research methodologies.

 

 

5.4 What? – Synthesizing The AUM Consultancies

The scope of project that seeks to link and connect by engaging the African Diaspora in the sustainable developmental activities of African Union countries, and their respective communities, and the world community at large is truly an idea whose time has come. The Global economic crisis and subsequent series of austerity measures demand unique and create means of connecting with untapped resources and talent such tat of the the African Diaspora communities. The consultancies were broad based, and utilized the skills of highly experienced professionals in the field that utilized both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies.

This synthesis report incorporates the work of five-consultancy projects commissioned by the African Union Mission Representation at Washington, DC, USA. The previous consultations executed include:

  1. Evaluation of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA),
  2. Latin-America study tour,
  3. Data and Knowledge management,
  4. Development of policy briefs,
  5. Communication and media strategy

 

 

 

 

 

5.5 How?- Scientific Qualitative and Quantities Methodologies.

 

The Synthesis report has integrated the consultancy reports that utilized qualitative and quantitative research methodologies that use individual and group interviews, surveys, and documented literatures, in seeking for common policy framework, which is in line with the terms of reference of African Union Mission. The Synthesis report utilizes scientific risk assessment, and policy appraisal methodologies that addresses changing challenges, opportunities, strength, weakness, risks and threats, etc. The integration of the consultancy reports is supported with root cause analysis tools, that ask questions like what, why, and how, etc., towards providing a scientific approach to policy framework development, that encourages win-win partnerships between Diaspora Communities and their counter parts in African countries. The modern advancing technologies and communication media are very powerful tools for effective communication that could assist a well-integrated Diaspora engagement.

5.6 Why?-Connecting the past, present and the future with common shared value and interest.

Connecting the Past to the future. The challenges and opportunities of the current and future Diaspora Engagement activities stem from the negative experiences of forced migration and colonialism of past generations, and the subsequent disenfranchisement of the current generation and the need to create positive opportunities for the future generations. Creating a common shared value and interests that respects the perspective of the Diaspora and AU countries continues to be the central theme of this consultancy report. These past negative experiences and existing associated culture of discriminations, continue to impact adversely, the current and future generations’ ability to engage in the Global economy.   As such the strategy and process of engaging the Diaspora populations should take into considerations these fundamental factors as potential challenges and opportunities for change within Millennium Development Goal structure or globalization led free market economy that tries to actively integrate the global community in the changing global socio-economic situation.

5.7 Converting challenges into opportunities. The current development status of African and Diaspora communities cannot be seen outside the historical framework of forced migration, and evolving modern African migration due to draught, civil unrest, conflict and resultant social and economic vulnerability that is generating new set of precarious African Diaspora migrations and its uncertain future and potential. These series of adverse events have exposed the African Diaspora to high risks generated challenges, which they have converted into their individual opportunities. It is time now to convert them into collective opportunities; As such the central theme of the findings of the current series of AUM consultancy reports re-iterate these findings in all aspects of the challenges faced by these communities to advance to the expected progress of the Millennium Development Goals. Accordingly, the same issues of the need for active participation and comprehensive engagement will surface in the current project of linkages of the African Diaspora communities with AU sustainable development activities.

5.8 Root cause analysis. The report consistently raises the fundamental questions, as to how the current series of seemingly positive intentions of UN, AU and AUM stand up to the changing aspirations of the target communities both in Africa and the Diaspora. Are the target communities given opportunities for active participation, involvement, and representations in the deliberations of these projects from start to finish; that is at the level of project conception, design, plan, process and implementation, as well as the evaluation process, and future direction. These fundamental questions need to be raised at each level of future deliberations.   The root cause of the Diaspora challenges and opportunities stem from this fundamental question of past forced migration, disenfranchisement, and subsequent disengagement of current generation from the ongoing social and economic activities of their respective communities.   The future progress African Countries and the Diaspora Communities are making with the Comprehensive Trade Agreement and Millennium Development Goals respectively will show how far we are advancing in these larger goals. The reports so far indicate that hey were limited by time and resource constraints.

5.9 Articulating shared interests and aspiration of all stakeholders. The consultancy reports raise a series of questions on the issue of active deliberative participation and engagement of the Diaspora populations, whose main challenges are disengagement and disenfranchisement and isolation that has been passed for generations. Their perceived and real interests in terms of future engagement with AU countries need to carefully taken in to account, so as to articulate the shared interests, aspirations of all stakeholders, supported by qualitative and quantitative research tools for effective formulations of policies and strategies that match the ever changing needs in line with changing global and regional political and economic landscapes. Such deliberate considerations of lessons of past forced immigrations and disenfranchisement of African Diaspora populations, will generate proactive processes for future engagement, and re-integration of their descendants in their respective communities and AU countries, within the framework of the current global socio-economic political order.

5.10 Diaspora’s rightful place in the globalized world. The current barriers faced by the Diaspora populations in terms of their engagement to improve their infrastructural and human capital development activities, i.e., educational, social, health and extended role of citizenship in the governance of their respective communities need to be considered carefully. The Diaspora communities have to own the goal, design, and processes of their respective sustainable development activities. The Diaspora’s rightful place in the globalized world need to be seen within this lager framework of global interconnectedness, and understanding of the social and economic realities of people of African Descent around the world. The UN declaration of “2011 as the Year of People of African Descent”; and the AU consideration of “the Diaspora Africans as the sixth Constituency”, seeking and promoting the engagement and participation of African Diaspora in the African Union local and international development activities, etc. need to be seen with the larger Diaspora presence in the globalized world. What this mean in real terms to African Diaspora populations scattered around the world continues to be a challenge.

5.11 Integrating the aspirations for growth and opportunities. The US AGOA project evaluation and the needs assessment and linkages projects of AUM tours indicate the need to integrate the AU Countries and African Diaspora in the overall global growth and opportunity activities, such as Comprehensive Free Trade Agreements and MDGs, etc.   The evaluation and Diaspora study tours provide a clear evidence for the general understanding that both African Countries and the African Diaspora communities are not effectively engaged in the Global Growth and Opportunity activities. In short, there is enough evidence to show that people of African descent are not playing their fair share in the opportunities of globalized world. There is a lot of space and opportunities for future growth and engagement opportunities in the global market. How much of this reality is appreciated by the key stakeholders, that is Africans and the Diaspora is worth researching further. The fact that the AUM has invested in the research and evaluation projects is key indicator this is an idea whose time has come. The key components of this synthesis report revolves around the central theme of integrating the social, economic growth and sustainable development opportunities of people of African descent at home in Africa and outside in the Diaspora.

VI. The African Diaspora in the US: Partners for African Education Sector Development

6.1 Introduction

6.1.1 Brain drain, gain and circulation. The movement of educated and skilled work force across geographical boundaries is not a new phenomenon, and yet the advent of technologically advanced globalization has accelerated the process of brain gain, brain drain and brain circulation across the world. The communities who gain and lose from this phenomenon or the relative beneficiaries and loser stakeholders, depends on the relative competencies and infrastructure development of each respective constituencies across the globe.

6.2 The global brain drain profile. The International Office of Migration (IOM) defines brain drain, as the emigration of trained and talented individuals, from the country of origin to another country, resulting in a depletion of skills and resources in the former. In 2000, developing countries accounted for 64.5% of total immigrants; and 61.6% of skilled immigrants to the west, 15% higher than in 1990. Globally, brain drain rates are led b Sub-Saharan Africa at 13%, followed by Latin America and the Caribbean at 11%, and the Middle East and North Africa at the rate of 10%. (Docquier, 2007) The flow of skilled Africans to the west has a long history, stretching back centuries, but the nature, form and process has altered remarkably over time. The largest and earliest transfer of African human resources to the west took place during slavery, and although the twentieth century has seen an exodus of Africa’s highly skilled professionals, this voluntary drain does not compare with the forced depletion of human resources some three centuries ago.

6.3 Push and pull factors of the new brain drain. Over the last half century the United States has seen an increase in African migration, which has been a result of both push and pull factors, and this phenomena has progressively increased over time. Mid-nineteenth century African migration was largely driven by the pull factor of education and training. As the colonial era was waning, many Africans were in universities and colleges throughout Europe and the US, getting the essential education and training to enable them to take up administration of their respective countries. During this era, almost all returned to their countries and took up leadership positions. So, these populations of African students were not immigrants in the real sense, but rather temporary residents who eventually returned to their country of origin constituted the first set of brain gain and initiated the real brain circulation process.

6.4 Push and Pull factors of Brain Circulation.

The first significant new wave of voluntary migration from Africa, can be seen in the 1970s and 1980s where refugees, through international resettlement programs, were resettling in the US, Canada and Europe. Hence, African migration in the 1980s was largely due to push factors, forcing refugees and political asylum seekers to flee their land of birth. The second wave of voluntary African migration from the 1990s and this millennium are largely due to a pull factor, with émigrés leaving their home country more seeking new improved opportunities, that is for what is to be found abroad, rather than for what they feared at home. According to the US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE), there were a total of 354,939 immigrants from Africa from 1991-2000, almost a 50% increase from the previous decade. The migrants of this era consist of highly skilled professional African immigrants who are leaving Africa equipped with education and training in search of better opportunities.

 

 

African professionals in United States

 

6.5 The most educated immigrants to the US.   According to the United Nations, an African professional working in the United States contributes about US$150,000 per year to the US economy. The level of training and education of the average African immigrant in the United States is higher than that of any other immigrant group, including those arriving from Europe and Asia.(see table 1)

 

6.6 Exceptional educational attainment. Of the African-born population in the United States aged 25 and older, 87.9% reported having a high school diploma or higher degree, compared with 78.8% of Asian-born immigrants, and 76.8% of European-born immigrants, respectively. (Dixon, 2009)   African born population in the US also outperforms the general population in terms of educational pursuit and attainment in the US. (see table 2) Moreover, various international studies estimate that about 23,000 qualified academic professionals emigrate from Africa to the west each year.

6.7 Challenges of skilled Diasporas. According to the US Census Bureau, the biggest migratory flows from Africa to the United States are from Egypt, Ghana, South Africa, Nigeria and Ethiopia with more than 60% of immigrants from these countries having some level of tertiary education. Studies have also found that despite their higher level of education and training, many African immigrants are unable to obtain positions that commensurate with their training upon arrival. Due to lack of professional networks and transitioning of institution, many begin their working careers in low paying positions and it is only after years in the workforce (securing accreditation and experience) that they secure positions that correspond with their education and training. In effect, wasting their talents and competencies in non matching enterprises, and taking unnecessary lose-lose routes of adjustments among their adopted second home communities. To-date, there are no well-organized institutions developed to address this pressing problem, which continues to stress the Diaspora communities.

6.8 State of education Sector in Africa

 

6.8.1 Almost half African children are out of school.   One of the consequences of the migration of the highly trained and educated people is that the education sector in many of the source countries has stalled. In some cases years of development efforts were reversed as those trained and charged with the next phase of the development departed without replacements in place. A UNESCO report estimates that Sub-Saharan Africa is home to 43% of the world’s out-of-school children and levels of learning achievement are very low. Especially impacted by over a quarter of century of brain drain have been African universities that have been emptied of crucial human capital. The impact of this outflow has resulted in Africa losing the critical human resources essential for economic, social, scientific, and technological progress.

6.8.2 Shortage of skilled manpower. The absence of technically skilled manpower has hampered economic growth and development and has had a particularly negative impact on the expansion and access to education in Africa. The unceasing seepage of skilled personnel from Africa has hindered higher education development and contributed to a widening gap in science and technology between Africa and other continents.   Africa’s share of global scientific output has fallen from a bleak 0.5% in the mid-1980s to 0.3% in the mid-1990s. There are more African scientists and engineers in the USA than in the entire continent (Ainalem, 2005).   Although there are many other mitigating factors for the continent’s anemic performance, the impact the shortage of skilled manpower has had on growth and development of economies and societies cannot be underestimated.

6.9 Current debates

6.9.1 Highest outflow of skilled migrants

Within the context of global migration, Africa has the smallest outflow of immigrants. However, it has the highest flow of its stock of human capital losing an average of 30% to 40% (Ghana 20%, Cape Verde 67%, Kenya 38%, Uganda 35%) of trained citizens annually, higher than any other region in the world. (Easterly, 2008) This constitutes the loss of the most vibrant and entrepreneurial sector of society, loss of those with potential to be leaders and innovators in their countries.

6.9.2 Causes of migrations

The reasons behind the vast migration of highly educated and skilled individuals from Africa are vast and numerous and have not been entirely studied and understood. Among the factors for leaving noted by migrants are professional considerations such as greater employment opportunities, wage differentials, access to cutting edge technology and research as well as job security. There are also personal motivations such as quality of life, educational opportunities for their children and pursuit of personal aspirations. In some instances, political instability, lack of personal freedom and limits on professional activities are factors in their migration decisions. (Mugimu, 2010)

6.9.3 Brain Drain

The phenomenon of brain drain has been the topic of an evolving debate in terms of understanding its impact on Africa. There are opinions and data that indicate that the flight of highly skilled professionals from Africa has irrevocably damaged development efforts and has significantly damaged the continent’s ability to replenish its skilled workforce because of the damage inflicted to the educational sector. Educational institutions in Africa, at all levels, chronically lack qualified academic and professional staff as many have emigrated to institutions in the West. This scarcity has had significant consequences on their ability to teach, conduct relevant research and serve as engines of national development. This brain drain needs to be converted into brain gain, or brain circulation by developing a series of institutional networks between Diaspora and African countries to ensure win-win partnerships of African and Diaspora stakeholders in their respective communities. The advance of ICT as a tool for creating new opportunities for improving connections across disciplines and educational sectors is possible by tapping into local and international resources in effect converting brain drain into brain circulation.

 

6.9.4 Brain Gain & Increased remittances

There are also equally compelling propositions and data that suggest that there are benefits to this outflow. The benefits to source countries can be realized in increased remittances, which have been shown to alleviate poverty. According to the International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD) remittance flows to and within Africa in 2009 approach US$40 billion. Annual average remittances per migrant reach almost US$1,200, and on a country-by-country, average represent 5 per cent of GDP, and 27 per cent of exports. There is also a reserve brain gain as those who left return with more advanced skills gained abroad; and those who remain abroad create an intellectual Diaspora network for knowledge exchange and circulation. There is a general view that with rise in globalization, these movements will only intensify, as there is very little that can be done to constraint movement of talent across borders. Therefore, African countries would do better to develop mechanisms for maximizing on the benefits of having an intellectual Diaspora.

6.10 Recommendation

6.10.1 Global Intellectual Diaspora Network. Although long-term impact and future trajectory of the movement of Africa’s highly skilled is nuanced, the creation of a global intellectual Diaspora presents for African countries a unique opportunity. The African Diaspora in the United States can be a valuable partner in educational development in Africa. There are significant number of African intellectuals throughout US universities and science and technology labs who have demonstrated interest and capacity to prioritize Africa within their institutions. Efforts should be geared towards providing assistance to US-based Diaspora professionals and continent based institutions interested in creating professional and institutional linkages and partnerships. Given limited resources and vastness of need it, would be most productive to focus on activities with greatest impact for the valuable time and effort invested.

  1. Institute official visiting educator/scholar programs. A program modeled after US Fulbright scholar program, which serves as facilitator on several levels. Both funded and non-funded visiting scholar programs should focus on placing Diaspora faculty in African country institutions during sabbaticals and leaves. Residency is key to creating long-lasting effective relationships.
  1. Support institutional linkages with US-based institutions facilitated by African Diaspora academics. Modeled on USAID’s Africa Education Bureau’s initiatives of searching for US counterparts for African universities based on existing needs. This would include serving as a conduit for Africa-based institutions seeking academic linkages with US-based institutions. Various studies have found that both African universities and US based institutions lack a clear and comprehensive strategy for building and sustaining effective partnerships with U.S. institutions. Moreover, solid institutional relationships are always based on individual effort and require committed individuals who will advocate for the linkages.
  1. Develop closer relationship with membership organizations focusing on African Education. It’s important to take advantage of existing infrastructure to facilitate partnerships. In the US, Association of African Studies Programs, Africa National Resource Centers and African Studies Programs and in Africa, African Association of Universities (AAU). These organizations consist of African faculty as well as programs (both academic and non-academic) working in Africa. They also have access to local African communities as well as data on Africans in US.
  1. Develop an intellectual Diaspora network. Critical for information distribution and virtually engage members in communication with the Diaspora constituency. This would entail establishing a reliable database of African-born faculty and education experts, which is updated regularly and will serve as a basis of virtual engagement.
  1. Tap into existing African education NGOs/programs. There are numerous programs and NGOs working on supporting K-12 education and/or providing scholarships for students such as Africa Teach, AKIN, etc. Greater coordination would yield greater effectiveness and results and improve educational opportunities.

6.11 Conclusion

6.11.1 Stemming the tide of Migration? Migration of the most productive members of any one society is not a new phenomenon, nor is it limited to Africa. However, the impact of brain drain has been most keenly felt in Africa due to the demographics of the migrant population, and the intense manpower shortage faced by a continent. For the most part, migration is a personal decision, arrived at by each individual after deliberate reflection and careful consideration. Still, there are a s external factors that come to bear on this decision process. Professional considerations, personal and familial aspirations as well as issues related to political reality of home country often factor considerably into an individual’s decision to migrate. Hence, given the myriad of factors involved in an individual’s decision to migrate and the global demand for talent and the increased pace of globalization, stemming the tide is unrealistic.

 

6.12. Encouraging innovative and creative Diaspora engagement. Although, the long-term implications of this trend have yet to be understood, the engagement potential of a large intellectual diaspora for development purposes cannot be overlooked. Two decades into this contemporary phenomenon finds Africa with a reservoir of highly educated, skilled and well placed, and to a large extent disposed, Diaspora in the US. The return benefits of this Diaspora are only now beginning to be realized as stability sets in various parts of the continent; the African Diaspora is leading the innovative and creative engagement with their home countries. Recent trends point to the fact that although initial migrations constitute a drain, as those who left return with new ideas and networks to develop their home countries they are proving to be a gain. This movement commonly referred to as brain circulation, has the potential to be a development tool for home countries as it is the mechanism for diffusion of knowledge and technology. Home countries should invest in channeling the energy, initiative and resources of the intellectual Diaspora as it has accumulated the human, financial, and social capital that is essential for educational sector development.

References:

  1. Ainalem, T, Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa, 2005: idrc.ca/en/ev-71249-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html
  2. Dixon, David, Characteristics of the African Born in the United States, Migration Policy, Washington, DC January, 2006
  3. Easterly,WilliamandNyarko,Yaw, Is theBrainDrainGoodfor Africa? Brookings Global Economy and Development Working Paper No. 19, 2008:http://ssrn.com/abstract=1121853
  4. Mugimu, Christopher, Brain Drain to Brain Gain: What are the implications for Higher Education in Africa?, Comparative & International Higher Education 2, 2010
5.     Frédéric, Lohest, Olivier and Marfouk, Abdeslam, Brain Drain in Developing Countries, Developed for the African Union Mission in The United States.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

VII. Service Delivery and Health Care:

Role of Diaspora and Information & Communication Technology

7.1 Introduction

7.1.1 Effective Service Delivery. There are several essential elements that are necessary for effective service delivery; stable societies, adequate infrastructure and well-trained professionalized public sector. Across the continent, while some countries are emerging from protracted conflict–which has devastated national infrastructure and resulted in uncertain socioeconomic landscape–others are effectively war zones where delivery of service is untenable.

 

7.1.2 Infrastructure development. Lack of infrastructure, shrinking public budgets, geographic remoteness and population shifts hinder African government’s ability to provide equitable distribution of service such as education, health, water, sanitation and electricity. This in turn impedes development efforts thereby continuing the cycle of unmet needs and inadequate resources.

7.1.3 Brain drain, gain and circulation. The large-scale exodus of medical health workers to the west over the last 25 years has served to further cripple an already burdened system. The uncoordinated and haphazard influx of western NGOs with agendas drawn up without consultation has further exasperated the situation and accelerated the deterioration of a crumbling health care system. The brain drain can be converted to brain gain and brain circulation by coordinating a series of Diaspora networks for investment and development.

7.1.4 Disparities in basic development indices. According to The Economist, Africa accounts for over a sixth ~ (17%) of the world’s population, but generates only 4% of global electricity, even though it accounts for 12% of the world’s energy production and 10% of the global proven oil, US has 2%. Only 25% of Africans have access to electricity and it costs 10% of the income of the poorest households to light a small dwelling. Water and sanitation services in Africa have improved over the years but nearly 60% still do not have access to updated and improved sanitation facilities, making the region unable to meet Millennium Development Goals (MDG) targets. Moreover, the continent faces similar difficulties in delivering education services with 43% of children not enrolled in school.

7.1.5 Ethiopia’s Use of ICT enabled enterprises. Many African governments have developed a creative and innovative approach to addressing these obstacles with development of e-government. Deployment of Information &Communication Technology (ICT) in the public sector provides access to information, knowledge and technology, which in turn develops a proactive, efficient, transparent and service oriented public sector. Moreover, ICT reduces transactional costs, directly addresses physical and resource barriers and builds local institutional capacity. For instance, Ethiopia one of the poorest and least developed countries in Africa with a 0.4% internet penetration in 2009 has turned to ICT to enhance its service delivery capacity. ICT based services include WoredaNEt (connects federal, regional and district administrations), HealthNet, (enables health practitioners to access a wide range of health care information) care SchoolNet (connecting schools-urban and rural-to support teaching), EtTHERNET (Ethiopian Educational and Research Network) (connecting public universities for e-learning and e-libraries), AgriNEt (linking agricultural research centers) among other services. (Belachew, 2011)

 

7.2 Health Service delivery

 

7.2.1 Addressing health disparities. The challenges to health care delivery in Africa are numerous including poverty, low national health spending, high disease burden and crisis in medical and public health professionals. However, health spending does not commensurate with the vast need along with and educational and training infrastructure that is insufficient in replenishing the persistent hemorrhaging of human capacity. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 24% of the global disease burden is in Africa which has only 3% of the health workers and less than 1% of the global financial resources.   Africa bears the heaviest disease burden largely due to prevalence of communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis as well as non-communicable diseases such as mental illness, malnutrition and conflict induced injuries.   Health promotions and disease prevention strategies based on individual and collective health empowerment activities are the most cost effective tools to address this glaring health disparity in the continent. The Diaspora communities and their respective enterprises and institutions can be a converted into a strong win-win partnerships via interactive Diaspora engagement programs.

7.2.2 Environmental and behavioral challenges. Natural and man-made circumstances such as waterborne and zoonotic diseases and civil unrest generated injuries and disabilities respectively are promoting public health and individual health crisis in Africa. Moreover, Africa is also experiencing an increase in non-communicable disease such as violence, injuries, cancer and other life style related diseases adding to the already burdened health care system. Other factors in the health crisis in Africa include poor sanitation, lack of proper nutrition, lapses in immunization, substandard housing and other factors directly related to socioeconomic conditions.

7.2.3 Social determinants in health. The WHO Commission on Social Determinants of Health in 2008 recommended a set of action plans targeting governance and social and economic factors that are key determinates of health to be addressed as part of the Africa region sustainable health goals. (WHO, 2010)

7.2.4 Communicable endemic diseases. Poor health care has exasperated Africa’s vulnerability to unrestrained proliferation of communicable endemic diseases. Africa has the highest burden of malaria cases with 90% of the worldwide malaria deaths in 2003. In all malaria-endemic countries in Africa, 25-40% of all outpatient clinic visits, and between 20% and 50% of all hospital admissions are due to the consequence of malaria . According to Roll Back Malaria report, several factors have made malaria control difficult in Africa such as limited expenditure on malaria prevention programs, poverty, quality of housing and limited access to health care.

7.2.5 Mitigating Malaria in Africa. Human capacity is key to not only mitigating malaria on the continent but also to addressing the health care deficit in Africa. Building human resources at the national, regional and local levels is necessary to effectively implement malaria control program. However, high attrition rates of health workers, competing demands with other programs and the unwillingness of health providers to be stationed in remote areas have led to critical shortage in effectively managing malaria and providing rural health services. The answer is to build sustainable infrastructure that attracts healthy network of viable human settlements be it for the layman or the professional community. Sustainable communities are built on sustainable infrastructure and human development networks that address all health and socio-economic development opportunities.

7.3 Heath Professionals in the Diaspora

 

7.3.1 Africa’s share of health professionals. Globally, there is an extraordinary shortage of health workers with an estimated additional 4.2million needed, on top of the existing 59 million; to accommodate the health needs of the world’s population. (Blanchet, 2006) In 2011, the fastest growing sector in the United States is the health care industry. As the baby boomer generation ages, there has been growing demand for health care professionals. According to the US Bureau of Labor Statics, more than one in four of the 117,000 new jobs created in the U.S. economy in July were in healthcare.

7.3.2 Converting brain drain to brain gain.   The US is unable to train enough health workers to keep pace with the growing need for medical physicians and has relied heavily on health professionals from developing countries, specifically from Africa. WHO estimates over 50% of highly trained health workers leave for better job opportunities abroad from low-income countries? Between 1986 and 1995, 61% of the graduates of one Ghanaian medical school had left the country. In 2004, Zambia lost over 2,000 nurses and midwives and of the 700 medical doctors trained in Zambia from 1978-1999 only 50 remained in country and practiced in the public sector. One third of Ethiopian medical doctors have left Ethiopia making Chicago and Washington DC, rather than Addis Ababa, where one would encounter an Ethiopian doctor. UNDP in 1993 identified 21,000 Nigerian doctors practicing in the US with and estimated additional 10,000 practicing in Saudi Arabia, the Gulf States, Europe and Australia. There is a need to convert brain drain to brain gain by supporting Diaspora Intellectual Brain Trust and networks to support African investment and development opportunities.

7.4 State of Health Sector in Africa

7.4.1 Promoting positive sense of wellbeing. Sustainable Health is not the mere absence of disease and disability, but a positive sense of wellbeing. The state of health services delivery sector in Africa lacks basic infrastructure and coordinated effective health system. Preventable infectious diseases have become entrenched in the African landscape, hampering Africa’s capacity to combat critical diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis. The ability of states to deliver basic service such as health care directly impact human development and has an impact on growth and development. National development requires healthy well-balanced, disease-free citizens as there is a direct correlation between an individual’s good health and productivity. For instance, malaria prevalence costs Africa and estimated loss of $1.2 billion each year in illness, treatment, premature death and billions more in lost economic growth. In many instances, lack of health services impacts health workers directly. A 2006 UNAIDS report found that Botswana, lost 17% of its healthcare workforce due to AIDS between 1999 and 2005 and found that about 40% of midwives in Zambia were HIV-positive.

7.4.2 Progress towards MDGs by 2015. Africa is also charged with meeting clearly articulated health care goals and is a central actor in addressing the most significant global health issues. Of the eight MDGs, three are related to health: reduce child mortality rates, improve maternal health and combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases. Similarly, of the global effort to eradicate malaria and stem the tide of HIV/AIDS Africa, as the epicenter of these epidemics, is a central actor. At the same time, dwindling national budgets have limited the investment African governments can make in a health sector which is already overwhelmed by disease prevalence, chronic shortages of health workers and lack of access to essential lifesaving medicines. The UN Economic Commission for Africa estimates that sub-Sahara Africa needs to triple its health workforce, adding over a million workers to reach the health-related MDGs and meet the demands on the health care system. Therefore, the scaling up of health services to meet these challenges will require mobilization of resources from domestic sources, support diaspora and

7.5 Recommendation

7.5.1 ICT based mobilization. The development of information technology provides Africa with an opportunity to leap forward in the ability to increase health care access. Many of the obstacles related to geographic remoteness can be sufficiently addressed through use of ICT and training of local auxiliary health workers. Increase in local capacity and use of ICT also opens the door for Diaspora engagement.

  1. Engage Diaspora based health experts to recommend a continent-wide health systems development policy. Lack of coordination and control of health polices and priorities by national governments exasperates health care situation in Africa. Foundation to an effective health system begins with national guidelines and priorities that will guide local and international activities. Tap into Diaspora expertise to develop a holistic collaborative service delivery model that includes the Diaspora, approaches for international engagement, national and regional agencies, communities and clients. Parties involved share responsibility and authority for basic policy decision-making.
  1. Create’ adopt a health center’ program for diaspora members. This program will allow medical professionals in the Diaspora to proactively select a hospital and/or clinic to work with exclusively. They would serve in an advisory and when possible organize medical mission of their US-based colleagues. This program can extend to allowing hometown associations to adopt a health center and provide financial support, expertise as well as consul. This will encourage long-term engagement and development of institutional relationships.
  1. Develop a virtual consultation and diagnosis suites. Develop an online consultation portal with diaspora experts for diagnosis and consultation. Diaspora health experts sign-up to review files online and provide consultation on cases. This will improve the quality and accessibility of information available to local practitioners. It will also allow operation of remote health centers by auxiliary health workers who can be guided by experts via the portal. Participating locations would require internet connection, trained health professional (doctor, nurse, midwife, community health worker) and could request assistance in diagnosis anytime.
  1. Create a Health service account and/or bonds for diaspora. Develop a mechanism where Diaspora members could fund health services across the continent. Donors could select a country, city, village or a health issue, such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, mental illness, etc. Program could be administered by African Union who in turn will distribute funds quarterly in accordance with donor specifications.
  2. Engage Diaspora in The Roll Back Malaria Program research agenda. Three areas of research have been identified by RBM as effective for malaria control and elimination. Engage Diaspora members conducting tropical science research with state of the art labs and research facilities.

7.6 Conclusion

7.6.1 Healthy citizens for Service industry. Service delivery in Africa is an essential element to development on the continent. Educated and healthy citizens are more likely to be economically active and productive and they are less likely to require services from already overwhelmed agencies. Availability of service such as electricity, safe drinking water and proper hygiene are also more likely to enhance the productivity of a society and provide exponentially boost for well-being, innovation and creativity.

7.6.2 Promoting healthy communities. Challenges to effective health service delivery in Africa are particularly daunting. Shrinking national budgets, underdeveloped infrastructure and shortage of health workers are among the numerous factors that negatively impact national health systems. However, promoting a healthy community strategy of disease prevention and health promotion activities in line with primary health care system is both cost effective and equitable to all stakeholders.

7.6.3 ICT enabled mobilization. ICT (Information Communication Technology) based mobilization of limited resources is considered a cost effective tool for changing challenges into opportunities. There are numerous seemingly insurmountable continent wide obstacles to government’s ability to provide citizens with healthy outcomes thereby diminishing productivity and economic growth. Moreover, previously eradicated diseases such as Polio have resurfaced with a vengeance further burdening the meager health services. Given, the limitations of physical infrastructure and human resources the engagement of the Diaspora and harnessing of ICT will enable Africa to successfully mitigate the ongoing health crisis. ICT has the dual advantage of increasing health system capacity by health personnel, locally, regionally and nationally, as well as tapping into the vast knowledge and expertise of a large medical professional Diaspora.

References:

  1. Blanchet, K, Keith, R and Shackleton, P., One Million More: Mobilising the African Diaspora Healthcare Professionals for Capacity Building in Africa, Save the Children UK, 2006
  2. Achieving Sustainable Health Development in the Africa Region; Strategic Directions for WHO 2010-2015, WHO Regional Office for Africa, 2010
  3. Akukwe, Chinua, ed., Healthcare Services in Africa: Overcoming Challenges, Improving Outcomes, (A & A: London) 2008
  4. Belachew, M., E-Government Initiates in Ethiopia, presented at the UN The African E-Learning Meeting in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania June 2011 The Global Malaria Action Plan, Roll Back Mal

VIII. Brain Drain and Capacity Building in Africa

Some statistics on Africa’s brain drain

Since 1990, Africa has been losing 20,000 professionals annually.

Over 300,000 professionals reside outside Africa.

Ethiopia lost 75% of its skilled workforce between 1980-91.

It costs US$40,000 to train a doctor in Kenya; US$15,000 for a university student.

35% of total ODA to Africa is spent on expatriate professionals.

Source: International Organization for Migration (IOM)

8.1   Human capital development. “In 25 years, Africa will be empty of brains.” That dire warning, from Dr Lalla Ben Barka of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), reflects the growing alarm over Africa’s increasing exodus of human capital. Data on brain drain in Africa is scarce and inconsistent; however, statistics show a continent losing the very people it needs most for economic, social, scientific, and technological progress.

8.2 Tapping into the African Diaspora professional. The ECA estimates that between 1960 and 1989, some 127,000 highly qualified African professionals left the continent. According to the International Organization for Migration (IOM), Africa has been losing 20,000 professionals each year since 1990. This trend has sparked claims that the continent is dying a slow death from brain drain, and belated recognition by the United Nations that “emigration of African professionals to the West is one of the greatest obstacles to Africa’s development.” [See box: Some Statistics on Africa’s Brain Drain]. The Diaspora engagement program can tap into this knowledge wealth of African Professional Diasporas.

8.3 The costs of brain drain

8.3.1 Harnessing Diaspora connections.   Brain drain in Africa has financial, institutional, and societal costs. African countries get little return from their investment in higher education, since too many graduates leave or fail to return home at the end of their studies. This can be reversed or allowed to circulate with extended benefits if AU countries develop strategies that can harness the Diaspora institutional and investment connections.

8.3.2 Empowering African institutions.   In light of a dwindling professional sector, African institutions are increasingly dependent on foreign expertise. To fill the human resource gap created by brain drain, Africa employs up to 150,000 expatriate professionals at a cost of US$4 billion a year. The Diaspora can supplement and support AU institutions by providing living connections with their respective home institutions.

8.3.3 Enhancing health and social services.   The departure of health professionals has eroded the ability of medical and social services in several sub-Saharan countries to deliver even basic health and social needs. Thirty-eight of the 47 sub-Saharan African countries fall short of the minimum World Health Organization (WHO) standard of 20 physicians per 100,000 people.   The ADHI can be a very powerful tool in galvanizing African Diaspora resources to enhance health and social institutions. The MDG can be a powerful tool to attract Diaspora resources and investments.

.8.3.4 Bridging the science and technology gap. This continuous outflow of skilled labor contributes to a widening gap in science and technology between Africa and other continents. Africa’s share of global scientific output has fallen from 0.5 in the mid-1980s to 0.3% in the mid-1990s. There are more African scientists and engineers in the USA than in the entire continent. African Diaspora scientists can be encouraged to develop partnerships with African Science and technology institutions to bridge the science and technology gap. Developing a data base of African Diaspora Scientists and their respective competencies and matching them with respective African institutions should be one key role of the Diaspora Engagement Program.

8.3.5 Energizing civil society. The flight of professionals from Africa endangers the economic and political systems in several African countries. As its middle class crumbles and its contributions to the tax system, employment, and civil society disappear, Africa risks becoming home to even greater mass poverty. The African Diaspora Engagement program will have the added benefit of encouraging civil society, good governance, employment and improving tax revenue, if the Diaspora are given opportunities to invest in civil society based enterprises.

8.4 In search of solutions

8.4.1 Encouraging Brain Circulation. Throughout four decades of Africa losing its best and brightest, the world debated the semantics of the issue and focused almost solely on remittances, overlooking the implications of brain drain on human resources, institutional capacity, and health/social services. Diaspora Engagement Program can encourage brain circulation, whereby the Diaspora can bring enterprises that enhance the local educational and institutional capacity building for improved trade and investment opportunities.   AU countries should create special Diaspora Investment and Industrial zones that promote exchange of ideas, talent, information and business development activities towards competing in the global market.

8.4.2 Accessing Diaspora resources and connections. Efforts to stem Africa’s brain drain focusing on repatriation strategies were discouraging.  Studies have shown that repatriation will not work so long as African governments fail to address the pull and push factors that influence emigration. Moreover, the relationship between African governments and the African Diaspora remained a major barrier to finding solutions. It is more practical and beneficial if AU countries create environments to access Diaspora resources and connections, by creating win-win connections with institutions of Diaspora host communities. This will open opportunities for encouraging second-generation Diaspora children to be involved in their ancestral and AU countries development and investment opportunities.

8.3 Virtual participation

8.3.1 ICT enabled Virtual participation.   One potential solution to Africa’s brain drain is virtual participation. Virtual participation is participation in nation-building without physical relocation. It also shows promise as a means to engage the African Diaspora in development efforts. Mercy Brown of the University of Cape Town notes that virtual participation “… sees the brain drain not as a loss but a potential gain… Highly skilled expatriates are seen as a pool of potentially useful human resources for the country of origin… the challenge is to mobilize these brains.”

8.3.2 Diaspora friendly policies.   The development of Diaspora friendly policies that provides either double citizenship rights and responsibilities or Diaspora friendly investment opportunities can easily attract the resources, contacts and expertise of the Diaspora communities.   Questions remain, however. Will virtual participation work in a continent where government–Diaspora relations are adversarial, and information technology almost nonexistent, and where development needs are complex and require a sustained commitment?   Developing ICT based communication in an environment of good governance can attract the Diaspora to play their rightful place in their respective home communities. It is a two way street and AU countries should take the imitative to encourage the Diaspora involvement in policy formulations that will facilitate their active participation.

8.4 The Diaspora as stakeholder

8.4.1 Research based engagement. Recent developments in government–Diaspora relations show positive signs of change. A recent study,Semantics Aside: the Role of the African Diaspora in Africa’s Capacity Building Efforts, revealed emerging Diaspora efforts to assume a more active role in Africa’s development. The study, conducted by the Association for Higher Education and Development (AHEAD), a Diaspora group based in Canada, was funded by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC).

8.4.2 Raising Diaspora Awareness in virtual participation. Semantics Aside examined the potential of virtual participation to facilitate an effective and sustained Diaspora commitment to Africa’s development efforts. The study concluded that virtual participation has tremendous potential to channel the untapped intellectual and material input from the African Diaspora. Moreover, it recorded a growing awareness among the African Diaspora of its moral, intellectual, and social responsibility to contribute to Africa’s development efforts.

8.4.3 SMART Diaspora Engagement Programs. Africa has shown a growing will to reconcile with the African Diaspora. Both the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and the African Union (AU) have formally recognized the African Diaspora as a key player in the development agenda of the continent. In 2003, the AU amended its Charter so as to “… encourage the full participation of the African Diaspora as an important part of the continent.” The African Diaspora Engagement program can fulfill the AU countries and Diaspora aspirations of involving all African children in their continent’s future. The program needs to be SMART, that is specific, measurable, appropriate, realistic and time sensitive to the interests and benefits of all stakeholders.

8.5 Virtual linkages

8.5.1 Skill and knowledge transfer networks. Another potential area where the talents of the Diaspora could be channeled is virtual linkages. Virtual linkages are independent, non-political, and non-profit networks facilitating skill and knowledge transfer and capacity building. These networks mobilize skilled Diaspora members’ expertise for the development process in their countries of origin. To date, 41 virtual networks in 30 different countries have been identified. Six of these are African, including the South African Network of Skills Abroad (SANSA) with members in 68 countries.

8.5.2 Joint Ventures of knowledge transfer networks. Individuals of the Diaspora also contribute through virtual networks, as visiting scholars, by investing in companies, and assisting in joint ventures between host and sending countries. According to author Damtew Teferra, Africa lags behind: “… This pattern of contributing to scientific and technological development is repeated for many Third World countries, though not… for most of Africa.” The lesson from the experience of Silion Valley South Asia entrepreneurs is worth mentioning here and making an effort to study it and replicate it whenever possible.

8.5.3 MIDA’s example in knowledge transfer. In 2001, IOM launched the Migration for the Development of Africa (MIDA) “to develop the potential synergy between… African migrants and the demand from countries by facilitating the transfer of virtual skills and resources of the African Diaspora to their countries of origin.” Based on the notion of human capital mobility through temporary, long-term, and virtual participation, IOM works with African and host countries and Diaspora members. MIDA has launched pilot projects in a number of African countries.

8.6 Next steps

8.6.1 Mobilizing the African Diaspora.   In November 2004, AHEAD, in collaboration with IDRC, organized an international Stakeholder Roundtable on Mobilizing the African Diaspora toward Development Efforts in Africa. The roundtable, held in Ottawa, Canada, brought together key stakeholders, including the IOM, Canadian government agencies, African missions, non-governmental organizations, and Diaspora groups to discuss brain drain in Africa and potential strategies for mobilizing the African Diaspora. It is critical to galvanize and connect with international resources that have already shown interest in galvanizing the African Diaspora.

Some of the issues identified included the need to recognize the African Diaspora as a key stakeholder in the current dialogue and efforts to address the issues of brain drain and capacity-building in Africa. Effective and sustained Diaspora engagement will require policy and resource commitments by key stakeholders, including international organizations, African governments, and host countries.

The emerging Diaspora movement to become more active in Africa’s development efforts, the growing political will in Africa to recognize the Diaspora’s potential contribution, and the possibilities created by information technology show that the African Diaspora is not, after all, a total loss to the continent.

 

IX. Understanding The African diaspora in the United States

9.1 Introduction

9.1.1 Deciphering The African Diaspora. The term African diaspora has many meanings and can be used to refer to any number of people of African descent that reside outside the continent. Joseph Harris identifies the African diaspora concept as consisting of three basic elements a “global dispersion (voluntary and involuntary) of Africans throughout history; the emergence of a cultural identity aboard based on origin and social condition; and the psychological or physical return to the homeland, Africa….[t]the African diaspora assumes the character of a dynamic, continuous, and complex phenomenon stretching across time, geography, class and gender.” (Harris, 1993) This wide and encompassing definition comes close to identifying the complexity and transnationalism of the African diaspora. However nebulous the concept, there is no other term that can capture the nuances of belonging and identity that can be found in the various communities of African descendant across the globe.

9.1.2 The IOM an AU definition of African Diaspora.   For official purposes, the International Office of Migration defines diaspora as “Members of ethnic and national communities, who have left, but maintain links with, their homelands. The term ‘diasporas’ conveys the idea of transnational populations, living in one place, while still maintaining relations with their homelands, being both ‘here’ and ‘there.’” The African Union defines the African diaspora as “consisting of peoples of African origin, living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality, and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent, and the building of the African Union.”

9.1.3 East and West dispersal of African people.   Although, a significant spreading of the African descent population was by way of the slave trade, the dispersion of African people throughout the world should not be solely attributed to that heinous era. African civilizations have long had contacts with civilizations in the East before the West discovered Africa and Asia. There is evidence that there was thriving trade between African civilizations and civilizations in Asia such as India and China, dating to the time before Marco Polo’s venture into ‘the Far East’. Civilizations in Africa had contact and trade with what we know today as the Middle East since before the advent of Christianity. It is a well-accepted fact that Africa, the Middle East and Asia were part of a complex trading network going back to 500 C.E. This extended interaction also included cultural diffusion, hence the remarkable cultural similarity between these regions.

 

9.1.4 African migration to the Americas and the Caribbean. The presence and impact of Africa in the Americas and the Caribbean has been examined as part of the triangular trade between Europe, Africa and the Americas. Much of the study has focused on the Eastern coast of the Caribbean within the context of the slave trade. However, recent work has discovered African presence in Mexico, Argentina and countries on the Pacific Ocean side of the continent. There is more and more attention being paid to the legacy of African heritage to contemporary cultural icons such as the Tango and carnival. At the end, what all of these communities, stretching from Asia to Latin America, have in common is their linkage to Africa. No matter how removed in time or space, each has retained a heritage that can be traced back to the continent.

9.1.5 Diaspora Segmentation: (Ancestral/lived/next generation/returning/affinity)

 

Based on these definitions, the contemporary African diaspora is wide, and varied ; therefore, there is a need to segment the diaspora to better understand the unique characteristics of each community. The lived diaspora consists of individuals born in the home country but who now live permanently or temporarily in another country. The ancestral diaspora consists of individuals with ancestral links to the home country. Ancestral diaspora includes second and third generation diaspora members and those with links going back further.

9.1.6   Engaging the future Diaspora. The next generation diaspora consists of younger members of the diaspora typically under the age of thirty-five. Next generation diaspora members are important to engage in order to ensure the sustainability of diaspora engagement. There is also the returning diaspora who are diaspora members who have lived in a host country, and who have come back to the home country. Finally, there is the affinity diaspora, nationals of other countries who worked or studied in the home country but have since re-migrated. (Aikins, 2011) Affinity diaspora includes all those, regardless of heritage, with interest and good will towards the home country.

9.2 African diaspora in the US

9.2.1 Poor Census tracking of Africans in USA. In attempting to understand the African immigrant population in the US, one has to contend with a scarcity of data. There is a limitation on the data available as Census tracking has only recently began to diversify its race/ethnicity options and the process of collecting foreign origin data has been slow in quantifying those from the African continent. Census race/ethnicity options are based on self-identification and respondents, given the limited options, most often opt for selecting a category that comes close to identifying them in the absence of exact matches, while some may skip the question entirely. Recent changes that have increased the sub-category for race/ethnicity options have been aimed at Asian and Latin American classification but the option for Africa remains narrow.

9.2.2 Black or African American.   The option which previously was listed as “Black or African American” now reads “Black, African Am, or Negro”. Hence, the redesigned 2009 census survey offers respondents option of identifying as: 1-White, 2-American Indian or Alaska Native,3-Black, African Am., or Negro 4-Not of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin (with sub-options of Cuban, Mexican, Mexican Am., Chicano, Puerto Rican, another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin – with fill in for example, Argentinean, Colombian, Dominican, Nicaraguan, Salvadoran, Spaniard,) 5- Asian Indian, 6- Chinese, 7-Filipino, 8-Other Asian (Print race, for example, Hmong, Laotian, Thai, Pakistani, Cambodian, and so on) 9-Japanese, 10-Korean, 11-Vietnamese, 12-Native Hawaiian, 13-Guamanian or Chamorro, 14-Samoan, 15-Other Pacific Islander (Print race, for example, Fijian, Tongan, and so on.) and finally respondent is provided with 16-Some other race. Where is the second generation Diaspora African American is the real question?   It is likely to be lost in all these classifications, unless a special effort is made to identify them.

 

9.2.3 Challenges of tabulating future generations of African immigrants.   Census survey provides an opportunity for US born respondents to detail their ancestry, which could be means of identifying second and even third generation African immigrants. However, for the most part, the Census survey only compels those identified as ‘foreign born’ to provide ancestry information. ‘Foreign born’ is defined simply as “people who are not US citizens at birth.” Those born in the US are asked to report the state of their birth while those born outside the US are asked to report the country of birth. Therefore, Census does not have a means of tabulating second-generation African immigrants as they can for Asian and Latin American immigrants as evidenced by options above. However, as the Census survey is continuously evolving there is a window of opportunity to devise a method for capturing this data on second and third generation immigrants in future surveys.

 

9.2.4 About half of African immigrants not documented. In addition to the difficulty in identifying some first and the entire second generation African immigrants, there is also the fact that many undocumented Africans have not taken part in the Census and therefore are not part of this data set. Even though the Census does not include questions on residency status, fear and distrust prevents many undocumented residents from taking part in this exercise. It is estimated that there are almost as many undocumented Africans as those with legal status in the US. This not only underestimates the population count but also impacts the accuracy and quality of sample data of the African immigrant population.

9.2.5 Census underestimation of the African immigration population. Many arrive on tourist and temporary visas and opt to remain in the US to pursue legal residence. In the process, because of lack of funding, proper guidance, and understand of the system, they end up falling out of status and remain invisible. Others are forced to live in the informal undocumented economy and manage to exist for decades without detection by authorities. Antidotal evidence suggests that these undocumented African immigrants add significantly to the overall number of Africans in the US. Weak outreach and education on the Census and lack of advocacy on behalf of the African immigrant population has meant that there is a general lack of understanding among African immigrant groups regarding the importance of responding to the survey as well as the need to correctly fill out the questionnaire. All of these conditions result in a significant underestimation of the African immigrant population in the Census. “Based on national data, the “true” African population in each metro area including immigrants and their descendants might be 25% higher than our count. The African American population may be slightly overestimated for this same reason”. (Logan, 2003)

 

 

 

9.3 The Demographics Paradigm.

Data from the 2010 Census results show that from a total of 39.9 million foreign born in the US 1.6 million were from Africa. Of the total US Black/African-American population, 38.8 million (38,874,625), foreign-born make up 3.3 million (3,312,352). West Africa had the largest number of immigrants with over 500,000 followed by East Africa at about 475,00. Nigeria had the largest number of immigrants with over 200,000, followed closely by other east Africa[1] at 184,040 and Ethiopia at a little over 170,000.

 

9.3.1 Racial breakdown of the African Immigrant. The racial breakdown of the African immigrant population is 20% White Africans, 74% Black Africans and almost 3% Asian Africans. The population is largely male with the median age of 38, with 63% within the highly productive age group of 25-54 years while 44% are in the 24-44 age group. Only 20.8% are under the age of 25 years.

9.4 Education and income

9.4.1 Impact of Diversity Immigrant Visa Program. The level of training and education of the average African immigrant in the US is higher than that of any other immigrant group, including those arriving from Europe and Asia. This is mainly due to the education/ training requirement of the diversity visa lottery – an important visa source for African immigrant population. Established by the Immigration Act of 1990, the US Diversity Immigrant Visa program offers certain persons from countries with low rates of immigration to the United States the opportunity to enter a “green card lottery” administered by the US Department of State.

9.4.2 DV Immigrants from Africa. This program has specific education and training requirements that has significantly impacted the recent development of the African diaspora in the US. [2]In 2010 DV lottery drawing Africa accounted for 48.0% (23,903) of the 49,763 persons who obtained legal permanent residence through this program. Although DV lottery immigrants make up only a small share of persons granted Legal Permanent Resident status each year (4.8% in 2010), DV immigrants from five African countries — Ethiopia (3,987), Egypt (3,447), Nigeria (2,937), Kenya (2,279), and Ghana (2,086) — collectively accounted for 14.5% of all Africans who obtained legal permanent residence in 2010.

9.4.3 Increasing academic professionals emigrate from Africa. The nature of African migration and the DV system account for the high level of education and skill of the African diaspora in the US. Various international studies estimate that about 23,000 qualified academic professionals emigrate from Africa each year. The biggest migratory flows from Africa to the United States are from Egypt, Ghana, South Africa, Nigeria and Ethiopia with more than 60% of immigrants from these countries having some level of tertiary education. In the US, African immigrants have an average educational attainment of 14 years, higher than the 12.6 for Afro-Caribbean or the 12.4 years for African Americans, and higher than Whites and Asians as well.(Logan, 2003)     Of those born in Africa residing in the US 88% have at least a high school diploma (up from 86.4% in 2000 census) nationally its 85.6%, Asia 83.8%, Europe 84.9%.

9.4.4 Gender and race based income disparity.   Income disparity based on gender and race, which can be found in the general US society, greatly impacts the earning ability of African immigrants, even though many possess comparable and even sometimes, higher level of training. African women immigrants bear the brunt of this differentiation with a 23% gap between African born male and female income in 2000, while the gap was 15% in 2010. In the 2010 Census,56% of those born in Africa earned at least $35,000 or more, down from 57.5% in 2000 and only 19% earn over $75,000, down 23.6% in 2000. The median family income in 2010 was $45,926, down from $48,305 in 2000.

9.5 Engagement: Effectively engaging the diaspora

9.5.1 Stakeholder based Action Plan. In developing an action plan for diaspora engagement home countries have to first determine if they will in fact invite this community to the table as a stakeholders. There are many nations that have opted to not engage the diaspora in any capacity due to a number of reasons while others have wholeheartedly embraced theirs. An honest national dialogue needs to take place in which a decision to include the diaspora is reached openly and with attention to transparency.

9.5.2 Shared cultural heritage. Placing such engagement within the national dialogue and stating the nature of the relationship with clarity and with no ambiguity will assist in reducing resentment and friction between nationals and diaspora returnees. There will inevitably be a sense of resentment from nationals who will feel that diaspora community is receiving preferential treatment, even in cases where that is clearly not the case. A process for reducing such resentment is to present the relationship within the context of shared cultural heritage and building confidence among all the parties that this is a common effort for the national good. This would mean that general diaspora engagement decisions should not leave nationals and the diaspora feeling that it was top down decision but rather a communal effort with all parts contributing towards the greater good.

9.5.3 Integrating Diaspora and home population interests. A fundamental component of this confidence building exercise is clearly outlining responsibilities and rights of all stakeholders, the home country, the government, and the diaspora, as this will be a mutually beneficial relationship with each party bringing something to the partnership. Home countries need to clearly state what is desired from the diaspora and it is important that this goal extend beyond activities that treat the diaspora as an ATM/cash machine. This would mean that home countries need to clearly state which areas are available for diaspora engagement. There also needs to be clarity on the level of involvement and inclusion. Is there a desire to maintain cultural ties through a strictly cultural and linguistic heritage interaction or is there an opening for diaspora community to take on full citizenship rights and responsibilities with a dual citizenship option; or is the engagement going to be somewhere in the middle with different levels of engagement.

 

9.5.4 Diaspora as a dynamic group with diverse identity. It is important to be cognizant of the fact that the African diaspora is a community of individuals with personal aspirations endowed with multiple identities rooted both in their home countries and places of residence. Before designing a diaspora engagement policy, home countries should thoroughly understand their diaspora and the needs and assets of their diaspora. Creating an interactive database that classifies the Diaspora asset by talent, resources, connections and potential that can be matched with AU countries’ sustainable development is needed for appropriate matching of interests and competencies, etc. This data base needs to be interactive and   frequently updated as circumstances at both ends can change with time.

 

9.5.5 Diaspora as transnational communities.   This should go beyond numbers to deeper analysis and study to determine if the diaspora community has the capacity to engage as well as to shed light on the important factors such as motivation and willingness. Initial analysis should include an understanding of the transnational character of the community, the socio-economic make-up and most importantly the impact of gender, race, and class in promoting and/or deterring inclusion in host societies. As transnational communities, diaspora members’ affinity to where they come from exists alongside their desire to create a home in their new community. The link to their home country is primarily driven by the need to maintain link with home through keeping abreast of news and situations there as well as making financial investment in making periodic trips home. However, this is not an indication that these communities are able and willing to commit to long term sustained engagement with their home countries.

9.5.6 Social and economic integration. A better indicator of this commitment is the extent to which a diaspora community has ‘settled’ or integrated into a host country. Factors such as gender, race, and class are critical in determining the level of social and economic integration of individuals, which can be central in assessing the bond they feel with their home country. Antidotal evidence suggests that those that are more integrated into their new community are more likely to invest in securing their lives and building a foundation for their children where they reside, leaving very little opening for home country engagement. However, when newcomers are unable to comfortably or fully integrate into their new communities than the homeland ‘pull’, to belong and retain their identity is greater. For instance, a study found that 89% of African immigrant respondents indicated resentment of the racism in the US and 80% felt a sense of isolation from their home country and those they left behind. (Apraku 1991) Therefore, it would be important to understand to what extent members of the African diaspora are fully integrated into their new home.  At times, those who are not well integrated in their new host country could be the most productive Diaspora in their respective home countries. Every one should be assessed according to his or her specific circumstances, etc.

9.5.7 Developing structured engagement paradigm. A structured and individualized engagement perspective would provide a window into understanding the future , specifically if they have mapped out for themselves, and by extension their children’s potential for inclusive home country engagement. It is important to understand how each Diaspora group envisions engagement with their home countries. Will it be solely focused on helping and keeping in contact with relatives, or will it belong to making commitments to national development goals or even return to their country of birth. Understanding these vital elements will allow home countries to develop a tiered and structured engagement paradigm that allows each stakeholder to select a level engagement best suited to their realities.

9.5.8 Promoting win-win engagement options. On the other side of the equation, home countries are still grabbling with the notion of a diaspora; its meaning and national implications. Various countries have tried to engage the diaspora in a number of creative ways but the impact and success of these initiatives have been difficult to quantify. Just as there are pitfalls to generalization and homogeneous identification of the diaspora, a continent-wide uniform engagement model with the diaspora and its role in domestic affairs would be difficult to craft. However, as a primary stakeholder in this engagement, home countries are the drivers of any engagement activities and need a clear understanding of national priorities, developmental, economic, political and social, in order to assess any role, if any, the diaspora would have in domestic affairs. In the end, developing win-win engagement options that satisfies the interests of all stakeholders is critical. Many consider providing opportunities for double citizenship is most useful as it makes their respective benefits and responsibilities similar to every other citizenship, making the movement of people in and out of the continent part of the free movement of ideas, people and products that would bring the true renaissance for Africa and Africans around the world.

 

9.6 Engagement foundation

9.6.1 Diverse models of Diaspora engagement. The foundation for a successful diaspora engagement process is an understanding of the dynamics and diversity of the Diaspora populations and associated basics principles of social interactions. Chief among these is that diaspora is a large encompassing term and many people may fall into this category but not all of them relate to being members of the diaspora. Some do not even want to be associated with the term as it has negative implications in their understanding of the root word that means “scattering and dispersion”.   At present, the term is also used to describe a Disrtributed Social NETWORK SOFTWARE> The African continent is diverse and each country has unique socioeconomic and political conditions, and most importantly, different history and relationship with their diaspora. Below are fundamentals for engagement (Aikins, 2011):

·       Win-win engagement model. Given the wide and diverse nature of the African diaspora it is important to remember that one size does not fit all when it comes to engagement policies. What may work in one project or with one sector of the diaspora will not work with another.

·       Build a mutually beneficial model. Example of mutually beneficial model is networks, which are important for sharing information but also, provide members an avenue for educational, social, cultural, and professional advancements.

·       Define the role of all stakeholders. Most important will be to decide if the state will be implementer or facilitator of diaspora engagement.

·       Engage each interest group. Avoid the echo chamber by expanding circle of diaspora members involved in activities. It is important to involve and include people from outside usual circle of diaspora activists in order to ensure circulation of fresh ideas, new contacts, etc.

·       Build in rewards and recognition (both individual & group). The efforts of the diaspora should be recognized by a rewards system, which could be special conference, annual award, etc.

 

9.7 Engagement model

 

1. Mass Vs. Individualized Engagement Model. Although there are various engagement models for diaspora activities there are two bookend models – one for mass engagement and the other for select individualized engagement – that can be essential to diaspora engagement. (Aikins, 2011) The alumni model consists of mass mobilization. It is based on the university alumni model where universities engender loyalty and raise funds from their alumni who build powerful networks that is beneficial to the members. This approach centers on development (discussed later) and running campaigns is an important model to follow.

2.Alumni Versus elite actors. The second model, the overachiever model, involves targeting elite actors and individuals who can influence decision-making process. Among those that are in this category are Tipping agents who exist largely in the business arena and are those who can nudge (tip) a decision in a certain direction. These are diaspora members who are inspired and passionate individuals who act as ambassadors and are the ‘eyes and ears’ on the ground. They should be engage by keeping in constant contact and informed of developments in home country and made to feel part of the national team.

3. Mobilizing change agents. There are also the first movers who will usually be the first to engage in activities in home country (investment, activism, etc.). They are generally leaders in their industry and their engagement will change expectations and perceptions about home country by their peers both in home country and in the diaspora. Finally there are the change agents who bring new ideas, investment and technology thereby directly contributing to development.(Aikins, 2011) An example of a change agent for the African diaspora is Mohammed Ibrahim who with Celtel impacted mobile phone development and then again with his foundation is impacting philanthropy and governance.

 

9.8 Development model

 

1. Research driven engagement model. The development model (a four-step process) is a powerful tool for engaging key diaspora members and creating a successful network. First step is research which helps to understand who, what, where of individuals and helps to identify and evaluate people who can be leaders. Research should be used to conduct broad outreach, segment individuals by interest as well as rate and screen each contact for future engagement. Research would lead to cultivation, a continuum that moves members from informed understanding, to sympathetic interest, to engagement, to commitment and finally to passionate supporter.

2. Stewardship for Diaspora Networks. This is a campaign to win the ‘hearts and minds’ of diaspora members by building on the emotional bond and building trust relationships. Effective engagement requires ‘an ask’ and that would be in the solicitation stage. This would entail engaging members with specific projects over a limited time in small groups partnered with strong home institutions. Stewardship is an important component of this model. It is important that diaspora participants are appreciated and recognized of their contributions. Such recognition could be in the form of invitations to conferences, hometown visits, special awards, etc. Evaluation and assessment is also another important form of stewardship for diaspora networks. It is important to evaluate the successes and failures of projects and to provide members of the network with evaluative feedback on progress. As retention of key diaspora members ‘engagement is of utmost importance, stewardship is a critical part of this 4-stepprocess. (Aikins, 2011)

9.9 Diaspora advocacy

 

1. Advocacy for AU Countries. Advocacy for home country is the most important role a diaspora community can play. The importance of this role in the US can be illustrated through the diasporas of India, Israel, and the Armenian diaspora who all have pleaded their home country’s case in the halls of congress and the White House. Although all diaspora groups can advocate for the home country two groups have unique positioning to do this successfully: affinity diaspora and ancestral diasporas. This is largely due to the fact that both diaspora groups have intimate knowledge of the home country but they also have unique insights and access in the host country. They have social capital and political capital which makes them uniquely placed to influence government, media, private sectors, and other prominent groups. But this is only effective if done as collaborative effort with the home country.

2. Branding and promoting AU countries. Affinity diaspora members can also play a fundamental role in promoting a country’s interests and branding. They have deep understanding of the core strengths and values of the country because they’ve worked and lived there. They also have greater knowledge of how things work in their own country and therefore can communicate in terms that their peers and countrymen can understand, making them great ambassadors. Among the African diaspora the Ethiopian diaspora has the most influence and the advocacy experience. Although the relationship between the Ethiopian diaspora and the home country is contentious at times, the increased political engagement of the diaspora provides a unique challenge and opportunity for Ethiopia to develop mechanism for collaboration with this diaspora while at the same time responding to its criticism.

 

9.10 Case studies of engagement models

1. The cultural heritage pathway. Currently, the most common method for dealing with diaspora engagement is through an office dealing with expatriate/diaspora affairs located in the Foreign Ministry offices. These minimally staffed offices attempt to manage and facilitate diaspora engagement by filling needs for experts in teaching institutions, facilitating housing and land purchase by diaspora residents, coordinating investment issues as well as developing and maintaining communication with diaspora community. The various models for diaspora engagement that can be found across the continent attest to the fact that the African diaspora is as diverse as the continent from which it originated. While some focus on cultural heritage as pathway to economic engagement and investment others have been selective and structured in channeling diaspora involvement. The success and failure of these various models will require extensive analysis but the mere fact that structured engagement exists across the continent is testament to the importance of the diaspora and the need to constructively involve the community in national affairs.

2. Investment and knowledge transfer model. Ethiopia, within the Ministry of Foreign Affair, has created the Ethiopian Expatriate Affairs (EEA) division charged with building “a warm and constructive relationship between Ethiopians in diaspora and their country.” The office serves as a liaison between different Ministries within the government and Ethiopians in the diaspora to chiefly encourage the active involvement of the diaspora in socio-economic activities of the country. At the same time Embassies in countries where there is a significant Ethiopian diaspora, a consular officer is charged with facilitating diaspora engagement mainly dealing with investment and knowledge transfer issues. This office assists those in the diaspora in establishing a business; property rights issue as well as a myriad of other investment related issues. Ethiopia has not granted dual citizenship rights but has extended all rights, excluding voting and election to political offices, to those that have Ethiopian origin, including those with only one Ethiopian parent.

3. Double Citizenship Model. On the other hand, Morocco, which has the largest diaspora community, with 3.3 million Moroccan living abroad (10% of the Moroccan population) and is the highest recipient of remittances, has developed several vehicles for engaging with its diasporan community. Officially the Ministry in Charge of the Moroccan Community Residing Abroad along several other foundations including Hassan II Foundation for Moroccans Resident Abroad are responsible for diaspora engagement. Official Moroccan efforts are geared towards ensuring that first, second and even third generation Moroccans residing aboard are aware of their cultural heritage and retain some knowledge and understanding of the language.

4. Win-win cultural and economic model. The Foundation regularly dispatches Moroccan Arabic instructors to diaspora communities mainly in Europe, to provide instruction to those in the Moroccan diaspora. It also hosts summer camps for Moroccan ancestry children in Morocco where they will receive instruction in Arabic and Moroccan history. The premise of this engagement is that closer cultural ties will lead to economic engagement and investment by the diaspora. The Ministry in Charge of the Moroccan Community Residing Abroad is the official government arm that facilitates administrative procedures for those residing abroad. It’s charged with recording births, deaths, marriage and channeling property rights issues and other request processed by other ministries in the government. Its important to note that Morocco granted dual citizenship rights to those that have at least one Moroccan parent. Therefore, Morocco has developed a sophisticated multi-faceted system which includes a heritage awareness component for sustained engagement with its diaspora.

5. The Economic Model. Diaspora remittances designed to support families, relative and communities has grown to the tune of $40 billion reaching up to 49% of GDPs in some African countries, higher than Foreign Aid and Foreign Direct Investment figures.

 

 

9.11 Remittances as development aid

$40 Billion Remittances. One of the most visible and significant contributions to home countries by the diaspora has been the support they provide to their families, relatives, and communities.

This support has been in the form of remittances, whose combined total is approaching the $40 billion range. Remittances now make up a significant percentage of GDP in most African countries; Guinea Bissau 48.7%, Eritrea 37%, Cape Verde 34.2%, Burundi 22.8%, Algeria 4.7%, Morocco 11.2%, Ghana 6.6%, and Ethiopia 4.4%.

In 2009 the entire continent of Africa received $38.6 billion in remittances with top 5 recipients, by volume received, being Morocco ($6,116), Algeria ($5,399), Nigeria ($5,397), Egypt ($3,637), and Tunisia ($1,559). Remittances to Africa far exceed developmental aid and for many countries the flow of remittances is also higher than the foreign direct investment. Recent data has shown that this source of funding is more stable than other capital flows and countercyclical, increasing funding during downturns or crisis in receiving countries.

The flow of remittances to Africa has had a significant direct impact on the lives of recipients especially the estimated 40% of recipients who live in the rural areas. These recipients have been able to supplement their household resources to not only increase consumption but to also provide working capital, which in turn has a multiplier effect on the household and the community. Based on limited data, it has been found that those who receive remittance tend to stay in school longer, thus increasing their education level, save twice as much as the general population and have overall higher income then those who do not receive remittance. Hence, this supports the premise that remittances have a direct impact on poverty and that remittances received on the household level tend to stimulate growth. However, the full developmental potential of remittances has yet to be understood and tapped.

9.12 Recommendation

 

1. ICT as a medium for Diaspora engagement. Given the challenges on the ground, economic limitations of many countries across the continent and the vastness of the African diaspora, Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) fits the bill as an accessible scalable and efficient medium for diaspora engagement for development. ICT also provides the support and foundation needed to allow Africa to leapfrog into the information age and address pressing issues of socio-economic development and global integration. Successful deployment of ICTs can bridge the gap between the Africa diaspora and home countries, facilitate development, exponentially improve the lives of millions, and most importantly it is the key to Africa’s ability to be globally competitive and build a knowledge-based economy. Moreover, ICT is a tool that can accommodate the diverse unique needs and goals of each nation while building a common transnational system.

2. ICT as a medium for efficiency, growth and governance.   Development of ICT increases government efficiency, provides access to new markets or services, creates new opportunities for income generation and improves governance and gives people a voice. Moreover, ICT contributes to economic growth through increasing productivity across all sectors; facilitating market expansion beyond borders, lowering costs of and facilitating access to services, notably in administration, education, health and banking; providing access to research, development of ICT products and services; contributing to better governance, a prerequisite to growth, through increased participation, accountability and transparency. By using Africa’s success story with mobile telephone it can be deduced that when ICT becomes affordable to low-income users, new employment, micro-entrepreneurial and social development opportunities emerge. (OECD, 2008)

3. ICT Infrastructure for traditional and new technologies. The challenges for using ICT for development in Africa are many and most are, in large measure, under the domain of government action. ICT “consist of the hardware, software, networks and media for the collection, storage, processing, transmission and presentation of information (voice, data, text, images) as well as related services. Both traditional technologies (telephones, radio and TV) and newer technologies (such as computers and the Internet) are usually included in the concept of ICT infrastructure.” The relative success of using ICT to engage the diaspora will depend on ability to successfully deploy ICT and regulatory policies that will provide for unrestricted ease in accessing the Internet. Some of the challenges include infrastructure, not only ICT infrastructure but also electricity, access, which includes public access points, access to content, adequate capacity and supportive enabling environments which includes regulatory frameworks and an overall policy framework. Additional challenges can be found in finding a balance between technology and the need for local development as well as the ability to meet demands of the local population in other areas while developing technological capacity.

a.     Harness existing ICT to engage diaspora. Home countries can utilize existing infrastructure and systems to begin engaging diaspora and later update their tools and methods as capacity increases. ICT access will enable use of online tools and systems to exponentially increase the impact of each diaspora participants, as a skill multiplier in critical sectors, and simply as a tool for sharing information.

b.     Prioritize implementation of alumni model online diaspora outreach. The AU could develop and online diaspora engagement portal. Primary focus will be to provide information to diaspora members. This would have a web interface that is easy to navigate and download with simple modern design website with multi-lingual capability and will be a source of news from the home country. Website should allow people to register, sign up for email notifications, etc. The added benefit to this is the ability to conduct ‘research’ on diaspora members and identify those that are interested for greater engagement. It allows the diaspora member to determine his/her own level of involvement upon registration. AU and home countries will then have a credible list of individuals who are interested in moving beyond the alumni model to the next level of engagement.

c.      Encourage home countries to create online presence specifically targeting the diaspora. African countries should boost their online presence and provide as much information as possible on their websites. This can be in the form of a special website on diaspora affairs that collates and distributes relevant information to the diaspora in one location. There is also the option of providing a special diaspora section on the websites of relevant ministries and government offices. Information on these pages should be geared towards linking diaspora members to projects or volunteer/employment opportunities in the home country. For instance, opportunities for scholar-in-residence, internships, and consultancies could be announced through such a portal.

d.     Recruit top level IT diaspora experts to advice and secure financing for a continent-wide ICT plan. Once deployed, ICT will be utilized by both the public and private sector that in turn will have differing specifications and needs. Africa’s existing transnational ICT plan could benefit tremendously from input of IT and ICT professional in the diaspora who have decades of experience in rolling out ICT projects in US. This technical knowledge would be key to developing a useable model for Africa and their cultural and linguistic experience would be an added advantage.As many of these professionals are also involved in funding ICT projects they can also be given the mandate to secure funding for the projects they advise on using the resources available to them.

9.13 Conclusion

1. Diaspora as economic powerhouse. The African diaspora in the US is an economic powerhouse and a potential partner for development. The highly selective immigration policy has chosen the brightest and boldest from the home country. Hence, today the diaspora is a reservoir of specialized skills and knowledge that is more valuable than actually dollars they send back. While the sheer magnitude of the remittances flowing into home countries could tempt governments to develop a model of engagement that would only tap into these funds, it is important that diaspora engagement not deteriorate into a one-way economic relationship. Beyond the documented economic and financial impact, diaspora communities can also be the medium for positive social change through adaption of new attitudes that will be more conducive to development.

2. Diaspora for knowledge transfer.   Moreover, knowledge transfer should be a corner stone of any diaspora engagement as it will mitigate previous decades of brain drain and will allow the continent to take advantage of technological developments and leap frog from past obsolete mechanisms to advanced industrial and scientific economy. African countries can take a lesson from India where Silicon Valley versions of tech zone cities and industrial production zones have been developed and built largely based on skills of the Indian diaspora and financed by networks within the global Indian diaspora. Similarly, African countries can also develop a diaspora relationship that will grow industries and attract capital from the larger African diaspora as well as from those within the network of the diaspora constituents.

3. Integrating Diaspora with AU countries. All good policy initiatives start from well-informed data study. Before any policy formation, in some cases adjustment to existing policy, takes place each country should make an effort to know their diaspora, the African diaspora. Home countries should decide the level of integration to be offered to the diaspora community. Early on a firm decision should be reached on whether the diaspora community will be included in all aspects of national affair or if it will be to specific sectors. This would mean understanding the implications of granting dual citizenship, voting rights and access to the national political stage.

4. Interactive Diaspora engagement as key stakeholders. Some nations will be hesitant in extending such overarching rights and these terms should be clearly understood and developed into policy prior to commencing engagement. At the same time, nations should also have a well thought out development plan with a diaspora engagement component. It would be more productive to invite the diaspora to the table and rather than asking ‘how can you help us?’ to providing areas that could benefit from diaspora engagement and ask ‘where can you help us?’ Therefore, it would be far more productive and efficient to provide development areas that the diaspora could engage in rather than relying on the diaspora to match their skills to development agendas they may not be well versed in or understand.

9.14 References:

1.     Harris, Joseph E., Introduction, Global Dimensions of the African diaspora, (Washington, DC: Howard University Press) 1993

2.     Skinner, Elliot P. The Dialectic between Diasporas and Homelands, Global Dimensions of the African diaspora, (Washington, DC: Howard University Press) 1993

3.     Aikins, Kingsley and White, Nicola, Global Diaspora Strategies Toolkit: Harnessing the power of global diasporas (Dublin, IR: Diaspora Matters), 2011

4.     Africa Partnership Forum Support Unit, ICT in Africa:, Boosting Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 2008

5.     Langmia, Kehbuma “The role of ICT in the economic development of Africa: The case of South Africa,” International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), 2005, Vol. 2, Issue 4, pp. 144156.

6.     Logan, John R. and Deane, Glenn,Black Diversity in Metropolitan America, Lewis Mumford Center for Comparative Urban and Regional ResearchUniversity at Albany, 2003

7.     Apraku, Konadu Kofi, African Émigrés in the United States: A Missing Link in Africa’s Social and Economic Development, (Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group) 1991

X. The African Diaspora Health Initiative /ADHI

10. 1. African Diaspora Health Initiative. The AUM to the USA launched the Strategic Framework for the Africa Diaspora Health initiative in September 2008 under the patronage of H.E Jean Ping, the Chairperson of the African Union Commission with the participation of high-level representatives from the World Bank, the African Development Bank, the World Health Organization, Africare and the West African Health Organization. These sessions resolved that Africans continue to suffer from a high prevalence of disease burden, stemming primarily from a confluence of factors that has resulted in weak health systems and lack of infrastructure, that includes limited institutional and human resource capacity resulting in overwhelming shortages of skilled healthcare workers at all levels.

10.2. Quality human capital development. The lack of skilled and professional human resource development is aggravated by the chronically under funded, poorly resourced health services, that is undermined with poor coordination, health planning capacity and unreliable financing of health and social programs. The African Diaspora Health Initiative addresses these challenges in creative and win-win strategies by integrating local and Diaspora resources. The use of development and investment experts and lessons from other similar situations can be reviewed for potential direction and policy formulation. The AU mission can compile the lessons learned from other successful Diaspora engagement projects and programs that are in existence in different parts of the world to develop appropriate models that can work for the African Diaspora populations. These resources can be regularly updated and meaningful transformations implemented via ICT (Information, Communication Technology) and SMN (Social Media Network) based digital, cyber and Internet audio-visual and print multi-media research and communications.

10.3. Connecting with AU Countries perspectives.

3.1 Institutional connection. It appears in principle the African ministers are committed to strengthening health systems by developing social protection systems, aimed at promoting greater access to health care services while protecting them from debt traps due to health emergencies. It was also agreed that the African Diaspora, considered the sixth Region of the African continent, is a critical resource for addressing African health challenges. A reliable and forward-looking institution is being designed to address this pressing issue. Connecting Diaspora institutions with other AU institutions is critical to develop a common shared value and interest that is mutually beneficial to all stakeholders.

3.2 Steering Committee for African Health. A steering committee was established consisting of eminent personalities in the fields of health and economic development, with Diaspora representatives from the US, Africa, Canada and the Caribbean. The ADHI would focus on clinical, public health, and health workforce issues, on the continent, and mobilize clinicians, public health experts, dentists, pharmacists, nurses, laboratory technologies, scientists and others, to work and or contribute their skills and connections in Africa. The process can be made mutually beneficial via win-win partnerships that make each party a viable and reliable constituent and stakeholder.

10.4 The Vision

The vision of ADHI is to promote a healthy and prosperous Africa that is free from disease, disability and premature death.

10.5 The Purpose

The purpose of ADHI is to link Diaspora health expertise with specific health needs in Specific geographic locations in Africa.

10.6 The Mission

The mission of ADHI is to advocate for improving health outcomes in Africa, both between the Diaspora and AU Countries, by supporting best practices in clinical, and public health towards reducing the heavy burden of disease, and premature death, and by supporting health promotion and disease prevention activities.

10.7 The Progress

In January 2010, the AU Mission to the US and the ADHI Steering Committee with US Doctors for Africa, initiated the AU Standards and Certification Training Program (AUSCTP) to be implemented by AU Health Ministers by 2011.

10.8 Goals of AUSCTP

The AU Standard and Certification Training Program will contribute to the ability of African nations to realize MDG 3, 4, and 5– namely promoting gender equality, empowering women and promoting maternal and child health (reduce child morbidity and mortality and improve maternal health). It is expected that the AU SCTP will Enhance the capacity of African countries to deliver a set of uniform and sustainable health services with a focus on pre-natal, maternal and child health care; towards achieving universal access to reproductive health and reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters.

10.9 Strategies of AUSCTP

AUSCTP will develop the standards and curriculum by a collaborative action committee consisting of Africans and US based academic/medical institution and Diaspora professionals who will incorporate US and African medicinal practices and standards at institutional level as well as region-to-region Best Local Practices (BLP).

10.10 Standardized curriculum. The certification process will be standardized by using a curriculum that focus on Basic Sciences on safety practices, First Aid, Basic Anatomy, Physiology, Pathology, Microbiology, blood borne and respiratory infections, pathogens, pharmacology; Universal Precautions, Infection control, Clinical Sciences-Body System Review, CPR (Cardio-pulmonary Resuscitation), BLS, Blood borne pathogens, Midwifery, patient history, patient assessment, vial signs, medications, allergies, shock, trauma; Risk Management and Emergencies-common injuries-head and neck, chest, abdominal spinal, pelvic and limb injuries; Basic treatment/care- bandaging/splinting, hemorrhage cessation techniques, sterilization, Emergency childbirth, triage, rapid blood tests and rapid HIV testing; Care for older adults, care of patients with common conditions such as neurological disorders, hypertension, diabetes, levels of consciousness, therapy and rehabilitation services, etc.

10.11 AU Medial Seal of Certification. Upon successful graduation, each participant will be awarded a diploma, and given basic supplies, and equipment for use, as a certified practitioner. The practitioner will be given a professional lab coast with AU Medial Seal of Certification.   The practitioner will be expected to complete annual Continuous in-Service Training to validate the competency needed for maintaining the AU license on an annual basis.

10.12 BLP Research Study

The BLP research study will be conducted by a committee composed of health care professionals and consultants with data from sources such as Ministers of Health, UNFPA, UNICEF, WHO, UNDP and specialized NGOs, consultant team, academic researchers, Planned Parenthood, Family Health International, The World Bank, Local NGOs, local traditional medicine practitioners, and others as needed.

10.13 Assumptions of AU Standards & Certification Program

The AU Midwifery and Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) training program will be Africa- wide, Africa owned and led by Africa with the intention of empowering women in a holistic manner consistent with the Millennium Development Goals. There is a strong political commitment to the AU Standards and Certification Training Program. It is considered to be feasible by the Diaspora Scientific Community. This will be a result driven AU Certification that allows cross border coordination of standards of practice and certification, which will respond to the changing needs of member AU countries, African Diaspora and Multilateral agencies in line with Millennium Development Goals 3,4, &5.

10.14 Accessing resources for MDP projects. The challenges faced by MDG are mainly due to limited resources deployed to address the infrastructure development and overall effective coordination of the program across public and private sector. As a result, a more strategic approach that deals with public and private investment and sustainable development activities is considered the best option. Engaging the Diaspora with connections both in the public and private sectors, that improve local skills and competencies with sustainable resource generation competencies and capacities, will improve the opportunities for sustainable development that is transparent, accountable and responsive to respective constituencies and relevant stakeholders.

 

10.15 General Challenges to progress with MDG

  1. Infrastructure development. Weak development systems and lack of infrastructure to monitor progress
  2. Capacity building efforts. Limited institutional and human resource capacity, resulting in shortage of skilled manpower
  3. Infesting in social infrastructures. Under-resourced development activities such as infrastructure, health, social, educational activities
  4. Improved cross-sectorial coordination. Poor or inadequate coordination at local, regional and international level
  5. Improving indigenous manufacturing. Limited indigenous manufacturing capacity to support MDG projects
  6. Community empowerment activities. Inadequate community and multispectral involvement for empowerment
  7. Sustainable financial investment. Non reliable or non sustainable financing for development programs

 

10.16 Towards evolving knowledge-based Societies.

                                                                                                                                                           

The African Union recognizes that the forces of globalization are moving the global communities towards knowledge-based Societies. Advancing technologies and their improving accessibility to the grass roots communities, is forcing the world to move fast into an integrated knowledge based society, where managing data, information and knowledge, is becoming a critical asset, towards a competitive, and yet sustainable development future. There is an evolving information and technology gap between and within communities. There is a consensus among policy makers and public opinion, that the Socio-economic disparities of the past , should not be allowed to create another new information and technological gap, in effect perpetuating new disparities into the future.

 

10.17 Bridging the technology gap. The AU and African Diaspora are in a unique position, to synergize, and integrate their experiences; so as to harness their common shared challenges and opportunities for positive outcome of technology access and integration among the Diaspora and AU countries.  The African Diaspora and AU Countries need focused investment strategies in accessing ICT (Information, communication and technology) in a format and processes that engage their respective populations to utilize the new technology towards solving their emerging problems, and assist them to be competitive in the local and global market. The size and complexity of the new advancing technologies require a much larger investment from international and bilateral institutions for a meaningful access and utilization at local educational, economic and social activities based at schools, community, work, recreation and ecologically friendly tourism activities, etc.

10.18 Converting Diaspora challenges into opportunities. The Diaspora and African communities have access to significant natural and human resources for future green energy and entertainment based tourism markets. Accessing modern technologies and information that utilizes the local resources for effective market openings is a critical issue that provides win-win opportunities for engaging local and international communities. The lessons from AGOA evaluation report and Diaspora linkages project and current experiences indicates clearly that engaging the primary stakeholders in the proposed activities, creates opportunities for sustainable development projects that have lasting and win-win relationships. Such engagement allows maximum participation and involvement of diverse markets, stakeholders and interest groups for successful outcomes.

 

10.19 Policy Implication

The policy implications of the AGOA Evaluation Report and other the AUM tour reports is that active engagement and inclusion of African stakeholders both at home and in Diaspora is critical in all future engagement activities. The AGOA project needs to be transitioned to comprehensive trade agreement that promotes the collective interests of US and African countries. The Advent of rapidly evolving digital communication technologies like ICT (information, communication and technology), social media networks, such as Google+ and Facebook, etc. for people with shared interests, can be used effectively for engaging communities that can be organized as cohorts of age, gender, professional and community groups. The engagement, linkages and inclusion activities need to be participatory via individual and focus group discussions, that allows ownership of the process from, initiating the concept, design, terms of engagement, i.e., content, context, time frame and expected outcome of all activities.

10.20 Policy Recommendations: Brain drain to brain gain and brain circulation

 

  1. The Asian Brain Circulation experience. The policy dialogue about brain drain, brain gain is moving towards brain circulation or more importantly win-win partnerships between individual and collective Diaspora institutions across the world. By 2000, over one-third of Silicon Valley’s high-skilled workers were foreign-born, and overwhelmingly from Asia. These US-based engineers and entrepreneurs are transforming development opportunities for formerly peripheral regions as they build professional and business connections to their hoe countries. In a process more akin to “brain circulation” than “brain-drain”, these engineers and entrepreneurs, aided by the lowered transaction costs associated with digitization, are transferring technical and institutional know how between distant regional economies faster than and more flexibly than most large corporations.
  1. The Silicone Valley Experience. Widely expressed concerns like by African continental based institutions can be converted into potential opportunities for African partnerships, in line with the experience of the Chinese and Indian born Asian Diaspora Silicon Valley Entrepreneurs, etc., who have accelerated the development of the information technology industries in their respective home countries. These Diaspora Entrepreneurs have initially started by tapping the low-cost skill in their home countries, and over time by contributing to highly localized processors of entrepreneurial experimentation and upgrading, while maintaining close ties to the technology and markets in Silicon Valley.
  1. Harvesting the fruits of globalization. African Diaspora Engagement programs should appreciate that global labor markets are being transformed as the falling costs of transportation and communication facilitate greater mobility and as digital technologies support the formalization and long-distance exchange of large amounts of information. International migration, historically a one-way process, has become a reversible choice, particularly for those with scarce technical skills, and it is now possible to collaborate in real time, even on complex tasks, with counterparts located at great distances. AU countries need to learn to harvest the fruits of globalization via their Diaspora communities and create win-win opportunities that foster trust, accountability and mobility within their own and global communities.

10.21 Brain circulation as the wave of the future!

 

  1. Brain Circulation for development and investment opportunities. The traditional perspective of the Diaspora as mere “brain drain”, “brain gain” is moving towards the more dynamic construct of “brain circulation” which appears to reflect the realities on the ground. Diaspora communities are dynamic, intelligent and diverse set of mobile cohorts of adventurous and risk taking resourceful individuals and tend to adapt to changing home and host country socio-economic dynamics.  As such, given the opportunities, they will connect with public and private institution at their respective communities to pursue their interests.   They already invest an average of about $40 Billion per year in their African communities. Tapping into the resource bases and Diaspora connections to access talent, knowledge, technology and infrastructure resources are considered the wave of the future. The lessons of the Korean, Indian and Chinese Diaspora has shown that such perspective of “Brain and Resource Circulation” is an idea whose time has come.
2. The Dynamic Diaspora can enhance African brains.   The wise Ancient Classical Ethiopian/African saying is relevant here. Parents tell their children at the time of transitioning into adulthood, the following statement, remember my child:..”Those who are organized, enlightened and well prepared/resourced will always succeed” , we trust and expect you choose success!   We can expect nothing less from the African Diaspora Engagement as we have the ECA challenge to disprove. The following ECA speculation and projection need to be challenged with a dynamic Diaspora engagement strategies that will transform each other’s expectation. It is stated that if the current trend continues ….“In 25 years, Africa will be empty of brains.” That dire warning, from Dr Lalla Ben Barka of the UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA), reflects the growing alarm over Africa’s increasing exodus of human capital. Data on brain drain in Africa is scarce and inconsistent; however, statistics show a continent losing the very people it needs most for economic, social, scientific, and technological progress.   This picture is rapidly changing among communities who utilize the dynamic resources of the Diaspora to build a more proactive modern infrastructure that keeps pace with the changing technological and knowledge advances made across the globe.

Some statistics on Africa’s brain drain from International Organization for Migration (IOM)

1.     Since 1990, Africa has been losing 20,000 professionals annually.

2.     300,000 African professionals reside outside Africa

3.     Ethiopia lost 75% of its skilled workforce between 1980-91.

4.     It costs US $40,000 to train a doctor in Kenya; US$15,000 for a university student.

5.     35% of total ODA to Africa is spent on expatriate professionals.

6. The African Diaspora invest some $40 Billion per year into their African Communities.

3. Loss of 20,000 professionals per year since 1990. The Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) estimates that between 1960 and 1989, some 127,000 highly qualified African professionals left the continent. According to the International Organization for Migration (IOM), Africa has been losing 20,000 professionals each year since 1990. This trend has sparked claims that the continent is dying a slow death from brain drain, and belated recognition by the United Nations that “emigration of African professionals to the West is one of the greatest obstacles to Africa’s development.” This trend can be reversed if the concept of “brain circulation” is adopted and African countries encourage Diaspora professionals and entrepreneurs to   participate actively in the sustainable development and investment opportunities.

10.22 The costs of brain drain

1. Recovering the cost of brain drain.   It is generally considered that brain drain in Africa has financial, institutional, and societal costs. African countries tend to get little return from their investment in higher education, since too many graduates leave or fail to return home at the end of their studies. However, the experience of Asian Diaspora professionals and entrepreneurs show that brain drain can be converted into brain gain and most importantly into brain circulation by engaging actively Diaspora community resources and expertise.

2. Knowledge and technology transfer. In light of a dwindling professional sector, African institutions are increasingly becoming dependent on foreign and now Diaspora expertise. To fill the human resource gap created by brain drain, Africa employs up to 150,000 expatriate professionals at a cost of US$4 billion a year. The AU countries can creative environments for effective knowledge and technology transfer by using the Diaspora engagement process to access resources and talents from around the globe.

3. Enhancing health and social services. The departure of health professionals has eroded the ability of medical and social services in several sub-Saharan countries to deliver even basic health and social needs. Thirty-eight of the 47 sub-Saharan African countries fall short of the minimum World Health Organization (WHO) standard of 20 physicians per 100,000 people. The African Diaspora Health Initiative can be a central focus of the Diaspora engagement program to address this pressing shortage in the health field.

4. Attracting skilled labor force to Africa. This continuous outflow of skilled labour contributes to a widening gap in science and technology between Africa and other continents. Africa’s share of global scientific output has fallen from 0.5 in the mid-1980s to 0.3% in the mid-1990s. There are more African scientists and engineers in the USA than in the entire continent. The creative use of the Diaspora Engagement program can attract talent and skill to the African continent.

5. Enabling Civil Societies in Africa.   The flight of professionals from Africa endangers the economic and political systems in several African countries. As its middle class crumbles and its contributions to the tax system, employment, and civil society disappear, Africa risks becoming home to even greater mass poverty. The effective use of Diaspora communities by giving them their dual citizenship, can promote the enabling of the civil societies to promote good governance and the culture of transparency and accountability towards progressive prosperity.

10.23 In search of solutions
1. Promoting brain circulation. Throughout the last four decades as Africa is losing its best and brightest citizens to the western continents of Europe and America, as the world debated the semantics of the issue and focused almost solely on remittances, overlooking the long term implications of brain drain on human resources, institutional capacity, and health/social services.   The Asian Diaspora experiences are changing this debate towards brain circulation where professionals and entrepreneurs can transfer the technological infrastructure, and contribute to the ongoing human and capacity development transformations. The key-missing ingredient is creating a proactive investment and enabling environments by potential beneficiary African host countries.   Many African countries are considering giving double citizenship to their respective Diaspora communities making the legal and investment opportunities more attractive to their respective Diaspora communities.

2. Circulation versus repatriation.
As the Diaspora communities have roots and responsibilities in their newly adopted homes, it is critical to circulate their resources than demand their repatriation. Efforts to stem Africa’s brain drain focusing on repatriation strategies have been discouraging, as it is not based on win-win solutions.  Studies have shown that repatriation will not work so long as African governments fail to address the “pull and push factors “ that influence emigration.  Instead it is easier to address the changing relationship between African governments and the African Diaspora by encouraging solutions that promote proactive engagement of all stakeholders that is competitive in the global free market, and make active efforts to remove fundamental barrier to finding solutions. African countries need to change their attitude and practice by giving the best opportunities for creative partnerships between their citizens and Diaspora communities.

3. Technology based strategies

3.1 Virtual participation.   One potential solution to Africa’s brain drain is virtual participation. Virtual participation is participation in nation building without physical relocation. It also shows promise as a means to engage the African Diaspora in development efforts. Mercy Brown of the University of Cape Town notes that virtual participation “… sees the brain drain not as a loss but a potential gain… Highly skilled expatriates are seen as a pool of potentially useful human resources for the country of origin… the challenge is to mobilize these brains.”

3.2 Creating enabling environments

Creating enabling environment for Virtual Win-Win Participation is critical. The often raised questions are, “will virtual participation work in a continent where government–Diaspora relations are adversarial, and information technology almost nonexistent, and where development needs are complex and require a sustained commitment? The AU Countries have to develop creative strategies to engage Diaspora entrepreneurs and their associates to invest their time, skills and resources in sustainable African development efforts. This needs to be initiated with appropriate dialogue and participation of all relevant stakeholders.

3.3 The Diaspora as stakeholder

Recent developments in government–Diaspora relations show positive signs of change. A recent study, Semantics Aside: the Role of the African Diaspora in Africa’s Capacity Building Efforts, revealed emerging Diaspora efforts to assume a more active role in Africa’s development. The study, conducted by the Association for Higher Education and Development (AHEAD), a Diaspora group based in Canada, was funded by the International Development Research Centre (IDRC).

3.4 Channeling the Diaspora good will. Semantics Aside examined the potential of virtual participation to facilitate an effective and sustained Diaspora commitment to Africa’s development efforts. The study concluded that virtual participation has tremendous potential to channel the untapped intellectual and material input from the African Diaspora. Moreover, it recorded a growing awareness among the African Diaspora of its moral, intellectual, and social responsibility to contribute to Africa’s development efforts.

3.5 Proactive Win-win Participation.   Africa has shown a growing will to reconcile with the African Diaspora. Both the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD) and the African Union (AU) have formally recognized the African Diaspora as a key player in the development agenda of the continent. In 2003, the AU amended its Charter so as to “… encourage the full participation of the African Diaspora as an important part of the continent.”

10.24 Virtual linkages

1. Expanding Virtual Diaspora linkages.   Another potential area where the talents of the Diaspora could be channeled is virtual linkages. Virtual linkages are independent, non-political, and non-profit networks facilitating skill transfer and capacity building. These networks mobilize skilled Diaspora members’ expertise for the development process in their countries of origin. To date, 41 virtual networks in 30 different countries have been identified. Six of these are African, including the South African Network of Skills Abroad (SANSA) with members in 68 countries.
2. The MIDA experience on human capital mobility
Individuals of the Diaspora also contribute through virtual networks, as visiting scholars, by investing in companies, and assisting in joint ventures between host and sending countries. According to author Damtew Teferra, Africa lags behind: “… This pattern of contributing to scientific and technological development is repeated for many Third World countries, though not… for most of Africa.”

In 2001, IOM launched the Migration for the Development of Africa (MIDA) “to develop the potential synergy between… African migrants and the demand from countries by facilitating the transfer of virtual skills and resources of the African Diaspora to their countries of origin.” Based on the notion of human capital mobility through temporary, long-term, and virtual participation, IOM works with African and host countries and Diaspora members. MIDA has launched pilot projects in a number of African countries.

10.25 Next steps

1. Diaspora as key stakeholders. A former journalist, Ainalem Tebeje is Vice-President of AHEAD reports,   that in November 2004, AHEAD, in collaboration with IDRC, organized an international Stakeholder Roundtable on Mobilizing the African Diaspora toward Development Efforts in Africa. The roundtable, held in Ottawa, Canada, brought together key stakeholders, including the IOM, Canadian government agencies, African missions, non-governmental organizations, and Diaspora groups to discuss brain drain in Africa and potential strategies for mobilizing the African Diaspora towards brain gain and brain circulation.

2. Diaspora engagement policies.
  Some of the issues identified included the need to recognize the African Diaspora as a key stakeholder in the current dialogue and efforts to address the issues of brain drain and capacity-building in Africa. Effective and sustained Diaspora engagement will require policy and resource commitments by key stakeholders, including international organizations, African governments, and host countries.

3. Win-win partners. The emerging Diaspora movement to become more active in Africa’s development efforts, the growing political will in Africa to recognize the Diaspora’s potential contribution, and the possibilities created by information technology show that the African Diaspora is not, after all, a total loss to the continent but a potential creative and innovative resource and win-win partners for sustained development and investment.

  1. Lessons from the AGOA Engagement. Regardless of its good intention, in terms of promoting free market economies, with a potential free/comprehensive trade agreements; the experience so far indicates that the AGOA project ended up promoting mainly Gas and Oil products. In effect, limiting the benefits of AGOA program to few oil resource rich African countries. Even though some garment and textile products were encouraged initially, the short time limits imposed externally, that did not take into consideration the local production and processing capacities, eventually ended up in not having encouraged the development of diverse trade products as expected. Reviewing the purpose, process and outcome of AGOA so far, it appears African countries did not have a fair say, nor could they influence the process and outcome of the AGOA act, as it was mainly designed by the US government with US market in mind, and with little input and potential to change the course of trade towards diverse win-win partnerships that promote a comprehensive free trade agreement for a wider set of products that involved more African communities. More efforts should have been spent on promoting evidence based research that would have assisted some African countries into free market economies with a set of comprehensive trade agreements that promote more capacities for African markets.
  1. Early participation with stakeholders

Maximum participation by a diverse set of interest groups will encourage a larger scope of products, and support a set of more engaged active stakeholders, which could make the project sustainable and accountable. African countries need to prioritize their trade policies and associated capacities to promote appropriate products for trade with the USA. Policy developments that take into consideration the common shared value and interests of Africa and USA need to be developed in formal institutional building structures. Like the AGOA forum, more diverse set of public and private networks will build the necessary capacities that sustain the local and international markets. These institutions and networks, will contribute to the larger goal of integration and connection of the African Diaspora, and AU Countries for sustainable development into the future of knowledge-based society that can be deigned potentially benefits all future stakeholders.

 

  1. Progress towards MDGs by 2015. Africa is also charged with meeting clearly articulated health care goals and is a central actor in addressing the most significant global health issues. Of the eight MDGs, three are related to health: reduce child mortality rates, improve maternal health and combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases. Similarly, of the global effort to eradicate malaria and stem the tide of HIV/AIDS Africa, as the epicenter of these epidemics, is a central actor. At the same time, dwindling national budgets have limited the investment African governments can make in a health sector which is already overwhelmed by disease prevalence, chronic shortages of health workers and lack of access to essential lifesaving medicines. The UN Economic Commission for Africa estimates that sub-Sahara Africa needs to triple its health workforce, adding over a million workers to reach the health-related MDGs and meet the demands on the health care system. Therefore, the scaling up of health services to meet these challenges will require mobilization of resources from domestic sources, support diaspora and

10.26 Recommendation

ICT based mobilization. The development of information technology provides Africa with an opportunity to leap forward in the ability to increase health care access. Many of the obstacles related to geographic remoteness can be sufficiently addressed through use of ICT and training of local auxiliary health workers. Increase in local capacity and use of ICT also opens the door for Diaspora engagement.

  1. Engage Diaspora based health experts to recommend a continent-wide health systems development policy. Lack of coordination and control of health polices and priorities by national governments exasperates health care situation in Africa. Foundation to an effective health system begins with national guidelines and priorities that will guide local and international activities. Tap into Diaspora expertise to develop a holistic collaborative service delivery model that includes the Diaspora, approaches for international engagement, national and regional agencies, communities and clients. Parties involved share responsibility and authority for basic policy decision-making.
  1. Create’ adopt a health center’ program for diaspora members. This program will allow medical professionals in the Diaspora to proactively select a hospital and/or clinic to work with exclusively. They would serve in an advisory and when possible organize medical mission of their US-based colleagues. This program can extend to allowing hometown associations to adopt a health center and provide financial support, expertise as well as consul. This will encourage long-term engagement and development of institutional relationships.
  1. Develop a virtual consultation and diagnosis suites. Develop an online consultation portal with diaspora experts for diagnosis and consultation. Diaspora health experts sign-up to review files online and provide consultation on cases. This will improve the quality and accessibility of information available to local practitioners. It will also allow operation of remote health centers by auxiliary health workers who can be guided by experts via the portal. Participating locations would require internet connection, trained health professional (doctor, nurse, midwife, community health worker) and could request assistance in diagnosis anytime.
  1. Create a Health service account and/or bonds for diaspora. Develop a mechanism where Diaspora members could fund health services across the continent. Donors could select a country, city, village or a health issue, such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, mental illness, etc. Program could be administered by African Union who in turn will distribute funds quarterly in accordance with donor specifications.
  2. Engage Diaspora in The Roll Back Malaria Program research agenda. Three areas of research have been identified by RBM as effective for malaria control and elimination. Engage Diaspora members conducting tropical science research with state of the art labs and research facilities.
  1. Service industry. Service delivery in Africa is an essential element to development on the continent.

Educated and healthy citizens are more likely to be economically active and productive and they are less

likely to require services from already overwhelmed agencies. Availability of service such as electricity, safe drinking water and proper hygiene are also more likely to enhance the productivity of a society and provide exponentially boost for well-being, innovation and creativity.

  1. Promoting healthy communities. Challenges to effective health service delivery in Africa are particularly daunting. Shrinking national budgets, underdeveloped infrastructure and shortage of health workers are among the numerous factors that negatively impact national health systems. However, promoting a healthy community strategy of disease prevention and health promotion activities in line with primary health care system is both cost effective and equitable to all stakeholders.
  1. ICT enabled mobilization. ICT (Information Communication Technology) based mobilization of limited resources is considered a cost effective tool for changing challenges into opportunities. There are numerous seemingly insurmountable continent wide obstacles to government’s ability to provide citizens with healthy outcomes thereby diminishing productivity and economic growth. Moreover, previously eradicated diseases such as Polio have resurfaced with a vengeance further burdening the meager health services. Given, the limitations of physical infrastructure and human resources the engagement of the Diaspora and harnessing of ICT will enable Africa to successfully mitigate the ongoing health crisis. ICT has the dual advantage of increasing health system capacity by health personnel, locally, regionally and nationally, as well as tapping into the vast knowledge and expertise of a large medical professional Diaspora.

 

  1. The Media and Communication Consultancy findings. It is recommended that the AUM African Diaspora Engagement Programs should have access to the latest multi-media communication tools that include detailed modern audio, video, print and cyber communication technologies (ICT & SMN) tools such as the latest graphic computers, printers, copiers, cameras, facsimile, radio, TV and other information dissemination and broadcasting tools relevant to their mission and strategic objectives.
  1. The AUM recognizes the value of online social media sites and blogs as vital resources to positively promote its mission, values, operational goals, marketing and recruitment activities. Some of the common SMN (Social Media Network) tools include:
  1. Blog: A blog is a website maintained by an individual or organization with regular entries of commentary, description of events, or other materials such as graphics or video.
  1. Podcast: A collection of digital media files distributed over the Internet, often using syndication feeds. For playback on portable media players and personal computers.
  1. Protected company information. Individually identifiable information (oral, written, or electronic) about the corporations proprietary and business related information.
  1. RSS feeds or Syndication feeds. A family of different formats used to publish updated content such as blog entries, news headlines or podcasts and “feed” this information to subscribers via email or by an RSS reader.
  1. Social media. Includes but are not limited to blogs, podcasts discussion forums, online collaborative information and publishing systems that are accessible to internal and external audiences (i.e. Wikis), RSS feeds, video sharing, and social networks like MySpace, twits, Facebook and LinkedIn,.etc.
  1. Wiki: Allows users to create, edit and link Web pages easily; often used to create collaborative sites, )called “Wikis”) and to power community web sites.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Evaluation of AGOA and AUM Trip Reports

The primary source consultations include Evaluations of the African Growth and Opportunity Act and the AUM field trip outreach research report in the Latin American countries, etc., on how to meaningfully connect, link and integrate the growth and opportunity interests of African Diaspora with the ongoing sustainable development activities in AU Countries.

  1. Evaluation of AGOA- the USA designed African Growth and Opportunities Act
  1. Is AGOA a shared African and US Perspective?

To open economies and build free market. The African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) was signed into law on May 18, 2000 as Title 1 of The Trade and Development Act of 2000. The Act offers tangible incentives for African countries to continue their efforts to open their economies and build free market. The central theme of the project is that opening economies towards building free markets are key ingredients for growth and opportunities of African countries. There are consistent questions raised by interested parties, that regardless of its assumed noble objectives of building free market economies, etc., if these projects have a shared African and American perspectives and proportional interests, specially in its implementation processes for sustainable partnerships. Critics emphasize that the current AGOA is dominated by a series of short-term time limits, that need to be extended perpetually; and associated limitations on appropriate technology and managerial expertise and relevant knowledge transfers. AGOA has focused on very narrow range of products that is dominated by oil and gas that constitute some 93% of overall trade. One wonders if the AGOA is mainly directed at accessing products that the US market need rather than enabling a broad based capacity building that open markets and build free markets.

  1. AGOA as a bridge for a comprehensive Free Trade Agreement.

Since 2000, AGOA has evolved into different stages continuously providing preferential access to imports from beneficiary African countries. AGOA provides reforming African countries with the most liberal access to the U.S. market available to any country or region with which the United States does not have a Free Trade Agreement.

AGOA supports U.S. business by encouraging reform of Africa’s economic and commercial regimes, which will build stronger markets and more effective partners for U.S. firms. However, it does not replace a more Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement that takes into consideration the short and long-term interests of all stakeholders. AGOA as it stands, is too selective, non-sustainable project that benefits very narrow interest groups; where over 93% of the volume of trade involves few African countries that export Gas and Oil. In the end, the Gas and Oil industry could easily compete in the free market without substantial assistance from AGOA.

Figure 2.2. Oil and Gas Exports under AGOA (2001-2010)
  • Improving Oil and Gas Sector. Africa’s oil and gas sector has been AGOA’s biggest beneficiary. In 2010, $36 billion worth of oil and gas entered into the U.S. duty-free under AGOA, i.e., 93.1% of total duty-free under AGOA imports. Figure 2.2 presents oil and gas exports under AGOA between 2001 and 2010.
  • Declining US gas and oil imports.S. imports of oil and gas under AGOA decreased by 10.4% from $40.2 billion in 2007 to $36.0 billion in 2010 (see table 2.8). Underlying this decline was the tempering of U.S. demand, which resulted in a decline in total U.S. imports of oil and gas from an average of 13.5 thousand barrels of crude oil per day in 2007 to 11.8 thousand barrels of crude oil per day.[3]
  1. AGOA appears to be a short term, stopgap or bridging arrangement. In the long term, a Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement, that involves more African countries with more diverse set of products under longer time commitment, might be more beneficial and than a time limited, and Gas & Oil dominated AGOA for all parties concerned. We need to remember, that the lessons from past African and Diaspora populations is that all their multi-lateral engagements have not been considerate of African interests. The Future AGOA, or its replacement, and the African and Diaspora engagement process needs to have the active participation of Africans and the Diaspora via their chosen representatives to ensure equity and parity at the center of all their development activities. AGOA in stages shown below:
  • AGOA I-Opening African Economies and building Free Markets. The African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) was signed into law on May 18, 2000 as Title 1 of The Trade and Development Act of 2000. The Act offers tangible incentives for African countries to continue their efforts to open their economies and build free markets.
  • AGOA II-Preferential access to imports from African countries. President Bush signed amendments to AGOA, also known as AGOA II, into law on August 6, 2002 as Sec. 3108 of the Trade Act of 2002. AGOA II substantially expands preferential access for imports from beneficiary Sub-Saharan African countries.
  • AGOA III-Extension of preferential access for imports and third country fabric/textile provisions. By modifying certain provisions of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), the AGOA Acceleration Act of 2004 (AGOA III, signed by President Bush on July 12, 2004) extends preferential access for imports from beneficiary Sub Saharan African countries until September 30, 2015; extends third country fabric provision for three years, from September 2004 until September 2007; and provides additional Congressional guidance to the Administration on how to administer the textile provisions of the bill.
  • AGOA IV-Extension of third country fabric provisions. The Africa Investment Incentive Act of 2006 (signed by President Bush on December 20, 2006) further amends portions of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) and is referred to as “AGOA IV”. The legislation extends the third country fabric provision for an additional five years, from September 2007 until September 2012; adds an abundant supply provision; designates certain denim articles as being in abundant supply; and allows lesser developed beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries export certain textile articles under AGOA.
  1. Limitations of the Generalized System Preferences (GSP)- AGOA expands the list of products, which eligible Sub-Saharan African countries may export to the United States subject to zero import duty under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). While general GSP covers approximately 4,600 items, AGOA GSP applies to more than 6,400 items. AGOA GSP provisions are in effect until September 30, 2015
  2. Promoting Long-term trade between US &Africa. AGOA can change the course of trade relations between Africa and the United States for the long term, while helping millions of African families find opportunities to build prosperity:
  • By reinforcing African reform efforts;
  • By providing improved access to U.S. technical expertise, credit, and markets; and
  • By establishing a high-level dialogue on trade and investment.
  1. Encouraging substantial new investments in Africa. Since its implementation, AGOA has encouraged substantial new investments, trade, and job creation in Africa. It has helped to promote Sub-Saharan Africa’s integration into the multilateral trading system and a more active role in global trade negotiations. It has also contributed to economic and commercial reforms, which make African countries more attractive commercial partners for U.S. companies.

7. AGOA Implementation Subcommittees.

 

An AGOA Implementation Subcommittee of the Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) was established to implement AGOA. Among the most important implementation issues are the following:

  1. Determination of country eligibility;
  2. Determination of the products eligible for zero tariff under expansion of the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP);
  3. Determinations of compliance with the conditions for apparel benefits;
  4. Establishment of the U.S.-Sub-Saharan Africa Trade and Economic Forum; and
  5. Provisions for technical assistance to help countries qualify for benefits.

 

  1. The limitations of the Act: Active Engagement

 

This appears to be a US largess and generosity with little or limited active engagement of African Countries in the Act. If there is, it is not well documented and appears questionable. If there was African participation, it was not acknowledged nor appreciated in the AGOA communications.

US directed and implemented project. At the outset, the design and implementation process of AGOA appears to be a US directed activity instead of being a multi-lateral cooperative agreement that looks at the interests of all stakeholders from mutually beneficial perspective. The USA through the AGOA Act offers tangible incentives for African countries to continue their efforts to open their economies and build free market. There is little mention whether African countries are consulted, or if they respectively perceive opening their economics, and building a free market in the context of the current set of products and time limitations, is their chosen aspirations and development agenda.  Like their Chinese counterparts, the African countries might have negotiated for knowledge and technological transfer, as well as sustainable market share control, in exchange for their export materials to facilitate African growth and opportunities.

  1. Determination of compliance with the Act

There is no mention or documentation in the Act, if African countries have expressed the desire to agree and support the central theme of the project, which is opening economies towards building free markets, with the specific products and time frame. There is no documentation to show if AGOA is considered part of the key ingredients for growth and opportunities of African countries. The Act itself does not appear to be a joint or multilateral consideration, and yet it claims itself as a potential benefit to African countries. However; the African Countries seem to have limited influence in the determination of country eligibility, and products eligible for zero tariffs. The determination of compliance to the Act appears to have been finalized unilaterally, by the US and with little or no active participation of African countries in its design and formulations. The current statistics of AGOA activities are tilted to Gas and Oil products, exported by few African Countries.

10. COUNTRY ELIGIBILITY

34 African Countries designation. The U.S. Government intends that the largest possible numbers of Sub-Saharan African countries are able to take advantage of AGOA. President Clinton issued a proclamation on October 2, 2000 designating 34 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa as eligible for the trade benefits of AGOA.

The proclamation was the result of a public comment period and extensive interagency deliberations of each country’s performance against the eligibility criteria established in the Act.

  • Swaziland & Ivory Coast. On January 18, 2001, Swaziland was designated as the 35th AGOA eligible country and on May 16, 2002 Côte d’Ivoire was designated as the 36th AGOA eligible country.
  • Gambia and DRC. On January 1, 2003 The Gambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo were designated as the 37th and 38th AGOA eligible countries.
  • On January 1, 2004, Angola was designated as AGOA eligible.
  • Removal of CAR and Eritrea. Effective January 1, 2004, however, the President removed the Central African Republic and Eritrea from the list of eligible countries.
  • Burkina Faso. On December 10, 2004, the President designated Burkina Faso as AGOA eligible.
  • Removal of Ivory Coast. Effective January 1, 2005, the President removed Côte d’Ivoire from the list of eligible countries.
  • Effective January 1, 2006, the President designated Burundi as AGOA eligible and removed Mauritania from the list of eligible countries.
  • Liberia. Effective December 29, 2006, the President designated Liberia as AGOA eligible.
  • Effective June 28, 2007, the President again designated Mauritania as AGOA eligible. Effective April 17, 2008, the President designated Togo as AGOA eligible.
  • Effective June 30, 2008, the President designated Comoros as AGOA eligible.
  • Effective January 1, 2009, the President again removed Mauritania from the list of AGOA eligible countries.

The U.S. Government will work with eligible countries to sustain their efforts to institute policy reforms, and with the remaining nine Sub-Saharan African countries to help them achieve eligibility.

  1. AGOA objectives. The Act authorizes the President to designate countries as eligible to receive the benefits of AGOA if they are determined to have established, or are making continual progress toward establishing the following:
  2. Market-based economies;
  3. The rule of law and political pluralism;
  4. Elimination of barriers to U.S. trade and investment;
  5. Protection of intellectual property;
  6. Efforts to combat corruption;
  7. Policies to reduce poverty, increasing availability of health care and educational opportunities;
  8. Protection of human rights and worker rights; and elimination of certain child labor practices.

Although none is expected to have fully implemented the entire list, the vast majority of African nations, which are striving to achieve the objectives, have embraced these criteria overwhelmingly.

Overlapping GSP and AGOA eligibility. The eligibility criteria for GSP and AGOA substantially overlap, and countries must be GSP eligible in order to receive AGOA’s trade benefits including both expanded GSP and the apparel provisions. Although GSP eligibility does not imply AGOA eligibility, 47 of the 48 Sub-Saharan African countries are currently GSP eligible.

12. GSP PRODUCT ELIGIBILITY

Determination of non-import sensitive articles. AGOA authorizes the President to provide duty-free treatment under GSP for any article, after the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) and the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC) have determined that the article is not import sensitive when imported from African countries. On December 21, 2000, the President extended duty-free treatment under GSP to AGOA eligible countries for more than 1,800 tariff line items in addition to the standard GSP list of approximately 4,600 items available to non-AGOA GSP beneficiary countries. The additional GSP line items, which include such previously, excluded items as footwear, luggage, handbags, watches, and flatware were implemented after an extensive process of public comment and review.

AGOA extends GSP for eligible Sub-Saharan African beneficiaries until September 30, 2015. Sub-Saharan African beneficiary countries are also exempted from competitive need limitations, which cap the GSP benefits available to beneficiaries in other regions.

 

13. APPAREL PROVISIONS

13.1 Duty-free and quota free treatment. AGOA provides duty-free and quota-free treatment for eligible apparel articles made in qualifying sub-Saharan African countries through 2015. Qualifying articles include: apparel made of U.S. yarns and fabrics; apparel made of sub-Saharan African (regional) yarns and fabrics until 2015, subject to a cap; apparel made in a designated lesser-developed country of third-country yarns and fabrics until 2012, subject to a cap; apparel made of yarns and fabrics not produced in commercial quantities in the United States; textile or textile articles originating entirely in one or more lesser-developed beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries; certain cashmere and merino wool sweaters; and eligible hand loomed, handmade, or folklore articles, and ethnic printed fabrics.

13.2 Special treatment of low GNP countries. Under a Special Rule for lesser-developed beneficiary countries, those countries with a per capita GNP under $1,500 in 1998, will enjoy an additional preference in the form of duty-free/quota-free access for apparel made from fabric originating anywhere in the world. The Special Rule is in effect until September 30, 2012 and is subject to a cap. AGOA IV continues the designation of Botswana and Namibia as lesser-developed beneficiary countries, qualifying both countries for the Special Rule.

13.3 Determination by International Trade Commission. AGOA IV provides for special rules for fabrics or yarns produced in commercial quantities (or “abundant supply”) in any designated sub-Saharan African country for use in qualifying apparel articles. Upon receiving a petition from any interested party, the International Trade Commission will determine the quantity of such fabrics or yarns that must be sourced from the region before applying the third country fabric provision. It also provides for 30 million square meter equivalents (SMEs) of denim to be determined to be in abundant supply beginning October 1, 2006. The U.S. International Trade Commission will provide further guidance on how it will implement this provision.

13.4 Monitoring preferential treatment for Apparel. Preferential treatment for apparel took effect on October 1, 2000, but beneficiary countries must first establish effective visa systems to prevent illegal transshipment and use of counterfeit documentation, and that they have instituted required enforcement and verification procedures. Specific requirements of the visa systems and verification procedures were promulgated to African governments via U.S. embassies on September 21, 2000. The Secretary of Commerce is directed to monitor apparel imports on a monthly basis to guard against surges. If increased imports are causing or threatening serious damage to the U.S. apparel industry, the President is to suspend duty-free treatment for the article(s) in question. The U.S. Government is now reviewing applications for approval of the required visa and enforcement mechanisms from AGOA eligible countries.

14. OTHER PROVISIONS

14.1 Organizing Trade and Economic Forum. The Act directs the President to organize a U.S.-Sub-Saharan Africa Trade and Economic Forum, to be hosted by the Secretaries of State, Commerce, Treasury, and the U.S. Trade Representative. The Forum is to serve as the vehicle for regular dialogue between the United States and African countries on issues of economics, trade, and investment. The Act also calls for annual reports to Congress through 2008 on U.S. trade and investment policy in Africa and implementation of the Act. As such, the establishment of a Trade and Economic Forum and the provisions of technical assistance are considered as viable engagement tools in the future.

 

B.     AUM Tours Report to Latin Americas

The AUM Tour reports to Latin America consider the The African Diaspora Past and Present in a more critical and aggressive research methodology that involved individual and group interviews and dialogue with key stakeholders.

1. The Past: Dispersal through slavery

The Atlantic and Arab Slave Trades. Much of the earlier African diaspora was dispersed throughout Europe, Asia, and the Americas during the Atlantic and Arab Slave Trades. Beginning in the 9th century, Arabs took African slaves from the central and eastern portions of the continent (where they were known as the Zanj) and sold them into markets in the Middle East and eastern Asia.

Beginning in the 15th century, Europeans captured African slaves from West Africa and brought them to Europe and later to the Americas. Both the Arab and Atlantic slave trades ended in the 19th century.[7]

  • Largest forced migration in history. The dispersal through slaverepresents one of the largest forced migrations in human history. The economic effect on the African continent was devastating. Some communities created by descendants of African slaves in Europe and Asia have survived to the modern day, but in other cases, blacks intermarried with non-blacks and their descendants blended into the local population.
  • Part of the Multi-ethnic society’s in the Americas. In the Americas, the confluence of multipleethnic groups from around the world created multi-ethnic societies. In Central and South America, most people are descended from European, American Indian, and African ancestry. In Brazil, where in 1888 nearly half the population was descended from African slaves, the variation of physical characteristics extends across a broad range. In the United States, there was historically a greater colonial population in relation to African slaves, especially in the northern tier.
  • The One-drop rule. The US RacistJim Crow and anti-miscegenation laws after the Civil War, plus waves of vastly increased immigration from Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries, maintained some distinction between racial groups. In the 20th century, to institutionalize racial segregation, most southern states adopted the “one drop rule“, which defined anyone with any discernible African ancestry as African.[8]
  1. Modern Diaspora-Civil war, and economic migrations

Emigration from Sub-equatorial Africa has been the primary reason for the modern diaspora. People have left the subcontinent because of warfare and social disruption in numerous countries over the years, and also to seek better economic opportunities.

Scholars estimate the current population of recent African immigrants to the United States alone is over 600,000, some of who are Black Africans from the Sub-equatorial region.[12] Countries with the largest recorded numbers of immigrants to the U.S. are Ethiopians, NigeriaGhanaSierra Leone and mostly East and West African Countries. Some immigrants have come from AngolaCape VerdeMozambique (Luso American), Equatorial GuineaKenya, and Cameroon. Immigrants typically congregate in major urban areas, moving to suburban areas over time. There are significant populations of recent African immigrants in many other countries around the world, including European Union countries such as the UK[13] and France, both nations that had colonies in Africa.[14][15]

  1. The African Union Perspective

The sixth regional constituents. The African Union defined the African diaspora as “[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union.” Its constitutive act declares that it shall “invite and encourage the full participation of the African Diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union.”

Between 1500 and 1900, approximately four million enslaved Africans were transported to island plantations in the Indian Ocean, about eight million were shipped to Mediterranean-area countries, and about eleven million survived the Middle Passage to the New World.[16] Their descendants are now found around the globe. Due to intermarriage and genetic assimilation, just who is a descendant of the African diaspora is not entirely self-evident.

African diaspora populations outside of Sub-equatorial Africa include:

 

 

  1. Latin America Study Tour.

 

  1. Needs assessment research. The AU Mission initiated a field visit and study tour to several Latin American and Caribbean countries, both in the Atlantic and Pacific coast, to have improved understanding the current situation of the African Diaspora, and design a multi-country approach to empower organizations, and communities in the African Diaspora. Some of the pressing challenges facing the African Diaspora descendants in this sub-region are related to access to basic services, and infrastructure that incudes education, health care, clean water supply, sanitation, appropriate housing, considered the foundation for the well being of the family and future broad based development.
  1. Promoting win-win partnerships. The purpose of the study is to promote and to achieve a greater social inclusion and economic development, while establishing direct links for the exchange of knowledge and sharing of best practices and lessons learned between Civil Society Organizations, businesses and centers of excellence in the Diaspora and their counter parts in Africa.

 

  1. The Diaspora Engagement International Milestones. Some have the historical and international landmark activities that precede this work that have created the background for African Diaspora engagement include the following:
  1. African Union Sixth Constituency – The African Diaspora
  2. President Clinton AGOA Project (Africa Growth & Opportunity Act)
  3. PM Tony Blair Commission for Africa
  4. President Bush, “The Millennium Challenge Account
  5. Sony Bono’s One” Campaign
  6. The World Bank’s African Diaspora Initiative
  7. President Obama –“Development depends on Good Governance” Speech at Accra and Cairo.
  8. Commission of African Union convened an AU Technical Workshop on relations with the Diaspora
  9. Un Declaration of “ 2011 the International Year of People of African Descent”
  10. African Union Study Tour Mission to strengthen ties African Descendant Civil Society Organizations
  1. Common theme: The consistent message of all the above previous work and the five consultancy projects is the promotion of effective linkages, and connection between the Diaspora and African Union. The over aching message is that there is a pressing need to continuously encourage African Diaspora & their descendants to effectively leverage their experience and best practices, so as to participate in Africa’s sustainable development, and in the South-South Cooperation, by actively participating in local and regional civil society organizations that will empower citizenships for sustainable development, where in some instances, they themselves still face many challenges in their respective communities.
  1. General Regional Focus: The mandate of this project and respective consultancy reports encourage the following three issues.
  2. Improved understanding of the Diaspora in Latin America and the Caribbean by using modern communication tools and sustainable private/public institutions.
  3. Forging new partners among relevant stakeholders in public and private settings.
  4. Identify opportunities for the inclusion of African Diaspora Organizations in the socio-economic development of their respective countries and AU Countries.

The South-South Cooperation Framework. Use the South-South framework of cooperation as a rationale for long-term vision of enhancing links and forging partnerships with Diaspora agencies and organizations is helpful. However, the link should be global as the Diaspora communities are scattered all over the world.

  1. Attention to the impact of Demographic distributions. The AU estimates that the African Diaspora in South America and the Caribbean represent approximately 250 million people. It is estimated that about 800 million people live in the Continent of Africa, making a total of about one billion people (1/7 (14%) of Global Population. This is a substantial proportion of the global community whose potential is yet to be realized. Brazil and the USA, the two largest landmasses with substantial global economies respectively in the Western hemisphere also are home to the largest Diaspora populations outside the African continent. As such, these two countries should be priority focus areas for the future Diaspora engagement activities as they are home to some 125 million (greater than 50%) of the total African Diaspora populations. Columbia, Haiti, Dominican Republic and France have each more than 5 million African Americans.

The World’s top 12 Countries with members of the African Diaspora populations.

Estimated Ranking of the Countries with African Diaspora Populations


Country                                                        Diaspora Populations                                       Rank

  1. Brazil 85,783,143                                                 01
  2. United States 38,499,304 02
  3. Columbia 09,452,872 03
  4. Haiti 08,701,439 04
  5. Dominican Republic 07,985,991 05
  6. France 05,000,000 06
  7. Jamaica 02,731,419 07
  8. Venezuela 02,641,481 08
  9. United Kingdom 02,015,400 09
  10. Cuba 01,126,894 10
  11. Trinidad & Tobago 01,047,366 11
  12. Canada 00,783,795 12

Source: http://www.Culturaldiplomacy.org/index.php

  1. Findings and Recommendations.
  1. This Synthesis report recommends the promotion of effective Diaspora engagement, via win-win partnerships that need to be cultivated with public and private intuitions, in all countries where the Diaspora reside, and work; so that the Diaspora will continue to be engaged in sustainable development activities both in their respective countries, and African Union Counties.
  1. The current evaluation of the inter-governmental partnerships such as the African Growth and Opportunity Act shows a determined effort by the government of the USA to engage African countries towards liberalizing their economies and integrating with the Global Free Market System. However, the expected outcome, benefits and processes need to be determined multilaterally, so that the capital, technology and product exchanges are executed following deliberate research, policy development and implementation strategies.
  1. The in-depth qualitative and quantitative study reports from of Latin and Central American indicate that, the Diaspora themselves have historical challenges and opportunities to be actively involved in their respective sustainable developments, which can be supported with the new public and private “ living link”, “diaspora engagement” activities that promotes cultural, historical and economic developments in African countries.
  1. Policy developments. The policy recommendations encourage use of modern multi-media tools such ICT and SMN in Diaspora Engagement with win-win partnerships that encourages proactive communication based on the information provided by AU countries on their respective sustainable development and investment opportunity needs that is matched with the competency and interests of the Diaspora communities.
  1. Effective media and communication strategies. The management information system should access the latest ICT (information, communication and technology) as well as SMN (Social Media Network) for effective and timely communication of AU countries development and investment opportunities and Diaspora competencies and interests.

 

  1. Lessons from AUM Study Tour Reports

 

8.1 Needs assessment research. The AU Mission initiated a field visit and study tour to several Latin American and Caribbean countries both in the Atlantic and Pacific coast, to have improved understanding the current situation of the African Diaspora and design a multi-country prom to empower organizations and communities in the African Diaspora.

8.2 Promoting win-win partnerships. The purpose of the study is to promote and to achieve a greater social inclusion and economic development, while establishing direct links for the exchange of knowledge and sharing of best practices and lessons learned between Civil Society Organizations, businesses and centers of excellence in the Diaspora and their counter parts in Africa.

8.3 Rapid Participatory Appraisal. Participatory Town Hall meetings, supported by primary and secondary sources such as interviews and review of literature including extensive previous experience of consultants was used to collect information, opinion and findings among the Diaspora African populations.

 

9.Challenges and Opportunities

 

9.1 Unique challenges and opportunities. The AUM tour to Latin American and Caribbean countries, has found interesting challenges and opportunities facing people of African descent in the Americas, which provides important insight as to how to link and engage the African Diaspora in the Americas. Although, each African Diaspora community in the Americas have unique challenges and opportunities, relevant to the demographic, socio-economic and geopolitical identity of each country they live in; by and large, their common shared history, identity and culture exposes them to fairly similar challenges in their respective communities. Some of their shared challenges include, social and economic isolation they inherited from the forced exodus from Africa, and migration of their ancestors to the Americas.

9.2 Past historical challenges impacting the future.

  1. Social and economic isolation continues. The AUM- study reports from both the Atlantic and Pacific
  2. countries of Brazil, Guyana Tobago, Trinidad and Suriname, Nicaragua, Honduras and Guatemala etc., respectively indicate that the negative legacies of slavery such as economic and social exclusion, and marginalization, still continues for the majority of African Diaspora, even after more than 120 years of the abolition of slavery.

9.3 Substantial population. The total populations of the African Diaspora and indigenous peoples in the Latin American and Caribbean region are estimated to be about 250 million. Although the African Diaspora and their descendants make up nearly half of the total population which ranges from forty seven to seventy percent (47% – 70%) in the Atlantic Coast; and to fifteen percent to 20 percent (15%- to 20%), in the Pacific Coast of the Americas. Brazil and the USA have substantial populations of people of African descent outside the African continent. Although their respective realities in the different countries is rapidly changing, the AUM consultancy reports indicate that African Diaspora populations, by and large find themselves relegated to the sidelines of social and economic life, that often leads to poverty, discrimination and marginalization.

9.4 Diaspora in Latin America. According to the World Bank estimates, the total population of the Latin American region is 526.7 Million. The current estimate of people of African descent and indigenous peoples in these countries is about is about 250 million, making about 47.5% or nearly half of the overall population. The proportion of African Diaspora in the select four countries of study of Brazil, Guyana and Trinidad & Tobago, ranges from 50-70% Brazilians; greater than half or (>50%) of the Guyana population; and more than fifty eight percent (58%) in Trinidad & Tobago.

9.5 Central America. It is estimated that in most Central American counties the African Diaspora make up between 10 and 15 percent of the total population of about forty (40) million people. Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua make up the poorest Central American countries and their respective African Diaspora populations are at risk for being left behind as the region strives to reach the Millennium Development Goals by 2015.   This makes living conditions even more challenging, especially along the Caribbean cost of Central America where the African Diaspora populations are concentrated.

9.6 Democratic governance as the antidote for racial discrimination.

 

  1. Overcoming racial discrimination with good governance tools. In all these countries, racial identity, as represented by the descendants of African Diaspora, is found to be the most consistent predictor of marginalization, discrimination and poverty. The Diaspora civil societies in these four countries, consider the expanded role of citizenship and democratic governance as a tool for long-term solutions to their predicaments of economic and social inequalities. It is expected democratic based good governance structures, that encourages active participation of citizenship in sustainable development activities, that encourages Diaspora African citizen engagement in the governance of their respective communities, is considered a key tool for improved public and private engagement with AU countries.

 

9.7 Empowering Diaspora Civil Societies.

  1. Improving positive self-image. The Civil Society Organizations in these countries address several critical issues such as information dissemination, vocational and other training, self esteem and positive image making, youth initiatives, health and education addressing critical social and gender issues such as women empowerment, minority enterprises, discrimination against racial and gender identity issues, such as gay, lesbian, bisexual and transgender or LGBT communities.
  1. Active investment in sustainable development. Substantial active investment among these Diaspora communities will enhance the existing combination of rich national resources, cultural diversity that could be a springboard to accelerated sustainable development activities that ensures a dignified standard of living for all citizens including the African Diaspora populations. Investments in technological based enterprises that improve the educational and health status of the population will assist them to break out of the current crushing poverty and isolation; towards making a significant positive social, political and economic contributions to their respective countries. The investment strategies should be directed at improving linkages and connections to social and economic opportunities that attracts further investment and sustainable development opportunities to the overall at large population.

 

  1. Improving capital investment for social development. The present lack of access to capital for productive investment, results in vulnerability of their property rights, which is opening their ancestral territories to invasion by Mestizo migrants that is leading to environmental degradation and consistent conflict. Access to basic services and infrastructure such as education, health care, clean water supply, sanitation, and appropriate housing is critical for the wellbeing of future human, economic and social development.
  1. Preventing migration and criminal activities. The present lack of opportunity in the region is fueling emigrations, especially to the United States, and promoting participation in illicit activities including street gangs, trafficking, and consumption of drugs, with associated violence situations and street crime which creates insecurity in the region. Diaspora engagement in positive local sustainable development activities can promote regional peace, security and trade and other legal wealth creation activities.

 

9.8 Best practices and lessons learned.

  1. Common shared identity and sense of history. Uniting efforts around a common sense of history and identity, to self define Diaspora advancement, and partnerships with local, regional and international stakeholders.
  1. Outreach to Diaspora. Creating and giving voice to existing institutional arrangements like civil society organizations will facilitate outreach to African Diaspora and their descendants.
  1. Mobilizing & empowering the Diaspora. Mobilizing and empowering the Diaspora via social mobilization tools can be a strong incentive to force governments and business institutions into creating policy outcomes that address their pressing issues such as enterprise developments, health, education and social inclusions in sustainable development activities, etc.
  1. Improving resources generating mechanisms towards sustainable funding of Diaspora civil societies and enterprises is key to promoting sustainable self-empowerment and business network with AU Countries.
  1. Linkages & Connections. Creating strategic alliances of Pan African linkages, towards designing synergy among civil societies, so as to improve private/public linkages, and win-win engagements towards empowering the connections between Diaspora and their African counterparts is critical.
  1. Capacity building & strengthening. Strengthening existing civil society organizations with comprehensive capacity building structures, which involve human capital and infrastructure development, etc., so that Diaspora institutions become win-win partners with their local and international partners including AU countries.
  2. Sustainable trade activities. Promoting sustainable activities, towards organizational capacity building that promotes viable production and consumption products for trade exchange between African Diaspora populations and their African partners.

9.9 Connecting with UN and AU Vision on the Diaspora. The African Union Mission (AUM) headquartered in Washington, DC, has embarked upon a series of steps to identify and establish Diaspora links through qualitative and quantitative methodologies of direct and indirect focus group interviews and surveys, via town hall meetings, field visits, and direct and indirect exchanges with relevant Diaspora communities, public and private organizations in the Americas.

9.10 Connecting prior consultations and Diaspora work. As the main purpose of a synthesis document or essay is to make insightful connections between the different prior consultancies; it also connects its work with the overall UN and AU general consensus on Diaspora linkages; and engagement, as well as in line with the overall objectives, and vision of the African Union Mission Representation in Washington, DC.

9.11 The Synthesis Report in line with the UN and AU consensus.

  1. The African Union Study Tour Mission was commissioned by the African Union Mission in Washington, DC; as a medium through which, the agenda of South-South Cooperation of ideas and aspirations of developing countries come together, on the basis of equality, and mutual benefit, with the intention of working together, towards actively developing areas of common interest, and complementarities that accelerate their own respective comprehensive and sustainable development agendas.
  2. Historical background

Two significant events at AU and UN have propelled the work of this project. On April 19, 2010 in resolution A/Res/64/169, the United Nations declared the year 2011 as the International Year of People of African Descent“.

Similarly, the African Union (AU) in its Constitutive Act, which sets out the codified framework under which the African Union is to conduct itself, speaks to people of African descent or African descendants in the Diaspora. Article 3(q) of the A.U’s amended constitutive Act, “invites the full participation of the African Diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union”, in effective making the African Diaspora, the Sixth African Union Constituency.

The African Union has been holding consultations with its Diaspora groups in North America, Brazil, the Caribbean and Europe to discuss strategies for designating the African Diaspora worldwide as Africa’s sixth (6th) region (along the lines of the regional economic commissions). For example, a Consultative Planning Meeting of the North American African Diaspora was held in New York, N.Y. in June 2007. These consultations will generate inputs for a high-level AU summit to be held in South Africa in 2008.

  1. Objectives of the consultations. More recently, the African Union Mission (AUM) headquartered in Washington, DC, had embarked upon steps to identify and establish Diaspora linkages through the organization of Town Hall meetings, field visits, and via direct and indirect exchanges with relevant Diaspora communities and organizations in the Americas. A 10-day Study Tour Mission was commissioned by the AUM. One such tour on was made to several Caribbean and Latin American countries to Establish Diaspora Links, that covered the countries of Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Brazil and Guyana, etc., with five specific objectives.
  2. Collect and disseminate information to understand and increase awareness about the social and economic development realities of Afro-descendant communities, organizations and institutions in the Diaspora;
  3. Increase awareness and knowledge about Africa in the region;
  4. Identify and establish relationships/partnerships with relevant Diaspora organizations-emphasizing networks, regional umbrella organizations, businesses and business organizations and universities;
  5. Establish relationships with governments, bilateral and multilateral organizations and members of the private sector;
  6. Identify viable opportunities for South-South collaboration, including exchange of knowledge, lessons learned and best practices between organizations in the Diaspora and Africa.

Focus Areas in the regional cohort.

The focus of the study is to identify factors that improve our understanding of the Diaspora and forging new partnerships among relevant stakeholders, by identifying opportunities for the inclusion of people of African descendants, and the Diaspora organizations in the socio-economic development activities of their respective countries and AU countries.

Table 1: Focus Areas in this Regional Cohort

Regional Framework

Better understanding of the Diaspora in Latin America and the Caribbean

 

 

 

 

 

 

Regional/Country Focus

Economic and Social sector Development

o   Community resources: land, human capital, traditional knowledge

o   Labor market: Employment Creation

o   Social Policy and Development Planning-Poverty Eradication

o   Governance reform and institutional development

Environmental and Natural Resource Management

o   Capacity enhancement for sound management

o   Risk reduction and disaster management (pre & post disaster)

Forge new partners among relevant stakeholders ·       Civil society organizations

·       Government agencies

·       Private sector corporations

·       International development community

Identify opportunities for the inclusion of Afro-descendants and the Diaspora organizations in the socio-economic development of their respective countries and AU countries ·       Education

·       Health

·       Agriculture (food production)

·       Enterprise development

·       Income generation

 

AU Study Tour Mission. The AUSTM was tasked with identifying new African descendant stakeholders in civil society and to forge relationships with them. It also focused on engaging in activities geared towards strengthening ties initially made during an earlier AU mission.

  1. Valuation Criteria
  • A detailed framework and guidelines prepared by the staff of the AUM in Washington, DC provided the Consultants with topics, subtopics and lines of inquiry and /or specific questions used in questioning stakeholders in all four (4) countries.
  1. Process and methodology

The following steps were used to plan and feed into implementation of the AUSTM.

  • The Consultants pre-planning before leaving for the field trip
  • Formulation of the questionnaires
  • E-mail questionnaires to English-speakers only
  • The main data and information gathering in the field took place between 3-17 April 2011
  1. Sources of Information. There were two main sources of information:

a). Individuals. Purpose sampling was used to identify a cross-section of informants from African Diaspora civil society organizations, respective country government focal persons; and key informants with academic or other strategic information about specific Diaspora issues, such as education, health, employment, housing and other demographic, personal/community history, daily life in their respective countries.

b). Literature search and Documents. Background documents from earlier AU missions to any of the respective countries and publicly available web site information were consulted.

  1. Data Collection Methods and Process
  • Qualitative methods. The AUSTM employed qualitative data collection methods, including semi-structured interviews (either face-to-face or by telephone), focus group discussions, group interviews and town hall meetings.
  • Information validation. Triangulation was used by the Consultants to validate information from a range of primary and secondary sources.
  • Quantitative analysis. Document content analysis, was used to extract information from written materials.
  1. Challenges and Limitations
  • Generalizing country-specific approaches: The methods and approaches normally used for country-specific missions had to be adapted to the needs of a multi -country process within a limited time frame.

 

  • Lack of centralized Information systems: The main challenge was lack of centralized information systems. Due to a lack of centralized information system in the AU Washington Office, it was difficult to obtain an accurate inventory or historical overview of earlier field trips, and or initiatives and to compile required documentation before the field trip.
  • Addressing challenges of centralized information system. These limitations were addressed in the following ways:
  1. A dedicated administrative support team was available at the AU Washington DC, Office;
  2. The use of a multi-lingual Consultant enabled a wider area to be covered and analyzed within a short time frame;
  3. Individual and group informants were selected based on their availability and time-frame;
  4. Focus group interviews and Town-Hall meetings enabled the Consultant to concurrently access a vast array of civil society organizations and key individuals.
  5. Desk Review:

Findings on the Regional Framework, Understanding the Diaspora in South America and the Caribbean: Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Brazil and Guyana (BGSTT)

  • Planning and implementation process. There were challenges in covering all aspects of the daily realities of African Diaspora in the study countries, due to time and organizational constrains.
  • No formal surveys and specialized studies. Additionally, no specialized studies or formal surveys were conducted as part of the research due to time constraints, and the unique nature e of the multicounty study.
  • However, the use of Town Hall meetings enabled the consultants to cover and meet a wide array of civil society organizations and key individuals at the same time.
  1. Common terms of reference.

The African diaspora was the movement of Africans and their descendants to places throughout the world – predominantly to the Americas, and also to Europe, the Middle East and other places around the globe.[1][2][3] The term has been historically applied in particular to the descendants of the Africans who were enslaved and shipped to the Americas by way of the Atlantic slave trade, with the largest population in Brazil (see Afro-Brazilian).

  • A Billion people of African descent. In modern times, it is also applied to Africans who have emigrated from the continent in order to seek education, employment and better living for themselves and their children. People fromSub-Saharan Africa, including many Africans, number at least 800 million in Africa and over 140 million in the Western Hemisphere, representing around 14% of the world’s population.[4][5]
  • Use of social entrepreneurship. It is believed that this diaspora has the potential to revitalize Africa. Primarily, many academics,NGOs, and websites such as Social Entrepreneurs of the African Diaspora[6] view social entrepreneurship as a tool to be used by the African diaspora to improve themselves and their continent.
  • Diaspora in the African context. The term Diaspora which literally means a scattering or sowing of seeds, has described people or ethnic groups, who have left their traditional ethnic homelands by force, and have scattered all over the world. Originally the term Diaspora referred to the populations of Jews, exiled from Judea in 586 BC by the Babylonians, and in AD 135 by the Romans. Since early modern times, the confessional minorities of Christianity were part of a Diaspora.

The living African Diaspora. The concept of the “living” Diaspora was born when an estimated 27,233 slave voyages arrived in the New World during the period of time ranging from 1492 to 1820, each new arrival bearing between 218 to 332 slave This estimate does not account the number of Africans who were taken between African countries, Middle East, India and Europe. The Cambridge Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database estimates 482 separate ports of arrival for these voyages in the Americas region.

From Slavery to African Diaspora. Scholars generally agree that at a minimum, between 12-15 million Africans were taken into slavery among societies both foreign and hostile. These early Diaspora Africans found themselves to be considered as human capital to work the land, with no legal or human rights; or compensation for their work, with no voice nor any sovereign right to citizenship in any new land. The current challenges and opportunities that face African Diaspora stem from these significant historical realities that abused the human rights of the African settlers in the Americas.

  1. Global distribution of African Diaspora.

Considering the old slave descendants and new African immigrants to the Americas, Brazil and the USA continue to lead as those countries housing more people of African descent outside the African Continent. The Caribbean, specifically Columbia, Haiti and Dominican Republic are the next most populous region with African Diaspora to be followed by France, Jamaica, Venezuela and the United Kingdom. Cuba, Trinidad & Tobago and Canada continue to host a significant proportion of African Diaspora.

  1. The World’s top 12 Countries with members of the African Diaspora populations.

Estimated Ranking of the Countries with African Diaspora Populations


Country                                                        Diaspora Populations                                                           Rank

  1. Brazil 85,783,143                                                                   01
  2. United States 38,499,304                   02
  3. Columbia 09,452,872                   03
  4. Haiti 08,701,439                   04
  5. Dominican Republic 07,985,991                   05
  6. France 05,000,000                   06
  7. Jamaica 02,731,419                   07
  8. Venezuela 02,641,481                   08
  9. United Kingdom 02,015,400                   09
  10. Cuba 01,126,894                   10
  11. Trinidad & Tobago 01,047,366                   11
  12. Canada 00,783,795                   12

Source: http://www.Culturaldiplomacy.org/index.php?en_the-afrcan-diaspora

10.2 The AUM and the Diaspora Engagement project should seriously consider to engage those regions where the global distribution of African Diaspora indicate substantial populations like Brazil, the USA, Columbia, Haiti and Dominican Republic, France, Jamaica, Venezuela and UK, as well as those regions and countries where the African Diaspora form a significant minority populations with limited opportunities.

1.The Challenge: Social and Economic Disenfranchisement.

  1. Common thread of human rights abuse. The first African Diaspora to the Americas were illegally kidnapped from their homes and villages and were shipped in inhumane conditions from Africa to the Americas. The traumatic voyage marked by consistent human rights abuse, became more costly to African lives, due to the consistent cruelty and torture, supported by lack of food, space and medical treatment. The illegal kidnapping of Africans, converted itself into the abominable slave trade in the shores of Americas, which then became a market for turning human misery into money. This legacy of isolation, abuse and disenfranchisement continues until today in certain Diaspora communities.
  2. Discrimination and destruction of African heritage. The earlier African Diaspora could not speak their mother tongue, nor be able to call upon any government in Africa for support against their oppressive predicaments. They were forced to speak the language of their oppressors- be it English, Portuguese, Dutch and or a mixed “Creole” language. The underlying poverty, inadequate health care and unequal access to opportunity of African Diaspora, all stem from the history of abuse, discrimination, isolation and disenfranchisement that began in the illegal kidnappings in Africa and the trans-Atlantic slave trade voyage and subsequent destruction of their African heritage and civil liberties and human rights that is seen even today.

 

 

  1. The challenges: A COMMON WRENCHING SLAVERY EXPERIENCE:
  2. Diaspora-Descendants of Trans-Atlantic Slave Voyages were scattered around at random, in ways that did not respect their individual and collective interests and potentials. These past negative incidents, and their respective oppressive, disenfranchising practices, and policies that were perpetuated by subsequent generations, contributed to the present day negative realities of Diaspora African descendants in the Americas.
  1. Root causes of current disparities among the Diaspora. Scholars agree that between 12-15 million Africans were taken into slavery, where they were scattered throughout the Americas, and what has become known as “the Slave Diaspora among some circles. This forced negative experience of dispersion, disenfranchisement, and discrimination, has created the foundation for the current series of disparities in social and economic development indexes.  Most of these Diaspora populations feel that they found themselves forcibly transplanted into societies both foreign and hostile, and this unwelcome disenfranchisement process continues until modern times.
  2. Converting challenges into opportunities.
  3. Historical living heritage connections with AU as a tool for empowerment. The concept of a living heritage connection of the Diaspora communities with AU counties can be considered a smart strategy to convert past and current challenges in to future opportunities. The Diaspora communities and AU countries can utilize the concept of “living heritage connections” via public and private institutions, to mobilize their resources, talents and expertise towards a shared common interest. The living heritage connections construct can captivate the imaginations of the current and future Diaspora descendants that enable them to remember and reconcile with the past, to understand the present and propel them to change the future. The sustainable cultural and development activities generated by these linkage and connections can bring investments in different social and economic activities of the respective communities in effect converting their challenges into opportunities for future generations.
  1. Comprehensive approach to future connections. The AU linkages consultancies address critical issues that the Diaspora communities are facing on their day-to-day lives. Most of the challenges stem from the forced migrations of their ancestors to the Americans and subsequent isolation and disenfranchisement imposed on them. The living heritage connection can be designed in a comprehensive manner by involving public private institutions and enterprises from both African and Diaspora communities. The linkages and connections can attract tourism, and investment opportunities to address the education, cultural, health and enterprises needs of the respective communities.
  1. African heritage connection venture. This African heritage connection venture, should be designed to motivate all concerned parties to be involved in a mutually beneficial manner, so as to encourage shared dialogue, linkages and sense of ownership of the future. The future generation can develop creative projects and outlooks in life that ensures such handicapping situations experienced by their ancestors will not take place in the future. History teaches all of us that a society that does not remember the past, cannot learn from the present, and tends to repeat the same mistake in the future.
  1. Learning from the past to charter a better future. The AUM field trip has identified several individual and community challenges faced by African Diaspora populations in different countries in the Americas. Most of the information scanned from the short field trip need to be identified, collected and transcribed in a format that can be useful in the settings of the Diaspora communities. The living heritage connection construct could be used as a tool to remembering the past, understanding the present and create new opportunities to charter a better future by addressing current challenges of and connections to culturally appropriate socio-economic, trade and investment projects.
  1. Institutions to remembering past traumatic Diaspora experiences. Creating living connections via public and private institutions and enterprises, allows remembering and learning from the experiences of past Diaspora ancestors. This heritage connection related activities could provide the foundations for building a better future. Common to the four countries of this report, is that the traumatic passage from Africa to the Americas, became more costly to Diaspora lives, and more terrible in its torments, isolation, disenfranchisements and disparities in social and economic life as time passed. Most importantly, the reports emphasize that these past traumatic experiences continue to be a source of isolation and disenfranchisement of the current and future generations. Public and private institutions can utilize these heritage connections for improving community images, living standards, and most importantly as a tool to transform their respective communities. Using the cultural living connections will assist in understanding the past. Their current predicament stems from this significant but unfortunate history.
  1. Positive image and development efforts. Positive efforts to change the socio-economic barriers, and efforts to promote positive image towards productivity, should be supported by the living connection and linkages enterprises to their continental Africa heritage and current sustainable development efforts. The positive image connection is as critical as the positive inclusionary sustainable development efforts.
  1. Discrimination and social exclusion from available amenities. The worst and consistent challenge is the intricately woven criminal practice of discrimination and disenfranchisement into the social fabric of people of African descendants that continues to be experienced in their daily lives.  The current challenges of Diaspora youth in the Americas that tend to be exploited by drug and violent gangs and illegal immigration activities cannot be ignored and need to be addressed rather urgently.
  1. Expanded citizenship and capacity building. Good governance activities that promote the practice of expanded citizenship and capacity building efforts to empower the Diaspora populations will reverse the negative impact of sustained social exclusion from available amenities and the liberty/rights enjoyed by other citizens. The linkages and partnership efforts need to counterbalance the negative interactions that continue to adversely impact the daily lives of these vulnerable populations of African descendants.

 

  1. CULTURE AND BELIEFS

Preserving cultural values of their origins. Diaspora African descendants are attached to and preserved their cultural values, which was expressive of their origins. This was observed in their folklore, particularly artifacts, music and dance. The future linkage activities with AU countries can enhance the current cultural experiences, via tourism, educational and trade linkages, as well as enrich their perception of self and specific place in their local and international community.

  1. HISTORY’S EFFECTS

Racial discrimination as heritage of slavery. The lingering effects of slavery and race-based discrimination have had an all-encompassing, profoundly negative effect on the descendants of African slaves in the Diaspora. This report seeks to spread awareness about the multitude of issues that currently face Afro descendants in Suriname, Trinidad, Brazil and Guyana. The next generation needs to appreciate their heritage, so that they learn from those experiences and create a better future for themselves and their children. The cycle of poverty can only broken if the next generation is allowed to appreciate the past and learn from its lessons and create institutions to protect their current and future interests.

 

  1. IN-COUNTRY FINDINGS: BEST-PRACTICE: GIVING VOICE TO INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

 

  1. The political role of civil society organizations for Diaspora African Descendants.

 

5.1 Diaspora African voice to social issues: Vibrant civil societies to address developmental challenges! A vibrant civil society existed in the four countries visited. These institutions were made up of NGO’s and Grassroots support organizations (subset of the broad spectrum of NGO’s) and contributed towards the alleviation of developmental challenges facing the communities visited.

5.2 Diaspora African Citizens’ political influence: Racial democracy as the basis of black mass movements. Gilberto Freyre, author of the classic The Masters and the Slaves created an ideology on racial democracy, which was influential in shaping Brazilian national identity, and a mechanism by which thoughts of black mass movements were diffused. Social mobilization authored by the Movimento Negro spawned a vast array of organizations in Brazil that are cross cutting in purpose and actions.

 

  1. Twinning with the federal government:

 

  1. Close linkages to Federal Government impacted by Ethnic rivalries by African and Indian Guyanese. Organizations such as Fundacao Cultural Palmares, founded in 1988 provide close linkages and alignment to the government of Brazil. The Brazilian example of civil society organizations that have linkages to the government is not replicated in Guyana. However, Guyana has a formal democratic system in place, albeit riven by ethnic rivalry between Afro Guyanese and Indian Guyanese.

 

 

  1. Registering functioning civil societies towards capacity building.

The need to register functioning civil societies. It is imperative for the administration of local agencies or provincial governments or that of international organizations, to establish the architecture necessary to tabulate and register functioning organizations of civil society. This is the first step towards capacity building of civil societies in the future.

  1. LESSONS LEARNED FROM INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Sustainability: Future of South-South Partnerships?

 

  • Who and how will services be provided. In light of future South-South Partnerships, it is crucial to appreciate some of the lessons discovered that centered on who will provide services, and how these services will be financed over time. The stakeholders and their respective relationships and expectations need to be well defined and communicated to the partnerships appropriately.

 

Linkages: Strategic alignment of “contours of synergy”.

 

  • There is an existence of rich and varied “contours of synergy” that strategic alignment can take when overlaid to fit local conditions, assets and challenges.

Capacity building and institutional strengthening:

 

  1. Empowering the role of civil societies. Capacity building initiatives should review the role of civil society organizations, and ensure that they are not seen just as project implementers. This will ensure that programs are narrowly focused on program delivery and program management with shared responsibilities between the emerging partnerships. Good governance can be strengthened by building professional and community support associations that are able to support the good will infrastructure of their respective communities.
  1. Capacity building for sustainable development. The Best Practice of a vibrant civil society in the countries visited, is where emphasis was placed on expanding the role of citizenship, with human capacity and organizational capacity building for sustainable development.
  2. SOCIAL CONTEXT

 

  1. Identifying the issues: Social Exclusion.
  2. Race and color based discriminations continue to be the most menacing experiences of people of African descent in the Caribbean and Latin Americas.
  1. Social exclusion and marginalization is a factor that has affected African Diaspora’s ability to have equal access to economic and social opportunities. In the four countries visited, social exclusion occurred in the form of disenfranchising on the basis of race and color.

 

  1. Image Management: Changing negative stereotypes.
  2. Improving negative images. The issue of a negative public image of Afro descendants in three of the four countries was a leitmotiv (recurrent theme) in the array of concerns expressed to the Consultant.
  1. Positive images of Africans. The Centro Afro Carioca de Cinemas, highlights positive images of Africans and Afro descendants in an effort to counter the predominantly held negative stereotypes of Africans.
  1. Trindad- Positive image in school curricula. In Trinidad, Emancipation Support Committee’s Chair of education expressed his concerns about the self-image of Afro Trinidadians and the lack of positive building blocks or reinforcement of a positive image of Afro Trinidadians in school curricula. The committee “acts in its own right as an umbrella to advance the interests of Africans nationally and internationally”.
  1. Guyana-Promoting Positive Heritage. In Guyana, the President of the AAGC expressed the same misgiving and stated that Afro Guyanese ‘need a sense of belonging’ to something to which they can wrap their identity around and feel proud of.
  1. Suriname- Improving access to health/education/economic development & Infrastructure.
  1. Challenges of The Maroons of Surname. The Maroons of Suriname, with over 300 years of independent history, represent the most highly developed societies and cultures in the history of Africans in the Americas. However, their disadvantaged position in Surinamese society has historically been reflected in unequal access to education, health care, economic development and infrastructure.
  2. Unity- of purpose among Afro descendants Diasporas.
  3. The weakening of unity among Afro descendants in their respective Diaspora was often expressed among informants from the interviews and focus groups conducted. Disunity was credited to one of the consequences of racism.
  1. Diaspora image and unity connected to Africa. African descendant peoples in the region, display consistent realities and are affected by currents concerning image and unity connected to their ethnicity and ancestral continent if origin.
  2. ECONOMIC ACCESS BY WAY OF LAND
  1. Concerns about titling of lands in Brazil. Informants in Brazil and Guyana expressed their concern pertaining to official titling of lands for Brazil’s distinct Afro descendant communities and Suriname’s Maroon communities. Programs such as the Egbe Program offers technical training based on traditional knowledge as well as dialogue to overcome religious intolerance, educational legal advice and the general defense of rights.
  1. Conflicts in land titling for Maroons inn Suriname. In Suriname, informants from the Maroon community complained that land titling for Maroons is still an area of conflict in Suriname.
  2. TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE
  • The role of herbal medicine and traditional religion. Religion and the treatment of ailment with traditional herbs comprise traditional knowledge existing among Afro communities. For instance, Animism was developed in Brazil with the knowledge of African Priests that were enslaved and brought to Brazil, together with their mythology, their culture and language.
  1. HEALTH
    1. Challenges of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) in Brazil. Brazil was the only country in which specific health issues and policies for Afro descendants was extensively discussed. The most common inherited disease that is considered a public health problem is sickle cell anemia and it poses a serious threat to children born with the disease.
  1. Public health campaigns to treat SCD. Proper treatment as a fundamental role in reducing morbidity and mortality of patients with sickle cell anemia was suggested. Additionally circulation of information within the Afro descendant community about the Afro descendant community was recommended.
  1. HEALTH LESSONS LEARNED FROM BRAZIL

 

  • Universalist policies to address racial disparities in health. The strategy used in addressing racial disparities in health and health care or other forms of discrimination against Afro descendants in the Diaspora from both government and civil society will depend on the way laws, ideologies and social context frame race and racism in each country. There is the need to complement Universalist policies with group-based, targeted policies to alleviate disparities in health care for Afro descendants.
  1. Gender Equality and empowerment

                      

The topic of gender, particularly disaggregated outside the framework of African descendants was not broached in great detail. AAGC’s president made repeated efforts to address this issue as it pertains to Afro Guyanese women. The role of women as custodians of African culture and tradition needs to be matched with their economic and social leadership competency that is not best utilized by both the Diaspora and AU countries.

Rationale for South-South Connection

The African Union Study Tour Mission was commissioned by the African Union Mission in Washington, DC as a medium through which the agenda of South-South ideas and aspirations where developing countries may work together on the basis of equality and mutual benefit may work to actively develop areas of common interest and complementarities to accelerate their own development.

BACKGROUND OF THE AFRICAN UNION STUDY TOUR MISSION

  1. UN and AU declarations

On April 19, 2010 in resolution A/Res/64/169, the United Nations declared the year 2011 as the International Year of People of African Descent“.

Similarly, the African Union (AU) in its Constitutive Act, which sets out the codified framework under which the African Union is to conduct itself, speaks to people of African descent or herein after and Afro descendants in the Diaspora. Article 3(q) of the A.U’s amended constitutive Act, “invites the full participation of the African Diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union.”

The African Union Mission (AUM) headquartered in Washington, DC, has embarked upon steps to identify and establish Diaspora links through the organization of Town Hall meetings, field visits, and exchanges with relevant Diaspora communities and organizations in the Americas.

Towards this end, the AUM commissioned a 10-day Study Tour Mission. “Establishing the Diaspora Links Initiative”, a title coined by the author Consultant, is the subject of this report. This study tour covered the countries of Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Brazil and Guyana.

  1. Objectives and Focus

There are five (5) specific objectives of the African Union Study Tour Mission (AUSTM):

  1. Collect and disseminate information to understand and increase awareness about the social and economic development realities of Afro-descendant communities, organizations and institutions in the Diaspora;
  2. Increase awareness and knowledge about Africa in the region;
  3. Identify and establish relationships/partnerships with relevant Diaspora organizationsemphasizing networks, regional umbrella organizations, businesses and business organizations and universities;
  4. Establish relationships with governments, bilateral and multilateral organizations and members of the private sector;
  5. Identify viable opportunities for South-South collaboration, including exchange of knowledge, lessons learned and Best Practices between organizations in the Diaspora and Africa.
  6. METHODOLOGY
  7. SCOPE

The Scope of the African Union Study Tour Mission was set out in the TORs. The AUSTM was tasked with identifying new Afro descendant stakeholders in civil society and to forge relationships with them. It also focused on engaging in activities geared towards strengthening ties initially made during an earlier AU mission.

  1. Valuation Criteria

A detailed framework and guidelines prepared by the staff of the AUM in Washington, DC provided the Consultant with topics, subtopics and lines of inquiry and /or specific questions used in questioning stakeholders in all four (4) countries.

  1. Process

The following steps were used to plan and feed into implementation of the AUSTM.

  • The Consultant’s pre-planning before leaving for the field trip
  • Formulation of the questionnaire
  • E-mail questionnaire to English-speakers only
  • The main data and information gathering in the field took place between 3-17 April 2011
  1. Sources of Information

There were two main sources of information:

a). Individuals

b). Documents

  1. Data Collection Methods and Process

The AUSTM employed qualitative data collection methods, including semi-structured interviews (either face-to-face or by telephone), focus group discussions, group interviews and town hall meetings. Triangulation was used by the Consultant to validate information from a range of primary and secondary sources. Document content analysis, was used to extract information from written materials

  1. Challenges and Limitations

General Challenge:

The methods and approaches normally used for country-specific missions had to be adapted to the needs of a multi -country process within a limited time frame.

Information Challenges:

Lack of centralized information systems. Due to a lack of centralized information system in the AU Washington Office, it was difficult to obtain an accurate inventory or historical overview of earlier field trips and or initiatives and to compile required documentation before the field trip.

The limitations were addressed in the following ways:

  1. A dedicated administrative support team was available at the AU Washington DC, Office;
  2. The use of a multi-lingual Consultant enabled a wider area to be covered and analyzed within a short time frame;
  3. Informants were selected based on their availability and time-frame;
  4. Town-Hall meetings enabled the Consultant to concurrently access a vast array of civil society organizations and key individuals.

Desk Review: Findings on the Regional Framework

 

  1. Understanding the Diaspora in South America and the Caribbean: Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Brazil and Guyana (BGSTT)

 

  1. A COMMON WRENCHING EXPERIENCE: BEING SCATTERED AROUND IN THE PAST

Slave Diaspora-Descendants of Trans-Atlantic Voyages of Slaves. Past incidents such as the transatlantic voyages of slaves, contributed to the present day reality of Afro descendants in the Diaspora. Scholars agree that between 12-15 million Africans were taken into slavery, where they were scattered throughout what has become known as the Slave Diaspora; it was during this period of dispersion that most slaves found themselves forcibly transplanted into societies both foreign and hostile.

  1. COMMUNAL SOCIAL THREADS

History of torture and death. Common to the four countries of this report is that the passage from Africa to the Americas became more costly of Black lives and more terrible in its torments as time passed.

Discriminator social exclusion from available amenities. Woven into the social fabric of Afro descendants daily life was social exclusion from available amenities and the liberty/rights enjoyed by non-Afro descendants.

  1. CULTURE AND BELIEFS

Preserving cultural values of their origins. Slaves were attached to and preserved their cultural values, which was expressive of their origins. This was observed in their folklore, particularly artifacts, music and dance.

4 HISTORY’S EFFECTS

Racial discrimination as heritage of slavery. The lingering effects of slavery and race-based discrimination have had an all-encompassing, profoundly negative effect on the descendants of African slaves in the Diaspora. This report seeks to spread awareness about the multitude of issues that currently face Afro descendants in Suriname, Trinidad, Brazil and Guyana.

 

BEST-PRACTICE: GIVING VOICE TO INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

 

THE POLITICAL ROLE OF CIVIL SOCIETY ORGANIZATIONS FOR AFRO DESCENDANTS IN THE DIASPORA

 

Afro voice to social claims:

 

Vibrant civil societies to address developmental challenges.. A vibrant civil society existed in the four countries visited. These institutions were made up of NGO’s and Grassroots support organizations (subset of the broad spectrum of NGO’s) and contributed towards the alleviation of developmental challenges facing the communities visited.

Afro Citizens’ political influence:

 

Racial democracy as the basis of black mass movements. Gilberto Freyre, author of the classic The Masters and the Slaves created an ideology on racial democracy, which was influential in shaping Brazilian national identity and a mechanism by which thoughts of black mass movements were diffused. Social mobilization authored by the Movimento Negro spawned a vast array of organizations in Brazil that are cross cutting in purpose and actions.

Twinning with the federal government:

 

Close linkages to Federal Government impacted by Ethnic rivalries by Afro and Indian Guyanese. Organizations such as Fundacao Cultural Palmares, founded in 1988 provide close linkages and alignment to the government of Brazil. The Brazilian example of civil society organizations that have linkages to the government and its ear to make claims is not replicated in Guyana. However, Guyana has a formal democratic system in place, albeit riven by ethnic rivalry between Afro Guyanese and Indian Guyanese.

  1. TABULATIONS AND CAPACITY BUILDING

The need to register functioning civil societies. It is imperative for the administration of local agencies or provincial governments or that of international organizations, to establish the architecture necessary to tabulate and register functioning organizations of civil society with a focus on sustainable development with human capital and continuous capacity building infrastructure development towards win-win partnerships with African Union Countries.

  1. LESSONS LEARNED FROM INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Sustainability: Future of South-South Partnerships?

 

  • Who and how will services be provided. The first “Lesson” discovered centered on who will provide services and how these services will be financed over time and in the light of future south-south partnerships. Sustainability issues such as sustainable resource generation, human capital and infrastructure development, continue to be issues that need to be addressed in the short and long term.

 

Linkages: Strategic alignment of “contours of synergy.

 

  • There is an existence of rich and varied “contours of synergy” that strategic alignment can take when overlaid to fit local conditions, assets and challenges. The strategic alliances could enhance local capability based on the principle of sharing best practices and lessons from each public/private organizations.

Capacity strengthening:

 

  • Empowering the role of civil societies. Capacity building initiatives should review the role of civil society organizations and ensure that they are not seen just as project implementers. This will ensure that programs are narrowly focused on program delivery and program management.
  • The Best Practice of a vibrant civil society in the countries visited is to emphasize expanding citizenship, human capacity and organizational capacity and development.
  1. SOCIAL CONTEXT- Challenges and opportunities.

 

Challenges-SOCIAL EXCLUSION

 

  • Race and color based discriminations. Social exclusion and marginalization is a factor that has affected Diaspora descendant’s ability to have equal access to economic and social opportunities. In the four countries visited, social exclusion occurred in the form of race and color.
  • Opportunities- Social inclusions and cultural diversity.

Social inclusion activities such as improving positive self-image, supported by skills and competencies that enhance the positive aspects of cultural and social diversity, as a value added community resources, that enhances the overall quality of life of all involved is a step in the right direction towards converting the current challenges of isolation into opportunities of inclusion.

Image: Changing negative stereotypes.

  • Improving negative images. The issue of a negative public image of Afro descendants in three of the four countries was a leitmotiv (recurrent theme) in the array of concerns expressed to the Consultant.
  • Positive images of Africans. The Centro Afro Carioca de Cinemas, highlights positive images of Africans and Afro descendants in an effort to counter the predominantly held negative stereotypes of Africans.
  • Trindad-Positive image in school curricula. In Trinidad, Emancipation Support Committee’s Chair of education expressed his concerns about the self-image of Afro Trinidadians and the lack of positive building blocks or reinforcement of a positive image of Afro Trinidadians in school curricula. The committee “acts in its own right as an umbrella to advance the interests of Africans nationally and internationally”.
  • Guyana-Promoting Positive Heritage. In Guyana, the President of the AAGC expressed the same misgiving and stated that Afro Guyanese ‘need a sense of belonging’ to something to which they can wrap their identity around and feel proud of.
  • Suriname- Improving access to health/education/economic development & Infrastructure.

Challenges of The Maroons of Surname. The Maroons of Suriname, with over 300 years of independent history, represent the most highly developed societies and cultures in the history of Africans in the Americas’. However, their disadvantaged position in Surinamese society has historically been reflected in unequal access to education, health care, economic development and infrastructure.

Unity- of purpose among Afro descendants Diasporas.

The weakening of unity among Afro descendants in their respective Diaspora was often expressed among informants from the interviews and focus groups conducted. Disunity was credited to one of the consequences of racism.

Diaspora image and unity connected to Africa. African descendant peoples in the region, display consistent realities and are affected by currents concerning image and unity connected to their ethnicity and ancestral continent if origin.

1.2 ECONOMIC ACCESS BY WAY OF LAND

Concerns about titling of lands in Brazil. Informants in Brazil and Guyana expressed their concern pertaining to official titling of lands for Brazil’s distinct Afro descendant communities and Suriname’s Maroon communities. Programs such as the Egbe Program offers technical training based on traditional knowledge as well as dialogue to overcome religious intolerance, educational legal advice and the general defense of rights.

Conflicts in land titling for Maroons inn Suriname. In Suriname, informants from the Maroon community complained that land titling for Maroons is still an area of conflict in Suriname.

1.3 TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE

 

The role of herbal medicine and traditional religion. Religion and the treatment of ailment with traditional herbs comprise traditional knowledge existing among Afro communities. For instance, Animism was developed in Brazil with the knowledge of African Priests that were enslaved and brought to Brazil, together with their mythology, their culture and language.

1.4 HEALTH

 

Challenges of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) in Brazil. Brazil was the only country in which specific health issues and policies for Afro descendants was extensively discussed. The most common inherited disease that is considered a public health problem is sickle cell anemia and it poses a serious threat to children born with the disease.

Public health campaigns to treat SCD. Understanding Sickle Cell Disease as a public health agenda with appropriate health education, health promotion and disease prevention with appropriate surveillance, diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation should be considered a priority among African Diaspora populations. The current trend of morbidity and mortality of patients with sickle cell anemia should be significantly reduced in these populations. Additionally, appropriate information abut the socio-cultural, health and economic issues affecting Diaspora Africans should be shared widely with appropriate strategies on how to improve the challenges in the community towards a shared opportunity in the larger community.

  1. HEALTH LESSONS LEARNED FROM BRAZIL

 

Universalist policies to address racial disparities in health. The strategy used in addressing racial disparities in health and health care or other forms of discrimination against African descendants in the Diaspora vary from country to country. However, the interactions of both government and civil society in addressing the issue of disparities in health will depend on the way laws, ideologies and social context, frame race and racism in each country.

 

Universal access to all. Making universal access to health for all citizens regardless of age, sex, race and culture, with a focus on minorities and those who have economic and social disparities is critical.   It is recommended that promoting a wellness approach to health, with a focus on health education, disease and injury prevention, within the context of universal access to health and the need to complement Universalist policies with group-based, targeted policies to alleviate disparities in health care for African descendants.

 

 

  1. Gender equality and empowerment.

 

Progress of gender equality both within the MDG framework and Diaspora engagement activities has not been given the needed consideration it deserves. The most famous statement…”If you educate and empower a woman, you educate/empower the family, the community and the nation at large”… applies here.

 

The topic of gender, particularly disaggregated outside the framework of Afro descendants was not broached in great detail. AAGC’s president made repeated efforts to address this issue as it pertains to Afro Guyanese women. However, the role of women and their place in African society and their current status needs a proactive empowerment campaign both among the Diaspora and AU countries.

It is recommended that a special study report consultation should be initiated to understand the status of women between both the Diaspora and AU countries. Women empowerment should be considered as the most critical tool that is the key strategy both within the MDG and Diaspora investment activities in future.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

XII. Evaluation of African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA)

Summary. The AGOA is designed to provide incentives for African countries to continue their efforts to open their economies and build free markets in different stages by providing preferential US access to imports from African countries. These preferential accesses for imports included extensions to third country fabric/textile provisions. AGOA expands the list of products, which eligible Sub-Saharan African countries may export to the United States subject to zero import duty under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). While general GSP covers approximately 4,600 items, AGOA GSP applies to more than 6,400 items and Oil and Gas remain represent more than 90% of the items.While AGOA remains to be a great US government Act, it has not lived upto its expectations, as the AU countries have not been able to take advantage of the opportunity due to lack of preparation and involvement by key stakeholders.

12.1 AGOA I-Opening African Economies and building Free Markets. The African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) was signed into law on May 18, 2000 as Title 1 of The Trade and Development Act of 2000. The Act offers tangible incentives for African countries to continue their efforts to open their economies and build free markets.

12.2 AGOA II-Preferential access to imports from African countries. President Bush signed amendments to AGOA, also known as AGOA II, into law on August 6, 2002 as Sec. 3108 of the Trade Act of 2002. AGOA II substantially expands preferential access for imports from beneficiary Sub-Saharan African countries.

12.3 AGOA III-Extension of preferential access for imports and third country fabric/textile provisions. By modifying certain provisions of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA), the AGOA Acceleration Act of 2004 (AGOA III, signed by President Bush on July 12, 2004) extends preferential access for imports from beneficiary Sub Saharan African countries until September 30, 2015; extends third country fabric provision for three years, from September 2004 until September 2007; and provides additional Congressional guidance to the Administration on how to administer the textile provisions of the bill.

12.4 AGOA IV-Extension of third country fabric provisions. The Africa Investment Incentive Act of 2006 (signed by President Bush on December 20, 2006) further amends portions of the African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) and is referred to as “AGOA IV”. The legislation extends the third country fabric provision for an additional five years, from September 2007 until September 2012; adds an abundant supply provision; designates certain denim articles as being in abundant supply; and allows lesser developed beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries export certain textile articles under AGOA.

AGOA provides reforming African countries with the most liberal access to the U.S. market available to any country or region with which the United States does not have a Free Trade Agreement. It supports U.S. business by encouraging reform of Africa’s economic and commercial regimes, which will build stronger markets and more effective partners for U.S. firms.

12.5 Generalized System Preferences (GSP)- AGOA expands the list of products, which eligible Sub-Saharan African countries may export to the United States subject to zero import duty under the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP). While general GSP covers approximately 4,600 items, AGOA GSP applies to more than 6,400 items. AGOA GSP provisions are in effect until September 30, 2015.

12.6 Long-term trade between US &Africa. AGOA can change the course of trade relations between Africa and the United States for the long term, while helping millions of African families find opportunities to build prosperity:

  • By reinforcing African reform efforts;
  • By providing improved access to U.S. technical expertise, credit, and markets; and
  • By establishing a high-level dialogue on trade and investment.

Since its implementation, AGOA has encouraged substantial new investments, trade, and job creation in Africa. It has helped to promote Sub-Saharan Africa’s integration into the multilateral trading system and a more active role in global trade negotiations. It has also contributed to economic and commercial reforms, which make African countries more attractive commercial partners for U.S. companies.

12.7 IMPLEMENTATION

An AGOA Implementation Subcommittee of the Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) was established to implement AGOA. Among the most important implementation issues are the following:

  • Determination of country eligibility;
  • Determination of the products eligible for zero tariff under expansion of the Generalized System of Preferences (GSP);
  • Determinations of compliance with the conditions for apparel benefits;
  • Establishment of the U.S.-Sub-Saharan Africa Trade and Economic Forum; and
  • Provisions for technical assistance to help countries qualify for benefits.

12.8 COUNTRY ELIGIBILITY

34 African Countries designation. The U.S. Government intends that the largest possible numbers of Sub-Saharan African countries are able to take advantage of AGOA. President Clinton issued a proclamation on October 2, 2000 designating 34 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa as eligible for the trade benefits of AGOA.

The proclamation was the result of a public comment period and extensive interagency deliberations of each country’s performance against the eligibility criteria established in the Act.

  1. Swaziland & Ivory Coast. On January 18, 2001, Swaziland was designated as the 35th AGOA eligible country and on May 16, 2002 Côte d’Ivoire was designated as the 36th AGOA eligible country.
  2. Gambia and DRC. On January 1, 2003 The Gambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo were designated as the 37th and 38th AGOA eligible countries.
  3. On January 1, 2004, Angola was designated as AGOA eligible.
  4. Removal of CAR and Eritrea. Effective January 1, 2004, however, the President removed the Central African Republic and Eritrea from the list of eligible countries.
  5. Burkina Faso. On December 10, 2004, the President designated Burkina Faso as AGOA eligible.
  6. Removal of Ivory Coast. Effective January 1, 2005, the President removed Côte d’Ivoire from the list of eligible countries.
  7. Effective January 1, 2006, the President designated Burundi as AGOA eligible and removed Mauritania from the list of eligible countries.
  8. Liberia. Effective December 29, 2006, the President designated Liberia as AGOA eligible.
  9. Effective June 28, 2007, the President again designated Mauritania as AGOA eligible. Effective April 17, 2008, the President designated Togo as AGOA eligible.
  10. Effective June 30, 2008, the President designated Comoros as AGOA eligible.
  11. Effective January 1, 2009, the President again removed Mauritania from the list of AGOA eligible countries.

The U.S. Government will work with eligible countries to sustain their efforts to institute policy reforms, and with the remaining nine Sub-Saharan African countries to help them achieve eligibility.

The Act authorizes the President to designate countries as eligible to receive the benefits of AGOA if they are determined to have established, or are making continual progress toward establishing the following:

  • Market-based economies;
  • The rule of law and political pluralism;
  • Elimination of barriers to U.S. trade and investment;
  • Protection of intellectual property;
  • Efforts to combat corruption;
  • Policies to reduce poverty, increasing availability of health care and educational opportunities;
  • Protection of human rights and worker rights; and elimination of certain child labor practices.

Although none is expected to have fully implemented the entire list, the vast majority of African nations, which are striving to achieve the objectives, have embraced these criteria overwhelmingly.

The eligibility criteria for GSP and AGOA substantially overlap, and countries must be GSP eligible in order to receive AGOA’s trade benefits including both expanded GSP and the apparel provisions. Although GSP eligibility does not imply AGOA eligibility, 47 of the 48 Sub-Saharan African countries are currently GSP eligible.

12.9 GSP PRODUCT ELIGIBILITY

AGOA authorizes the President to provide duty-free treatment under GSP for any article, after the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) and the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC) have determined that the article is not import sensitive when imported from African countries. On December 21, 2000, the President extended duty-free treatment under GSP to AGOA eligible countries for more than 1,800 tariff line items in addition to the standard GSP list of approximately 4,600 items available to non-AGOA GSP beneficiary countries. The additional GSP line items, which include such previously excluded items as footwear, luggage, handbags, watches, and flatware were implemented after an extensive process of public comment and review.

AGOA extends GSP for eligible Sub-Saharan African beneficiaries until September 30, 2015. Sub-Saharan African beneficiary countries are also exempted from competitive need limitations, which cap the GSP benefits available to beneficiaries in other regions.

12.10 APPAREL PROVISIONS

AGOA provides duty-free and quota-free treatment for eligible apparel articles made in qualifying sub-Saharan African countries through 2015. Qualifying articles include: apparel made of U.S. yarns and fabrics; apparel made of sub-Saharan African (regional) yarns and fabrics until 2015, subject to a cap; apparel made in a designated lesser-developed country of third-country yarns and fabrics until 2012, subject to a cap; apparel made of yarns and fabrics not produced in commercial quantities in the United States; textile or textile articles originating entirely in one or more lesser-developed beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries; certain cashmere and merino wool sweaters; and eligible hand loomed, handmade, or folklore articles, and ethnic printed fabrics.

Under a Special Rule for lesser-developed beneficiary countries, those countries with a per capita GNP under $1,500 in 1998, will enjoy an additional preference in the form of duty-free/quota-free access for apparel made from fabric originating anywhere in the world. The Special Rule is in effect until September 30, 2012 and is subject to a cap. AGOA IV continues the designation of Botswana and Namibia as lesser-developed beneficiary countries, qualifying both countries for the Special Rule.

AGOA IV provides for special rules for fabrics or yarns produced in commercial quantities (or “abundant supply”) in any designated sub-Saharan African country for use in qualifying apparel articles. Upon receiving a petition from any interested party, the International Trade Commission will determine the quantity of such fabrics or yarns that must be sourced from the region before applying the third country fabric provision. It also provides for 30 million square meter equivalents (SMEs) of denim to be determined to be in abundant supply beginning October 1, 2006. The U.S. International Trade Commission will provide further guidance on how it will implement this provision.

Preferential treatment for apparel took effect on October 1, 2000, but beneficiary countries must first establish effective visa systems to prevent illegal transshipment and use of counterfeit documentation, and that they have instituted required enforcement and verification procedures. Specific requirements of the visa systems and verification procedures were promulgated to African governments via U.S. embassies on September 21, 2000. The Secretary of Commerce is directed to monitor apparel imports on a monthly basis to guard against surges. If increased imports are causing or threatening serious damage to the U.S. apparel industry, the President is to suspend duty-free treatment for the article(s) in question. The U.S. Government is now reviewing applications for approval of the required visa and enforcement mechanisms from AGOA eligible countries.

(click here for further details on apparel eligibility provisions)

12.11 OTHER PROVISIONS

The Act directs the President to organize a U.S.-Sub-Saharan Africa Trade and Economic Forum, to be hosted by the Secretaries of State, Commerce, Treasury, and the U.S. Trade Representative. The Forum is to serve as the vehicle for regular dialogue between the United States and African countries on issues of economics, trade, and investment. The Act also calls for annual reports to Congress through 2008 on U.S. trade and investment policy in Africa and implementation of the Act.

http://2001-2009.state.gov/p/af/rls/rm/2001/5781.htm

12.12 AGOA Forum

  1. On June 9-10, 2011, Zambia will host the 2011 African Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA) Forum, the centerpiece of the United States government’s trade policy with sub-Saharan Africa.  The 2011 Forum marks the 10th year that government officials, business leaders, and civil society from African countries and the United States will convene to promote trade, business, and investment opportunities that sustain economic development in Africa.
  2. The 2011 Forum’s theme is “Enhanced Trade Through Increased Competitiveness, Value Addition and Deeper Regional Integration.” During the conference, there will be sessions for the private sector and civil society as well as involvement of participants of the African Women’s Entrepreneurship Program (AWEP).  AWEP is an outreach, education and engagement initiative that aims to empower African women entrepreneurs to become voices of change in their communities.  Young business leaders will also take part in activities around AGOA.  The civil society and private sector participants will hold separate pre-conference meetings on June 6th and then present their findings to the ministerial meetings starting the subsequent day.
  3. The AGOA Forum brings together over 600 participants, including senior U.S. and African officials, as well as U.S. and African members of the private sector and civil society.  AGOA represents a progressive U.S. trade and investment policy toward the continent working to reduce barriers to trade, increase diversified exports, create jobs and expand opportunities for Africans.

4. The First U.S.-Sub-Saharan African Trade & Economic Cooperation Forum

“No nation in our time has entered the fast track of development without first opening up its economy to world markets.  The African Growth and Opportunity Act is a road map for how the United States and Africa can tap the power of markets to improve the lives of our citizens.”

President George W. Bush, October 29, 2001

With these words, President Bush addressed the first U.S.-Sub-Saharan African Trade and Economic Cooperation Forum, more commonly known as the AGOA Forum. The AGOA Forum was held in Washington October 29-30, 2001, and was hosted by the Secretaries of State, Treasury, and Commerce, and the U.S. Trade Representative.

  1. 35 AU Countries participation. Trade, Foreign Affairs, and Finance Ministers from 35 eligible Sub-Saharan African countries participated, along with representatives from African regional organizations.  The focus of the Forum was on discussing further measures that the U.S. and Sub-Saharan African nations can jointly take to stimulate economic growth and trade, enhance democracy and good governance, and combat HIV/AIDS.
  2. The Forum was a resounding success largely because of the broad cabinet-level participation and the interactive format of the plenary sessions.  The participation of President Bush, Secretary Powell, Secretary O’Neill, Secretary Evans, Secretary Veneman, U.S. Trade Representative Zoellick, National Security Advisor Rice, USAID Administrator Natsios, and Members Of Congress of both political parties demonstrated the deep commitment of the Administration and U.S. Government to strengthening trade and investment ties, increading prosperity and combating poverty on the African continent.
  3. During the Forum, U.S. officials emphasized the United States’ strong commitment to Africa and noted the initial success of AGOA.  U.S. and African speakers underscored the necessity of good governance, rule of law, and political freedom to attract investment and achieve growth.  The use of African co-chairs and active question and answer sessions allowed African officials the opportunity to speak openly about the benefits and challenges of AGOA.
  4. In his address to the Forum, President Bush announced the creation of a $200 million Overseas Private Investment Corporation support facility that will give American firms access to loans, guarantees and political risk insurance for investment projects in sub-Sahara Africa.   He also announced the establishment of a Trade and Development Agency (TDA) regional office in Johannesburg and the TDA Trade for African Development and Enterprise Program, both to provide guidance and assistance to governments and companies that seek to liberalize their trade laws, improve the investment environment, and take advantage of AGOA.
6. General Country Eligibility Provision

The U.S. Government intends that the largest possible numbers of Sub-Saharan African countries are able to take advantage of AGOA. President Clinton issued a proclamation on October 2, 2000 designating 34 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa as eligible for the trade benefits of AGOA.

The proclamation was the result of a public comment period and extensive interagency deliberations of each country’s performance against the eligibility criteria established in the Act.

1.     On January 18, 2001, Swaziland was designated as the 35th AGOA eligible country and on May 16, 2002 Côte d’Ivoire was designated as the 36th AGOA eligible country.

2.     On January 1, 2003 The Gambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo were designated as the 37th and 38th AGOA eligible countries.

3.     On January 1, 2004, Angola was designated as AGOA eligible.

4.     Effective January 1, 2004, however, the President removed the Central African Republic and Eritrea from the list of eligible countries.

5.     On December 10, 2004, the President designated Burkina Faso as AGOA eligible.

6.     Effective January 1, 2005, the President removed Côte d’Ivoire from the list of eligible countries.

7.     Effective January 1, 2006, the President designated Burundi as AGOA eligible and removed Mauritania from the list of eligible countries.

8.     Effective December 29, 2006, the President designated Liberia as AGOA eligible.

9.     Effective June 28, 2007, the President again designated Mauritania as AGOA eligible.

10.   Effective April 17, 2008, the President designated Togo as AGOA eligible.

11.   Effective June 30, 2008, the President designated Comoros as AGOA eligible.

12.Effective January 1, 2009, the President again removed Mauritania from the list of AGOA eligible countries.

The U.S. Government will work with eligible countries to sustain their efforts to institute policy reforms, and with the remaining nine Sub-Saharan African countries to help them achieve eligibility.

The Act authorizes the President to designate countries as eligible to receive the benefits of AGOA if they are determined to have established, or are making continual progress toward establishing the following: market-based economies; the rule of law and political pluralism; elimination of barriers to U.S. trade and investment; protection of intellectual property; efforts to combat corruption; policies to reduce poverty, increasing availability of health care and educational opportunities; protection of human rights and worker rights; and elimination of certain child labor practices.

The vast majority of African nations, which are striving to achieve the objectives although none, is expected to have fully implemented the entire list. The majority embraced these criteria overwhelmingly.

The eligibility criteria for GSP and AGOA substantially overlap, and countries must be GSP eligible in order to receive AGOA’s trade benefits including both expanded GSP and the apparel provisions. Although GSP eligibility does not imply AGOA eligibility, 47 of the 48 Sub-Saharan African countries are currently GSP eligible.

Countries Eligible for AGOA Benefits

Angola; Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Chad; Comoros; Republic of Congo; Democratic Republic of Congo; Djibouti; Ethiopia; Gabon; The Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Kenya; Lesotho; Liberia; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritius; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; Sao Tome and Principe; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; South Africa; Swaziland; Tanzania; Togo; Uganda; Zambia.

Below is a table listing AGOA eligible countries, the effective date of their eligibility, and the effective date of their eligibility for AGOA apparel benefits if applicable.

COUNTRY DATE DECLARED AGOA ELIGIBLE DATE DECLARED ELIGIBLE FOR APPAREL PROVISION SPECIAL RULE FOR APPAREL
(Republic of) Angola December 30, 2003
(Republic of) Benin October 2, 2000 January 28, 2004 Yes
(Republic of) Botswana October 2, 2000 August 27, 2001 Yes
Burkina Faso December 10, 2004 August 4, 2006 Yes
(Republic of) Burundi January 1, 2006
(Republic of) Cameroon October 2, 2000 March 1, 2002 Yes
(Republic of) Cape Verde October 2, 2000 August 28, 2002 Yes
(Republic of) Chad October 2, 2000 April 26, 2006 Yes
(Union of) Comoros June 30 , 2008
(Republic of) Congo October 2, 2000
(Democratic Republic of) Congo * December 31, 2002
(Republic of) Djibouti October 2, 2000
Ethiopia October 2, 2000 August 2, 2001 Yes
Gabonese (Republic) October 2, 2000 No
The Gambia December 31, 2002 April 28, 2008 Yes
(Republic of) Ghana October 2, 2000 March 20, 2002 Yes
(Republic of) Guinea October 2, 2000
(Republic of) Guinea-Bissau October 2, 2000
(Republic of) Kenya October 2, 2000 January 18, 2001 Yes
(Kingdom of) Lesotho October 2, 2000 April 23, 2001 Yes
(Republic of) Liberia December 29 , 2006
(Republic of) Madagascar October 2, 2000 March 6, 2001 Yes
(Republic of) Malawi October 2, 2000 August 15, 2001 Yes
(Republic of) Mali October 2, 2000 December 11, 2003 Yes
(Republic of) Mauritius October 2, 2000 January 18, 2001 Yes
(Republic of) Mozambique October 2, 2000 February 8, 2002 Yes
(Republic of) Namibia October 2, 2000 December 3, 2001 Yes
(Republic of) Niger October 2, 2000  December 17, 2003 Yes
(Federal republic of) Nigeria October 2, 2000  July 14, 2004 Yes 
(Republic of) Rwanda October 2, 2000 March 4, 2003 Yes
(Democratic Republic of) Sao Tome and Principe October 2, 2000
(Republic of) Senegal October 2, 2000 April 23, 2002 Yes
(Republic of) Seychelles October 2, 2000 No
(Republic of) Sierra Leone October 23, 2002  April 5, 2004 Yes
(Republic of) South Africa October 2, 2000 March 7, 2001 No
(Kingdom of) Swaziland January 17, 2001 July 26, 2001 Yes
(United Republic of) Tanzania October 2, 2000 February 4, 2002 Yes
(Republic of) Togo April 17, 2008
(Republic of) Uganda October 2, 2000 October 23, 2001 Yes
(Republic of) Zambia October 2, 2000 December 17, 2001 Yes

 

Trade Leads:

The following websites are just a few of the resources African businesses can use to either search or post information on the products or services they wish to sell.  Unless otherwise noted, the services provided by these websites are free.

1.     African Resources Center – www.africanresourcescenter.com – a forum for business advancement and opportunity identification, and serves as a tool for disseminating information to African businesses. Interested clients can post their company profiles, trade inquiries and tenders on the website.

2.     AfricanTrade.com – www.africantrade.com – an online international trading system designed to facilitate trade for importers, exporters and manufacturers worldwide. The website allows clients to post, view and respond to Trade Leads, Tenders and BTB Auctions. Website visitors can also identify trade opportunities, receive trade alerts and showcase products and services.

3.     BidMix.com – www.bidmix.com – global Business-to-Business import/export services, including trade leads, trade resources, postings of trade information by topic, and a company listing. The website assists in selling clients’ products or services and in locating suppliers and manufacturers globally.

4.     BigEx.com – www.bigex.com – international trade exchange that matches buyers and sellers from around the world. The website contains information on importers, exporters, manufacturers, wholesalers and agents from the United States, Europe, Asia, Latin America and Australia. Members can post products that they wish to buy or sell, receive e-mail inquiries from prospective trading partners, establish new customer and supplier relationships and chat online with other members.

5.     BuySellEx.com – www.buysellex.com – dynamic auction application that provides world-wide business opportunities and e-commerce technology to its clients. The website also provides market research, business news, and company information.

6.     Business Referral and Information Network (BRAIN) – www.brain.org.za – provides small business and medium-sized enterprises with an invaluable gateway to information on starting, managing and growing a business. BRAIN also provides opportunities and support for small business in South Africa.

7.     Cyber Trade Center – www.cybertradecenter.com – the Cyber Trade Center provides information on business opportunities in import and export. The website provides services for importers, exporters and agents and includes trade information, advertisements, trade leads for buyers and sellers, and links to other international trade sites. Entry into the Cyber Trade Center is free.

8.     Export Leads – www.export-leads.com/enter.htm  – monthly international newspaper featuring nearly 10,000 export sales opportunities a year. Most of these export sales leads are generated by direct contact from importers around the world, and through questionnaires sent to major active importing firms, requesting details of their current import requirements. A subscription to the trade leads service costs $135 per year outside of the United States and $95 per year within the United States.

9.     Federation of International Trade Associations (FITA) – www.fita.org  – FITA affiliates include over 450 independent international associations. The associations include: world trade clubs, Chambers of Commerce, international logistics associations, international trade associations, exporter associations, and professional associations. The website also has a trade lead section.

10.   Food Trader Exchange – www.foodtrader.com  – trade leads specific to the food and agriculture industry. The website provides business-to-business marketplace and e-procurement solutions for the food and agriculture industry.

11.   Foreign Trade Online – www.foreign-trade.com – business-to-business web portal which assists manufacturers, exporters and companies planning to export, by providing foreign buyers with product and services information. The website also helps importers to locate their product sourcing from around the world.

12.   Global Trade & Technology Network – www.usgtn.net – GTN is a U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) program aimed at matching the technological needs of companies in developing countries with technical solutions. GTN facilitates the transfer of technology and services from the U.S. and other regional participants to countries worldwide through the dissemination of trade leads via e-mail. U.S. companies as well as companies in participating GTN countries in Africa and Southeast Europe may register with GTN to receive trade leads for free. GTN operates in 37 countries.

13.   Global Trade Village (GTV) – www.globaltradevillage.com – international sourcing and procurement company linking U.S. and Canadian purchasers with international suppliers and manufacturers. GTV has the ability to source and deliver any product. International suppliers and manufacturers can become members of the GTV database.

14.   Import Export International Business Help Center – http://www.importexporthelp.com/ – B2B resource website providing international business resources, including links to over 100 resources.

15.   Import Leads/Export Leads – www.importleads.com – post trade leads for import or export free of charge. The website also provides a matchmaking service for companies.

16.   Inkorpa – www.inkorpa.com – consulting services (for a fee) geared towards African companies trying to take advantage of AGOA. Inkorpa assists African companies in accessing U.S. government financing and finding U.S. distribution partners for the African private sector.

17.   Intermeding – www.intermeding.com – a wide variety of services including, posting of trade leads, listings for the services industry, employment opportunities, manufacturer and agent database, joint venture and investment opportunities, advertisements, and website hosting.

18.   International Business Forum – www.ibf.com – information about international business opportunities. The website is intended for companies wishing to export or expand into foreign markets as well as for those interested in acquiring products and services from other countries. In addition to business opportunities, the website includes a business directory and information on business resources, business associations, business meetings, and business education.

19.   Mbendi – www.mbendi.co.za – Africa business website which contains extensive reference information on countries and industry sectors, particularly oil and gas, electrical power, chemicals, mining and telecommunications, supported by databases of companies, organizations, personalities, projects, facilities, events and publications. Interactive facilities are available to distribute tenders, trade enquiries, employment vacancies and business opportunities and to apply for finance and trade related services.

20.   1jump.com – www.1jump.com – a company research tool which maintains a database of over 1 million companies. The database can be used to both find suppliers and target sales prospects. There is a $29.95 per month fee for the service.

21.   Selectory – www.selectoryonline.com  –  a number of searchable databases are available on this website, organized by industry and/or state. The website includes marketing and business leads. There is a monthly subscription fee, or subscribers can buy access to one of the specialized databases for a yearly fee.

22.   SignOnAfrica.com – www.signonafrica.com – offers access to a wide variety of African products. Available products are organized by product category, and buyers are able to post products that they are seeking.

23.   Swiss Info Import-Export Bulletin Board – www.swissinfo.net  – members can post leads and access a broad range of offers compiled from a variety of trade lead sources. There is a fee for membership.

24.   Trade Port – www.tradeport.org  – comprehensive trade information, trade leads, and company databases. It is an international trade/defense conversion initiative of Baytrade, which focuses on export expansion in the greater San Francisco Bay area.

25.   Trade World – www.tradeworld.net  – an Africa-specific source of trade leads, government tenders, and trade information that aims to connect African businesses with buyers and suppliers in other countries via the Internet. Fees vary by type of service. 

26.   Trade Zone – www.tradezone.com – international trade services for manufacturers, importers and exporters, trade service businesses and opportunity seekers. The website lists international trade business opportunities, free import and export trade leads, a trade bulletin board, and traders’ websites and website advertising services.

27.   World Trade Point Federation (WTPF) – www.wtpfed.org – WTPF is a non-governmental organization registered in Geneva, Switzerland. It was organized under the auspices of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). Its objective is to facilitate access for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to international markets. WTPF brings together Trade Points from around the world. A Trade Point is a source of trade related information, a trade facilitation center, and a gateway to the Global Trade Point Network. The website offers trade leads for SMEs through the Electronic Trading Opportunity (ETO) section. 

28.   World Access Network of Directories (WAND) – www.wand.com  – offers trade directory technologies with a classification system of over 60,000 product and service types. The service provides trade leads and trade information for buyers and sellers in 16 languages.

29.   WorldBid.com – www.worldbid.com – online international marketplace designed to help small to mid-sized companies conduct business. The website lists international trade leads from companies and government organizations around the world. Services include offers to buy and sell, e-mail trade notifications, company showroom allowing a company to showcase its product, international company directory, and trade and e-commerce resources.

30.   WorldBizClub – www.wbc.com  – trade leads for buyers and sellers in a variety of sectors. Other services include product showcases, business consulting, general trade information, and trade matching. There are both free and fee-based services.

31.   Matchmaker Programs (back to top):

32.   Corporate Council on Africa (CCA) – www.africacncl.org  – The Corporate Council on Africa organizes two business linkage programs, the South Africa Business Linkage program and the West Africa Business Linkage program.  These programs help match African and American companies in a variety of industry sectors.  For more information, see the CCA website and click on B2B Linkages.

33.   Global Trade & Technology Network – www.usgtn.net – GTN is a U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) program aimed at matching the technological needs of companies in developing countries with technical solutions. GTN facilitates the transfer of technology and services from the U.S. and other regional participants to countries worldwide through the dissemination of trade leads via e-mail. U.S. companies as well as companies in participating GTN countries in Africa and Southeast Europe may register with GTN to receive trade leads for free. GTN operates in 37 countries.

34.   Interlink Capital Strategies – www.i-caps.com – Interlink Capital Strategies is a Washington, DC based consulting firm specializing in emerging market finance and business development. The company provides expertise in international project financing, trade financing, government advocacy, private equity, business development and marketing.

35.   Uniworld Business Publications – www.uniworldbp.com – publishes directories of U.S. firms operating in foreign countries and directories of foreign firms operating in the U.S.

36.   World Trade Centers Association (WTCA) – www.wtca.org – WTCA is an organization of nearly 300 World Trade Centers in almost 100 countries. The website is a one-stop trade information hub for posting and reviewing trade opportunities, and communicating with newly found business prospects. World Trade Centers can provide matchmaking services and lists of trade leads.

FOR TEXT OF AGOA FORUM PLENARY REMARKS CLICK BELOW:

  1. PRESIDENT BUSH
  2. TREASURY SECRETARY O’NEILL
  3. SECRETARY OF STATE POWELL
  4. USTR ZOELLICK(Press Release)
  5. 1st AGOA Forum News Letter

Resources & References:

  1. AGOA REPORTS
  2. TRADE FINANCE & TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE
  3. GENERAL BUSINESS
  4. COUNTRY INFORMATION
  5. TRADE DATA

AFRICAN GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS INITITIAVE (AGCI) & AFRICA

TRADE HUBS

TEXTILE & APPAREL

AGRICULTURE

CUSTOMS

  1. AGOA REPORTS
  1. 2005 AGOA Competitiveness Report
  2. 2008 Report to Congress
  3. 2007 Report to Congress
  4. 2006 Report to Congress
  5. 2005 Report to Congress
  6. 2004 Report to Congress
  7. 2003 Report to Congress
  8. 2002 Report to Congress
  9. 2001 Report to Congress
  10. AGOA Implementation Guide – English
  11. AGOA Implementation Guide – French
  12. AGOA Implementation Guide – Annexes
  13. What Every Member of the Trade Community Should Know About the African Growth and Opportunity Act

TRADE FINANCE & TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE (back to top)

  1. U.S. Export-Import Bank (Ex-Im)
  2. U.S. Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC)
  3. U.S. Trade and Development Agency (USTDA)
  4. U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
  5. Trade Capacity Building Database
  6. Small Business Administration (SBA)
  1. GENERAL BUSINESS (back to top)
  2. Africa Portal on Export.gov
  3. S. Global Technology Network – Business Linkages for U.S. and African firms
  4. Corporate Council on Africa (CCA)
  5. BuyUSA(International e-marketplace sponsored by the U.S. Commercial Service of the U.S. Department of Commerce)
  6. A Guide to Doing Business with Africa
  7. Foundation for Democracy in Africa

 

COUNTRY INFORMATION (back to top)

  • S. Department of State Bureau of African Affairs
  • S. Embassy Links
  • CIA World Factbook

TRADE DATA (back to top)

  • S. – African Trade Profile – 2009
  • Sub-Saharan Africa: Factors Affecting Trade Patterns of Selected Industries – First Annual Report (USITC April 2007 Report)
  • Sub-Saharan Africa: Factors Affecting Trade Patterns of Selected Industries – Second Annual Report (USITC April 2008 Report)
  • Sub-Saharan Africa: Effects of Infrastructure Conditions on Export Competitiveness – Third Annual Report (USITC April 2009)
  • S. International Trade Commission Monthly and Quarterly Data on U.S. Sub-Saharan Africa Trade
  • S. Tariff and Import Data by Product
  • Sub-Saharan African Textile and Apparel Inputs: Potential for Competitive Production (USITC May 2009)

AFRICAN GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS INITITIAVE (AGCI) & AFRICA TRADE HUBS (back to top)

  • African Global Competitiveness Initiative (AGCI)
  • West Africa Global Competitiveness Hub
  • East & Central Africa Global Competitivenss Hub
  • Southern Africa Global Competitiveness Hub

TEXTILE & APPAREL (back to top)

  • Office of Textiles and Apparel – AGOA Short Supply Provisions

AGRICULTURE (back to top)

  • S. Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service
  • S. Fish & Wildlife Service
  • S. Food & Drug Administration
  • S. Food Safety & Inspection Service

CUSTOMS (back to top)

  • S. Generalized System of Preferences
  • National Customs Brokers & Forwarders Association of America

Basic Importing and Exporting
Frequently Asked Questions

Q: How does AGOA benefit African countries?

Q: How does it benefit U.S. firms?

Q: Why the need for an AGOA II bill?

Q: What specific changes did the AGOA II legislation make to the original AGOA law?

Q: What specific changes did the AGOA Acceleration Act of 2004 make to the original AGOA law?

Q: What specific changes did the Africa Investment Incentive Act of 2006 (AGOA IV) make to the original AGOA law?

Q: What is the “Abundant Supply” provision?

Q: What benefits are provided for Botswana and Namibia?

Q: What conditions are placed on participation by African countries?

Q: Which countries have been designated as AGOA eligible?

Q: Does the United States have the right to set eligibility criteria for African countries?

Q: What are the provisions governing apparel imports?

Q: Which countries fall under the per capita GNP ceiling for the Special Rule?

Q: When do the apparel benefits take effect?

Q: What does the term “knit-to-shape” mean?

Q: What are the Act’s GSP provisions?

Q: How can African countries become more familiar with the benefits of the Act?
Q: How does AGOA benefit African countries? 

A: AGOA passed as part of The Trade and Development Act of 2000 provides beneficiary countries in Sub-Saharan Africa with the most liberal access to the U.S. market available to any country or region with which we do not have a Free Trade Agreement. It reinforces African reform efforts, provides improved access to U.S. credit and technical expertise, and establishes a high-level dialogue on trade and investment in the form of a U.S.-Sub-Saharan September 10, 2015

Elias Demoz, MD, MBA

CEO/Medical Director

American Care Partners

6521 Arllington Blvd, Suite 410

Falls Church, VA 22042

Joint Commission ID #: 575764

Program: Home Care Accreditation

Accreditation Activity: 45-day Evidence of

Standards Compliance

Accreditation Activity Completed: 09/10/2015

Dear Dr. Demoz:

The Joint Commission would like to thank your organization for participating in the accreditation process. This

process is designed to help your organization continuously provide safe, high-quality care, treatment, and services

by identifying opportunities for improvement in your processes and helping you follow through on and

implement these improvements. We encourage you to use the accreditation process as a continuous standards

compliance and operational improvement tool.

The Joint Commission is granting your organization an accreditation decision of Accredited for all services

surveyed under the applicable manual(s) noted below:

Please be assured that The Joint Commission will keep the report confidential, except as required by law. To

ensure that The Joint Commission’s information about your organization is always accurate and current, our

policy requires that you inform us of any changes in the name or ownership of your organization or the health

care services you provide.

We encourage you to share this accreditation decision with your organization’s appropriate staff, leadership, and

governing body. You may also want to inform the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), state or

regional regulatory services, and the public you serve of your organization’s accreditation decision.

Please visit Quality Check® on The Joint Commission web site for updated information related to your

accreditation decision.

Sincerely,

This accreditation cycle is effective beginning July 18, 2015. The Joint Commission reserves the right to shorten

or lengthen the duration of the cycle; however, the certificate and cycle are customarily valid for up to 36 months.

Mark G.Pelletier, RN, MS

Division of Accreditation and Certification Operations Africa Trade and Economic Forum. (back to top)

Q: How does it benefit U.S. firms?

A: By creating tangible incentives for African countries to implement economic and commercial reform policies, AGOA contributes to better market opportunities and stronger commercial partners in Africa for U.S. companies. The  Act should help forge stronger commercial ties between Africa and the United States, while it helps to integrate Africa into the global economy. U.S. firms may find new opportunities in privatizations of African state-owned  enterprises, or in partnership with African companies in infrastructure projects. (back to top)

Q: Why the need for an AGOA II bill?

A: The need for AGOA II legislation was developed in part to improve upon and clarify some of the specific provisions that were not addressed in the original AGOA legislation (or AGOA I). AGOA II is part of the Trade Act of 2002 which President Bush signed into law on August 6, 2002. (back to top)

Q: What specific changes did the AGOA II legislation make to the original AGOA law?

A: Click here to view a table comparing AGOA I and AGOA II. (back to top)

Q: What specific changes did the AGOA Acceleration Act of 2004 make to the original AGOA law?

A: Click here to view a summary of the AGOA Acceleration Act of 2004. (back to top)

Q: What specific changes did the Africa Investment Incentive Act of 2006 (AGOA IV) make to the original law?

A: Click here to view a summary of the Africa Investment Incentive Act of 2006 (AGOA IV). (back to top)

Q: What is the “Abundant Supply” provision?

A: AGOA IV provides for special rules for fabrics or yarns produced in commercial quantities (or “abundant supply”) in any designated sub-Saharan African country for use in qualifying apparel articles. Upon receiving a petition from any interested party, the International Trade Commission will determine the quantity of such fabrics or yarns that must be sourced from the region before applying the third country fabric provision. It also provides for 30 million square meter equivalents (SMEs) of denim to be determined to be in abundant supply beginning October 1, 2006. The U.S. International Trade Commission will provide further guidance on how it will implement this provision. (back to top)

Q: What benefits are provided for Botswana and Namibia?

A: AGOA II permits Botswana and Namibia to qualify for the “Special Rule,” which permits lesser developed AGOA beneficiary countries to utilize fabric manufactured anywhere in the world (extended until September 30, 2007 under AGOA III). Since Botswana’s and Namibia’s per capita GNP exceeded $1,500 (the 1998 World Bank level), they were not designated as a lesser developed beneficiary country and were not eligible for the Special Rule under the original AGOA legislation. The Africa Investment Incentive Act of 2006 (AGOA IV) continues to grant lesser-developed beneficiary country status to Botswana and Namibia, qualifying both countries for the Special Rule. While an amendment to the AGOA Acceleration Act of 2004 granted lesser-developed beneficiary country status to Mauritius, AGOA IV did not continue to grant Mauritius lesser-developed beneficiary country status. (back to top)

Q: What conditions are placed on participation by African countries?

A: The President may designate Sub-Saharan African countries as eligible to receive the benefits of the Act if they are making progress in such areas as: establishment of market-based economies; development of political pluralism and the rule of law; elimination of barriers to U.S. trade and investment; protection of intellectual property; efforts to combat corruption; policies to reduce poverty, increase availability of health care and  educational opportunities; protection of human rights and worker rights, and elimination of certain practices of child labor. Progress in each area is not a requirement for AGOA eligibility. (back to top)

Q: Which countries have been designated as AGOA eligible?

A: Click here for a list of AGOA eligible countries.  (back to top)

Q: Does the United States have the right to set eligibility criteria for African countries?

A: The criteria are standards which the Africans themselves have espoused and most are striving to uphold. But Congress never intended AGOA to be a blank check for all African countries, without regard to performance. It was  meant to offer tangible incentives for African governments to improve their political and economic governance, not to underwrite poor policies. (back to top)

Q: What are the provisions governing apparel imports?

A: AGOA provides duty-free and quota-free treatment for eligible apparel articles made in qualifying sub-Saharan African countries through 2015. Qualifying articles include: apparel made of U.S. yarns and fabrics; apparel made of sub-Saharan African (regional) yarns and fabrics until 2015, subject to a cap; apparel made in a designated lesser-developed country of third-country yarns and fabrics until 2012, subject to a cap; apparel made of yarns and fabrics not produced in commercial quantities in the United States; textile or textile articles originating entirely in one or more lesser-developed beneficiary sub-Saharan African countries; certain cashmere and merino wool sweaters; and eligible hand loomed, handmade, or folklore articles, and ethnic printed fabrics. Under a Special Rule for lesser-developed beneficiary countries, those countries with a per capita GNP under $1,500 in 1998, will enjoy an additional preference in the form of duty-free/quota-free access for apparel made from fabric originating anywhere in the world. The Special Rule is in effect until September 30, 2012 and is subject to a cap. AGOA IV continues the designation of Botswana and Namibia as lesser-developed beneficiary countries (click here for further details on apparel eligibility provisions). (back to top)

Q: Which countries fall under the per capita GNP ceiling for the Special Rule?

A: All Sub-Saharan African countries meet the per capita GNP requirements of the Special Rule with the exception of the following: Botswana, Gabon, Mauritius, Namibia, Seychelles, and South Africa. However, countries must meet the general AGOA eligibility requirements and the requirements for apparel benefits in order to qualify for the Special Rule. AGOA II grants Lesser Developed Beneficiary Country status to Botswana and Namibia, qualifying both countries for the Special Rule. The Africa Investment Incentive Act of 2006 (AGOA IV) continues to grant lesser-developed beneficiary country status to Botswana and Namibia. (back to top)

Q: When do the apparel benefits take effect?

A: Although the apparel benefits take effect October 1, 2000, beneficiary countries must first have an effective visa system in place to prevent illegal transshipment and use of counterfeit documentation. They must also institute  enforcement and verification procedures. Details were disseminated to African governments following a cable instruction to all U.S. embassies in Sub-Saharan Africa on September 21, 2000. Countries must also be beneficiary  developing countries under the U.S. Generalized System of Preferences (GSP), which includes 45 Sub-Saharan African countries. (back to top)

Q: What does the term “knit-to-shape” mean?

A: Components that take their shape in the knitting process, rather than being cut from a bolt of cloth. (back to top)

Q: What are the Act’s GSP provisions?

A: AGOA authorizes the President to provide dutyfree treatment under GSP for any article, after the U.S. Trade Representative (USTR) and the U.S. International Trade Commission (USITC) have determined that the article is not  importsensitive when imported from African countries.  On December 21, 2000, the President extended duty-free treatment under GSP to AGOA eligible countries for more than 1,800 tariff line items in addition to the standard GSP list of approximately 4,600 items available to non-AGOA GSP beneficiary countries.  The additional GSP line items, which include such, previously excluded items as footwear, luggage, handbags, watches, and flatware were implemented after an extensive process of public comment and review.  Sub-Saharan African GSP beneficiary countries are also exempted from competitive need limitations.  In order for any Sub-Saharan African country to receive the liberalized GSP benefits it must first be GSP eligible under the existing criteria of that law.

GSP is extended for Sub-Saharan African beneficiary countries until September 30, 2015. (back to top)

Q: How can African countries become more familiar with the benefits of the Act?

A: The U.S. Government has conducted technical assistance seminars in Africa and the United States to explain the benefits of the Act, in order to ensure that African countries are able to take maximum advantage of its provisions. (back to top)

Trade Associations- AGOA

 

  1. What is the name of the association?                             ______________________
  2. In what year was the association established? ______________________
  3. In what city and country is the association located _____________________

 

  1. Under which of the following categories do the association’s business members export duty-free under    

         AGOA?

  1. Agricultural Products
  2. Forest Products Chemicals and Related Products
  3. Textile and Apparel
  4. Footwear Minerals and
  5. Metals Machinery
  6. Transportation Equipment
  7. Electronic Products
  8. Other, please specify: __________________________

 

How do association members rate the following AGOA trade preference issues as obstacles to additional investment?

 

  1. Very Severe Obstacle   b. Severe Obstacle   c. Moderate Obstacle   d. Somewhat Obstacle e. Not an Obstacle

 

  1. AGOA’s expiry in 2015
  2. Costs complying with AGOA
  3. Annual Review of Country’s AGOA eligibility
  4. Possible Extension of AGOA-like preferences to other Developing Countries
  1. [For Textile] Third Country Fabric Provision expiry in 2012
  2. [For South Africa and Mauritius Textiles] Non-inclusion under Third Country Fabric Provision
  3. [For Sugar, Tobacco, and Peanuts] Access associated with U.S. Tariff Rate Quota System

How do association members rate the following infrastructure issues as obstacles to additional investment?

  1. Cost of Transport
  2. Reliability of Transport Infrastructure
  3. Cost of Electricity
  1. Very Severe Moderate b. Somewhat Obstacle           c. Severe Obstacle     d. Obstacle        e. Obstacle

 

  1. Reliability of Electricity Supply
  2. Cost of Water Supply
  3. Reliability of Water Supply
  4. Cost of Telecommunications
  5. Reliability of Telecommunications

 

How do association members rate the following as obstacles to additional investment?

  1. Very Severe Obstacle   b. Severe Obstacle   c. Moderate Obstacle   d. Somewhat Obstacle   e. Not an Obstacle

 

  1. Cost of finance
  2. Availability of finance
  3. Cost of unskilled labor
  4. Availability of unskilled labor
  5. Cost of skilled labor
  6. Availability of skilled labor
  7. Cost of appropriate physical storage
  8. Availability of appropriate physical storage

 

How do association members rate the following macroeconomic and policy issues as obstacles to additional investment?

  1. Very Severe Obstacle   b. Severe Obstacle   c. Moderate Obstacle   d. Somewhat Obstacle   e. Not an Obstacle

 

  1. Access to foreign currency
  2. Foreign currency appreciation/depreciation
  3. Changes in Export Price
  4. Domestic Inflation Levels
  5. Taxation rates
  6. Duties on imports [for inputs]
  7. Duties on exports [for products]
  8. Export process and documentation [for products]
  9. Import process and documentation [for inputs]

AGOA as a US tool for promoting market based economy in Africa

INTRODUCTION

  1. Time sensitive & eligibility limited access to US Market. The African Growth and Opportunity Act [or AGOA] is a U.S. development effort that was enacted into law in May 2000 and provides eligible countries in sub-Saharan Africa with more liberal access to the U.S. market. Initially set to expire in 2008, AGOA was extended through to 2015 in 2006, and currently efforts are underway to extend AGOA through to 2025.
  1. Promoting market based economy. Country eligibility under AGOA is based on a number of criteria that aim to evaluate a country’s progress establishing a market-based economy, the rule of law and political pluralism as well as a country’s efforts protecting intellectual property, combating corruption, reducing poverty, increasing the availability of health care and educational opportunities, protecting human rights and worker rights and eliminating certain child labor practices.[4] In addition, an eligible country is required to not be involved in any activities that undermine U.S. national security. Table 1 lists the countries that were eligible under AGOA for the years 2007 to 2010, inclusive.
  1. Oil and Gas make up 93% Exports. With AGOA’s introduction, eligible countries had duty-free coverage to the U.S., expanded by an additional 1,835 product lines from the 4,650 product lines under the GSP program.[5] However, to date, less than 25% of the additional 1,835 product lines have registered imports.[6] Moreover, the bulk of exports are related to oil and gas [approx. 93%], vehicles [approx. 4%], and textiles and apparel [approx. 2%].[7]

Methodology: Qualitative and Quantitative Review. (Imports, companies, etc.)

  • Identifying duty-free exporting African companies. To identify businesses exporting under AGOA, a two-step process was utilized. Firstly, products entering into the U.S. under AGOA, i.e., duty-free under AGOA, were identified. This process necessitated an examination of the U.S. International Trade Commission’s Data Web so as to derive listings of imports at various HTS levels by country. Thereafter, companies exporting these products to the U.S. during the period of study were identified. Company identification required interviews with African diplomatic missions in the U.S. and an examination of online intelligence platforms. Annex 1 illustrates the identification of AGOA exporters from Ethiopia.
  • Constraints to investment by exporting businesses. With respect to the identification of constraints to additional investment faced by businesses exporting under AGOA, a series of methods were utilized that included the following:
  • Survey administration to various businesses exporting under AGOA;
  • Interviews with representatives from governments and sector associations; and
  • Research on key investment and competitiveness bottlenecks by country from global competitiveness reports.

Challenges: Information gaps due to low survey response.

 

  • Low response by businesses. A key issue faced in conducting the research was the low response rate by businesses to the survey administered. The various reasons provided by individual companies were a company policy that prevented information disclosure and the administration by various other parties of concurrent surveys in the lead up to the AGOA forum in Zambia. However, the complementary interviews with government representatives, trade experts and sector associations as well as literary research more than complemented for any information gaps derived from the low survey response rates.
  • SECTION 2 – AGOA IMPACT ANALYSIS BY SECTOR

Textile and Apparel Sector

Overall Performance of the Textile and Apparel Sector under AGOA

  • Sub-Saharan Africa’s textile and apparel sector[8] has been one of the big beneficiaries of AGOA. Textile and apparel products exported under AGOA grew from $355.8 million in 2001 to its peak in 2004 of $1,615 million (an increase of 353.9%). From 2004 to 2010, however, exports of textile and apparel products under AGOA declined from $1,615 million in 2004 to $726.5 million in 2010 (a decrease of 55%), see figure 2.1 below and table 2.2 at the end of the textile and apparel section.

Figure 2.1. AGOA Exports Apparel and Clothing

Source: USITC database

Table 2.1. Average MFN Duties on Clothing Products

Source: Cornelia Staritz. 2010. “Making the Cut? Low-Income Countries and the Global Clothing Value Chain in a Post-Quota and Post-Crisis World”, The World Bank, 2010, Washington, D.C. page 10.

 

Key Sector Constraints Identified

 

  • Key bottlenecks to increased investments. Notwithstanding the identified exogenous factors above[9] that have constrained trade and investment levels in sub-Saharan Africa’s textile and apparel sector, our research identifies the following additional factors as key bottlenecks to increased investments in the sector:
  • Time limit and competition. Uncertainties inherent in the AGOA preference regimen particularly as related to the following: (i) expiration of the third-country fabric provisions which had been scheduled to expire in September 2012, (ii) expected termination of AGOA in 2015, and (iii) possible extension of AGOA-like, tariff-preferences to other Less Developed Countries such as Bangladesh and Pakistan.
  • Lag in product delivery. Sector’s relatively long time to market, i.e., turnaround time, following a client’s order to product delivery, particularly given the need for apparel producers to order the needed fabrics from East Asia, which takes about 30 days[10], prior to commencing actual work on the order. This lag in product delivery is one key factor that apparel producers in the U.S. are very sensitive to and one that also adds additional financing burdens on Africa’s apparel exporters.
  • Infrastructure deficiencies. Deficiencies in the levels of infrastructure diminish the overall sector’s level of competitiveness. These infrastructures depend on the type of industry – with textile firms requiring significant levels of capital, electricity and water; while apparel firms, on the other hand, requiring a large supply of competitive and capable labor force. Of critical importance, here, is the role of investment promotion offices in taking stock of the sector’s potential competitiveness and tailoring the sector’s cost and incentive advantages to potential investors.

Key Sector’s Recommendations

  1. Critical recommendation to the AGOA program (Time Extension).
    • Extension of third country fabric provisions to 2015. There is a great need to immediately extend the third country-fabric provision, which is scheduled to expire in 30 September 2012. The immediate extension of the third country-fabric provision is necessary as large international buyers plan their sourcing 6 to 12 months in advance.[11] Consequently, the bill being proposed by Jim McDermott, H.R. 2493, which calls for an extension of third country fabric provisions to 2015, is very important.
  • AGOA extension through 2025. Need to extend both AGOA and the third country-fabric provisions beyond 2015 as it will allow for further consolidation of the gains in trade and investment in Africa’s textile sector resulting from AGOA. As a result, the Obama administration’s support of the extension of AGOA through to 2025 and the extension of the third country-fabric provisions through to 2022 is very important. At the country and the firm-level, the following are critical:

Source: USITC database
Agriculture Sector[12]

Overall Performance of the Agricultural Sector under AGOA

  • Disappointing Agricultural sector performance. AGOA’s impact on trade and investments in Africa’s agriculture sector has been recognized by many to be disappointing. [13] In spite of the fact that African countries are principally agricultural based economies, exports of agriculture to the U.S. under the duty-free under AGOA provision represented less than 0.5% of overall AGOA exports and, exports from South Africa alone captured the bulk of these exports.
  • Improved performance of edible nuts, cut flowers, vegetables and fruits. Some bright spots, however, vis-à-vis AGOA’s impact on agriculture include the performance of edible nuts, cut-flowers and preparations of vegetables, fruits and nuts, see table 2.3. Exports of edible nuts under AGOA, for example, increased by 269% from $12.0 million in 2007 to $44.2 million in 2010 while exports of cut-flowers increased by 50% from $1.2 million in 2007 to $1.8 million in 2010. Of significance is the fact that these increases occurred in spite of higher oil prices and the tempering of U.S. demand. See tables 2.4 and 2.5 at the end of the agriculture section for more details on AGOA’s agricultural export performance for selected subsectors.
Table 2.3. Select Agriculture Exports under AGOA (2007-2010)

 

Source: USITC database

  • Impact of volatile Australian weather patterns. Contributing factors to the strong performance of edible nuts and cut-flowers between 2007 and 2010 are the following:
    • Edible nuts:
      • Strong demand in the U.S. for macadamia over the past years[14];
      • Volatile weather patterns in Australia[15], the largest macadamia producer, which has in recent years experienced supply contractions;
    • Significant appreciation of the Australian dollar vis-à-vis the U.S. dollar, which has made it unprofitable in some instances to export Australian macadamia to the U.S.;[16] and
      • Robust growth in macadamia production in South Africa, Africa’s largest producer.
    • Cut-flowers: Africa-Europe-USA, Red Rose Wholesale re-exportation.
      • Ability under AGOA for some rose exporters to capture a share of red-roses that were traditionally exported by African growers to European wholesalers and then re-exported by these European wholesalers to clients in the U.S.[17]

Key Sector Constraints Identified

  • Stringent USDA compliant regimen. A significant constraint vis-à-vis African exporters of agricultural products (and beef) to the U.S. involves the very high sanitary and phyto-sanitary standards (SPS) instituted by the USDA, which in many cases is higher than that of the E.U. Companies in Kenya that export beans and roses to both the E.U. and the U.S. have indicated that the USDA’s compliance regimen is much more stringent than that of the E.U. Moreover, S. bioterrorism laws have made the sending of agricultural product samples to potential clients very difficult.

 

  • Tariff-rate quotas exclusion. The exclusion of key agricultural products that are currently covered by tariff-rate quotas (TRQs) for which some African countries are deemed low-cost producers, such as sugar and tobacco.[18] The increased investments in Mozambique and Sudan resulting from sugar reforms in the EU market provide evidence of the potential effects on investment should the U.S. follow suit and provide AGOA members with preferential access for such commodities.[19]

Table 2.4. Select Agricultural Product Exports by Country under AGOA, 2007 to 2010, $ Thousands

Table 2.5. Exports of Edible Nuts under AGOA by Country, 2001-2010, $ Thousands

 


Raw Hides and Skins, Leather and Footwear

Overall Performance of Raw Hides and Skins, Leather and Footwear under AGOA

  • Quality livestock and requisite infrastructure. Contributing factors to the levels of trade and investment in the raw hides and skin as well as leather [bags and shoes] sector are [i] endowments of quality livestock, [ii] the requisite infrastructure [i.e., water supply, electricity], and [iii] human resources that allow for the production in volume amounts and quality for export.

Key Sector Constraints Identified

  • Deficiencies in Skilled labor requisites. Deficiencies in the skilled labor requisites across all levels of value-added from skinning to tanning and from tanning to the manufacture of finished product.
  • Deficiencies in development of domestic tanneries. Deficiencies in the levels of development of domestic tanneries that make it difficult to meet volume and quality requirements for the U.S. market.
  • Lack of required infrastructure, including access to water supply, electricity, etc. for operators or potential investors resulting in an increase in operating costs and a reduction in efficiency.

 

  • Deficiencies in the regulatory oversight needed to ensure appropriate checks on effluent discharges by tanneries.

Key Recommendations

  1. Need to extend AGOA through to 2025 so as to allow the time horizon needed to effectively develop the productive capacities in the sector.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 2.7. Raw Hides/Skins, Leather and Footwear Exports by Country under AGOA, 2007-2010, $ Thousands

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Oil and Gas Sector

Overall Performance of the Oil and Gas Sector under AGOA

Figure 2.2. Oil and Gas Exports under AGOA (2001-2010)
  • Improving Oil and Gas Sector. Africa’s oil and gas sector has been AGOA’s biggest beneficiary. In 2010, $36 billion worth of oil and gas entered into the U.S. duty-free under AGOA, i.e., 93.1% of total duty-free under AGOA imports. Figure 2.2 presents oil and gas exports under AGOA between 2001 and 2010.
  • Declining US gas and oil imports.S. imports of oil and gas under AGOA decreased by 10.4% from $40.2 billion in 2007 to $36.0 billion in 2010 (see table 2.8). Underlying this decline was the tempering of U.S. demand, which resulted in a decline in total U.S. imports of oil and gas from an average of 13.5 thousand barrels of crude oil per day in 2007 to 11.8 thousand barrels of crude oil per day.[20]

Table 2.8. Oil and Gas Exports, Duty Free Under AGOA, US$ Millions

  • Major Oil Companies investing in Africa. Almost all of the major oil companies have been very active in sub-Saharan Africa. According to company filings, the top 3 oil majors’ investments in sub-Saharan Africa were Exxon-Mobil $4.805 billion[21]; Chevron $3.912 billion[22]; and ENI $3.350 billion.[23] Other investors include British Petroleum, Shell, Perenco, Tullow, Marathon Oil and Hess Energy. Key destinations of development capital expenditures were Nigeria, Angola, Ghana and Gabon; while exploration expenditures were more widespread across sub-Saharan Africa.

 

  • Promising African geology and upswing in oil prices. Contributing factors to the strong levels of trade and investment in sub-Saharan Africa’s oil and gas were the promising geology, particularly in the West Africa region;[24] and the upswing in oil prices, which have trended upward except for the period shortly following the global financial crisis, see figure 2.3 below.
Figure 2.3. Weekly [All Country] Spot Prices FOB Weighted by Export Volume, $ Per Barrel

Source: Energy Information Administration Data, Accessed 8 August 2011.

Key Sector Constraints IdentifiedDisputes over equity transfers or changes in policies can unnerve investors. Recent examples of situations that negatively impacted investor sentiment were the legal dispute [now seemingly resolved] between Kosmos Energy’s and the Ghanaian government over the proposed sale of Kosmos’ equity stake to ExxonMobil as well as the proposed Nigerian Industry Petroleum Bill, which attempts to comprehensively overhaul Nigeria’s petroleum industry.


Automotive Sector (Excludes Railway Cars)

Overall Performance of the Automotive Sector under AGOA

  • South Africa is the only African country that exports vehicles to the U.S. under AGOA. South Africa’s exports of vehicles other than railway cars under AGOA, increased by 229% from $467.4 million in 2007 to 1,538.2 million in 2010, see table 2.9 below.

Table 2.9. Exports of Vehicles under AGOA, 2007-2010, US$ Millions


Source: USITC and data from NAMSA’s Quarterly Review of Conditions Dated 5 May 2011.

Note: Capital Expenditures were converted to US$ from SA Rand using yearly average exchange rates for the period from EIU intelligence unit.

  • Ford & GM Motor Companies in South Africa. Most major car manufacturers are located in South Africa and many have engaged in plant expansions. Ford Motor Company of South Africa, for example, indicated in January 2008 that it would invest more than R1.5 billion [~$180 million] to expand operations for the production of Ford’s compact pickup truck and Puma diesel engine.[25] In addition, GM South Africa was awarded a six year $100 million contract in 2005 to supply, assemble and export the Hummer H3.[26]
  • Benefits to the South Africa MIDP. The automotive sector has strongly benefited from [i] the AGOA preference regimen; [ii] South African government’s Motor Industry Development Program (MIDP)[27], and [iii] South Africa’s relatively strong competitiveness position [ranked 54th in the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Index 2010-11].

SECTION 3: – AGOA IMPACT ANALYSIS FOR SELECT COUNTRIES (2007-2010)

  • In this section, a brief country analysis on the impact of AGOA on exports and investments over the period 2007 to 2010 will be performed. The countries selected are: Angola, Benin, Botswana, Cape Verde, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya and Lesotho. This selection includes three countries from South Africa, i.e., Angola, Botswana and Lesotho; two countries from East Africa, i.e., Ethiopia and Kenya; and three countries from West Africa; i.e., Benin, Cape Verde and Ghana.

Angola [Southern Africa]

Angola’s Overall Export Performance under AGOA

  • In spite of Angola’s rich agriculture and fishery resource-base, Angola’s exports to the U.S. under AGOA were exclusively in the oil and gas sector between 2007 and 2010, see table 3.1.

 

Table 3.1 Angola’s Duty-Free Exports to the U.S. under AGOA, 2007-2010, $ Thousand

 

  • On average Angola’s oil exports under AGOA increased by 32%, from $4.8 billion in 2007 to $6.3 billion in 2010. Over this period, Angola’s exports under AGOA represented approximately 15% of total AGOA exports.
  • Angola’s oil and gas exporters to the U.S. were the local subsidiaries of the major multinational oil companies as well as Sonangol[28], the company responsible for the management of Angola’s oil and natural gas reserves. These exporters include: Cabinda Gulf Oil Company [Chevron subsidiary]; Esso, Angola; Sonangol; Total, Angola; Fina Petroleos De Angola Avenida; Statoil Angola; Eni Angola; Norsk Hydro Dezasette A.S.; Acrep; and Somoil.[29]
  • Angola’s oil and gas exporters to the U.S. invested significantly in exploration and development activities in Angola. Our estimates of attributed investments[30] by the oil majors in Angola provides the following estimates of investments in Angola’s oil and gas sector over the period 2007 to 2010.

Table 3.2. Attributed Investments in Angola’s Oil and Gas Sector by Companies Exporting to the U.S. under AGOA, 2007-2010, $ Thousands

Source: Individual Company Annual Reports.

Key Investment Factors Facing AGOA Businesses in Angola

  • Angola’s significant oil and gas reserves[31] and comparatively strong level of investor protection[32] are key factors that have contributed to the high investment amounts in Angola’s oil and gas sector. These country-specific factors have been complemented by the sustained high prices in oil and gas following the oil and gas price hike of 2005.
  • Outside Angola’s oil and gas sector, however, companies experience significant bottlenecks tied to a very difficult competitive environment. Angola’s ranking of 137 out of 139 countries in the World Economic Forum’s most recent Global Competitiveness Report encapsulates these challenges in investment and business environment.[33]
  • A cursory examination of Angola’s performance in the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2010-11 indicates that key bottlenecks exist with infrastructure, human resource, government bureaucracy, and financial market development.[34] The Angolan government has attempted to address such bottlenecks through increased financing of sectors outside the extractive industry utilizing a National Development Fund that is managed by the Development Bank of Angola.
  • However, any efforts to build a sustainable and competitive, export-oriented sector in Angola’s fisheries, textile and agribusiness sectors would require sustained efforts by both the central and regional Angola governments in structuring dramatic improvements that address Angola’s competitiveness gaps.

Botswana [Southern Africa]

Botswana’s Overall Export Performance under AGOA

  • Botswana exported only textile and apparel under AGOA over the period 2007 to 2010 in spite of having the potential to export a variety of products such as leather and arts and crafts. Moreover, Botswana’s textile exports declined from $31.3 million in 2007 to $11.6 million in 2010 (see table 3.3).

 

 

Table 3.3. Botswana’s Exports to the U.S. under AGOA

  • Botswana’s textile and apparel exporters under AGOA during this period were Carapparel Botswana, Microlith Ltd., and Cara Fashions.[35] However, Microlith and Cara Fashions stopped shipping to the U.S. in 2008 and 2007, respectively.[36]

Key Investment Factors Facing AGOA Businesses in Botswana[37]

  • In the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2010-11, Botswana’s ranked 4th in Sub-Saharan Africa and 76th[38] The key areas of Botswana’s competitive advantage included the quality of its institutions, quality of education, quality of road and rail infrastructure, low tax rate and the extent of taxation, and level of financial market development.[39] However, a large government budget balance and a high prevalence of HIV and TB were key areas where Botswana had a competitive disadvantage.[40]
  • During discussions with representatives from the Embassy of Botswana, concerns emerged about the diminished competitiveness of Botswana’s textile and apparel exports under AGOA and the need for significant upgrading in Botswana’s tanneries to jump-start leather exports.
  • The key factors that were identified as contributing to the diminished competitiveness of Botswana’s textile and apparel exporters under AGOA were the following:
  • End of the Multi-Fiber Arrangement in 2005 and the increased competition from Asia;
  • High inland transportation costs[41] in terms of time and money – particularly given that raw materials for the textile and apparel industry are sourced from Asia and the finished product is exported to the U.S.,
  • High cost of finance given the long payment cycles, which on average take 180 days, from the time of payment to the input supplier in Asia to the receipt of payment from the finished product client in the U.S., and the
  • Tempering of U.S. demand following the global economic crisis of 2007.
  • With respect to the leather sector, representatives from the Embassy of Botswana indicated that the domestic tanneries required significant upgrading to meet the quality and volume demands of the U.S. market. Toward this end, Botswana has been soliciting foreign investment in tanneries.

Lesotho [Southern Africa]

Lesotho’s Overall Export Performance under AGOA

·       Lesotho exported an average of $318.9 million worth of textile and apparel products exclusively under AGOA over the period 2007 and 2010. These exports declined by 26% from $379.6 million in 2007 to $280.3 million in 2010, see table 3.4.

Table 3.4. Lesotho’s Exports to the U.S. under AGOA

An examination of online intelligence platforms and discussions with the Lesotho National Development Corporation [LNDC] identified the following textile and apparel companies as AGOA exporters over the period 2007 and 2010:

Lesotho Precious Garments (Pty) Ltd; C & Y Garments; Presitex Enterprises (Pty) Ltd; Tai Yuan Garments (Pty) Ltd; Global Garments Co. (Pty) Ltd; Cgm Industrial (Pty) Ltd; Ever Unison Garments Lesotho (Pty) Ltd; Nien Hsing International Lesotho (Pty) Ltd; San Ti Kon Textiles (Pty) Ltd; Sun Textiles (Pty) Ltd; Tzicc Clothing Manufactures (Pty); Export Unlimited; Shinning Century Ltd; Super Knitting (Pty) Ltd; Jonsson Mfg. (Pty) Ltd; Jw International; J&S Fashions (Pty) Ltd; United Clothing (Pty) Ltd; Eclat Evergood Textiles (Pty) Ltd; Kopano Textiles (Pty) Ltd; Lolita Clothing Co. (Pty) Ltd; Sweat Sun (Pty) Ltd; Wonder Garments Mfg; Lesotho Hinebo Textile (Pty) Ltd; Raytex Garments (Pty) Ltd; Hippo Knitting (Pty) Ltd; Five Eight (Pty) Ltd; Mauri Garments (Pty) Ltd; Lesotho Evergood Textiles; New Epoch Knitting (Pty) Ltd; First Apparel Mfg.(Pty) Ltd; C River Textile (Pty) Ltd; Tern Sportswear (Pty) Ltd; Lesotho P&T Textile (Pty) Ltd; and Formosa Textiles Co., Ltd.

Key Investment Factors Facing AGOA Businesses in Lesotho

  • In the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report for 2010 to 2011, Lesotho ranked 128 out of 139 countries. Areas of competitiveness that Lesotho scored strongly in were in the total tax rate [% of profits], number of procedures to start a business, females in labor-force and legal rights index.[42] Areas where Lesotho performed poorly competitively were: business impact of HIV, life expectancy, primary and tertiary education enrollment rates, quality of management schools, availability and affordability of financial services, and domestic market-size index.[43]

·       Discussions with the Lesotho National Development Corporation [LNDC] indicated that between 2007 and 2010, Lesotho’s textile and apparel sector generated an annual average of $1.15 million in new investments. J&S Fashions, a knitting factory that began operations in 1996 indicated that it had invested an average of $704,000 annually over the period 2007 and 2010, see table 3.5 below.

Table 3.5. Investments by Lesotho’s AGOA Exporters, 2007-2010

* Data provided by the Lesotho National Development Corporation and reflect an overview of new investments in the sector.

** CAPEX are capital expenditures by established companies for capital improvements, expansion etc. J&S Fashions was the only company that provided that level of information.

  • Discussions with the LNDC identified the following as key obstacles to additional investment by Lesotho’s AGOA exporters:
    • Uncertainty around AGOA’s expiry in 2015; expiry of third country fabric provision in 2012; the stringent rules of origin and technical barriers to trade (particularly SPS for agricultural exports);[44]
    • Capacity issues at the firm-level that have prevented companies from producing at levels that would generate good returns as well as access to finance, particularly related to working capital so as to cover the period between orders and payment; and
    • Cumbersome border procedures in transit as a result of Lesotho’s landlocked status.
  • Moreover, the LNDC indicated that the following activities would enable Lesotho take better advantage of AGOA in the near to long-term:
    • Investments in science and technology, research and development, youth and women;
    • Investments that enhance skill development in key products so as to ensure that Lesotho competes globally and diversifies its export base.
  • According to our survey of businesses exporting under AGOA from Lesotho, the following were identified as very severe obstacles to additional investments: AGOA’s expiry in 2015; expiration of the third country fabric provisions in 2012; fluctuations in foreign currency; and quality of electricity infrastructure.
  • Meanwhile, AGOA businesses on average identified the following as severe obstacles to additional investment: uncertainty over a country’s eligibility; possible extension of AGOA-like preferences to other developing countries; cost of transport; quality of telecommunications; and availability of skilled labor.
  • The same respondents identified the following as moderate obstacles to additional investment: requirements complying with AGOA; access to foreign currency; domestic price inflation; taxation rates; import and export procedures and documents required; cost of electricity; cost of water supply; cost of skilled labor; availability of land; and the availability of appropriate physical storage.

Ethiopia [Eastern Africa]

Ethiopia’s Overall Export Performance under AGOA

  • Ethiopia’s exports under AGOA increased by 45% from $4.8 million in 2007 to $6.9 million in 2010. Over 97.5% of Ethiopia’s exports under AGOA during this period was related to textiles and apparel; however, Ethiopia did export footwear, tomato paste, red roses, wines and broomcorn as well, see table 3.6.

 

 

 

 

Table 3.6. Exports from Ethiopia to the U.S. under AGOA

  • Ethiopia’s AGOA exporters by sector between 2007 and 2010 were the following:
    • Red Roses:
      • Flowerama PLC and Summit PLC.
    • Tomato Paste:
      • Likely to be Upper-Awash Agro-Industry Enterprise[45]
    • Textile and Apparel:
      • Knit to Finish PLC [aka Kombolcha Share Co.], Novostar Garment, Kebire Enterprises PLC, Nazareth Garment Share Co., Nn Garment Factory, Almeda Textile Plc., Feleke Garment Plc, Mulat Garment Plc, BM Ethiopia Garment & Textiles, Oasis Abyssinia, Gg Super Garment Factory Plc, Koreithi General Textile Plc, Yirgalem Molla Akalie and Addis Garment [aka Augusta].
    • Footwear:
      • Anbessa Shoe Share Co.
    • Beverages and Spirits:
      • Awash Wine Share Co. and National Alcohol & Liquor Factory.

Key Investment Factors Facing AGOA Businesses in Ethiopia

  • In the most recent World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report, Ethiopia was ranked 119th.[46] Overall, it scored at par with the sub-Saharan African average. Areas where Ethiopia displayed a competitive advantage were in the burden of government regulation, business costs of crime and violence, quality of air infrastructure, total tax rate (% of profits), number of procedures required to start a business, and agricultural policy costs.[47] In terms of competitiveness bottlenecks, Ethiopia ranked very poorly in inflation; capital control restrictions; quality of electricity supply; production process sophistication; and telecommunications.[48]
  • In discussions with textile and apparel managers, they indicated that AGOA exports have required that they undertake significant upgrading of equipment. They indicated that the limited experience of Ethiopia’s entrepreneurs and workforce in textile exports was also somewhat of a problem and, thus, required some handholding [i.e., need for an upgrading of the skill-levels in the industry].
  • In our survey of Ethiopian companies[49] engaged in AGOA exports, the quality of telecommunications was listed as very severe obstacles to additional investment. Textile and apparel companies placed the expiration of the third country fabric in 2012 as a very severe obstacle to additional investment.
  • With respect to obstacles to additional investment deemed to be severe, companies listed the following: AGOA’s expiry in 2015; uncertainty over a country’s continued eligibility; domestic price inflation; cost of transport; quality of electricity; cost of telecommunications; availability of skilled labor; quality of transport; import and export procedures and documents required; fluctuations in foreign currency; and fluctuations in export price.
  • On average, all companies listed the following as moderate obstacles to additional investment: cost of skilled labor; availability of finance; possible extension of AGOA-like preferences to other countries; import duties; requirements complying with AGOA; cost of finance; and availability of unskilled labor.
  • Table 3.7 below depicts the investments in capital costs of AGOA exporters in Ethiopia that agreed to provide the information.

Table 3.7. Investments by Exporters from Ethiopia under AGOA, 2007-2010


Source: Surveys of individual companies

Note: Other companies did not provide details.

Kenya [Eastern Africa]

Kenya’s Overall Export Performance under AGOA

  • Between 2007 and 2010, Kenya exported an average of $232 million worth of AGOA exports annually to the U.S. Approximately 95% of Kenya’s AGOA exports were textile and apparel. However, Kenya also exported relatively significant quantities of pineapple juice concentrate, macadamia nuts and red roses. Macadamia nut exports under AGOA increased by 432% from $2.9 million in 2007 to $6.2 million in 2010. Table 3.8 depicts AGOA’s exports from Kenya between 2007 and 2010.

Table 3.8 Kenya’s Exports under AGOA

  • A listing of Kenya’s AGOA exporters by category is below:
  1. Cut Flowers [red roses and dried flowers]:
  1. Valentine Growers Ltd.; K-net Ltd; Primarosa Flowers Ltd; Oserian Ltd; Flamingo Holdings; and Taly Nofar & Ayal [dried flowers].
  1. Macadamia and Macadamia Seed Oils:
  1. Kenya Nut Co. Ltd; Wondernuts [K] Ltd; Equatorial Nut Processors Ltd; Sawafrica [EPZ] Ltd [aka Jungle Macs EPZ]; and Samar Greens Ltd; Earthoil Kenya [EPZ] Ltd.
  1. Foodstuffs [Wheat flour etc.]
  1. Shree Sai Industries Ltd; Wedo Foods Ltd and Sujaac Ltd.
  1. Juices and Concentrate:
  1. Del Monte Kenya and Kevian Ltd
  1. Textiles and Apparel:
  1. Protex Kenya (EPZ) Ltd; Alltex (EPZ) Ltd; Upan Wasana E P Z Ltd; Kenya Trading (EPZ) Ltd; Africa Apparels (EPZ) Ltd; United Aryan (EPZ) Ltd; Ashton Apparel EPZ, Ltd; Senior Best Garments Kenya (Epz) Ltd; Apex Apparels (EPZ) Ltd; Shin-Ace Garments Kenya (EPZ) Ltd; Rolex Garments (EPZ) Ltd; Blue Bird Garments Kenya (EPZ) Ltd; Emke Garments (Kenya) Ltd; Kenya Knit Garments (EPZ) Ltd; Kapric Apparels Epz Ltd; Leena Apparels Ltd; J A R Kenya (EPZ) Ltd; Apparel Africa Ltd; Mirage Fashionwear(Epz) Ltd; Bedi Investments Ltd; M.R.C Nairobi (EPZ) Ltd; Maasai Collections Ltd; Nodor Kenya [EPZ];
  1. Fishing Flies and Tackle:
    1. Kenya Bamboo Fishing Flies and Hand Tied Fishing Flies [Not yet exporter to U.S., but interested]
  1. Candles:
  1. Peng’s Candles [EPZ]

Key Investment Factors Facing AGOA Businesses in Kenya

  • In terms of competitiveness, Kenya ranked 106th overall in the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness 2010-11 Report with a score that was greater than the sub-Saharan African average.[50] Kenya maintained a competitive advantage in financial market development, quality of educational system, labor market efficiency, and innovation.[51] However, Kenya ranked poorly in public trust of politicians, inflation, basic health, tertiary education enrollment rate, and broadband Internet subscription.[52]
  • During phone interviews with certain AGOA investors, the following obstacles to additional investment were specifically highlighted:
  • In the textile and apparel sector, an interviewee identified logistics from Kenya given long transits and a monopoly of carriers from a shipping perspective as well as a rising annual wage bill as key constraints.
  • In the macadamia nut sector, an interviewee identified the policy issue surrounding the reversal of the ban of exports of raw macadamia, which was instated in 2009 by the former Minister of Agriculture and the subsequently long, yet successful court proceedings to overturn the reversal. During the period when the ban was overturned, the interviewee indicated that many processing companies were operating at very low throughput given that they couldn’t source local macadamia supplies.
  • In the cut-flower sector, an interviewee identified a lack of a direct flight to the U.S., the cost of freight, which was identified as twice that to the EU, and the more stringent phyto-sanitary requirements in the U.S. over that in the EU as key bottlenecks hindering greater exports under AGOA to the U.S.
  • In our survey of Kenyan exporters of AGOA products, on average all companies identified the AGOA’s expiry in 2015 as a very severe obstacle to additional investment. Companies in the cut-flower sector identified the cost and quality of transport infrastructure as well as export procedures and documents required as a very severe obstacle to additional investment.
  • All companies listed on average the following as severe obstacles to additional investment: fluctuations in export price; cost of electricity; fluctuations in foreign currency; domestic price inflation; cost of finance; possible extension of AGOA-like preferences to other LDCs; fluctuations in foreign currency; quality of transport infrastructure; and quality of water supply. Moreover, textile companies listed the expiration of the third country fabric in 2012 and cut flower companies listed availability of land as severe obstacles to additional investment.
  • The following were identified on average as moderate obstacles to additional investment; taxation rates; cost of water supply; cost of land; availability of finance; cost and availability of skilled labor; quality of electricity infrastructure; import procedures and documents required; quality of telecommunications; cost of unskilled labor; and import duties.
  • Table 3.9 presents capital expenditure data for some companies exporting from Kenya to the U.S. under AGOA.

Table 3.9. Investments by Exporters from Kenya under AGOA, 2007-2010

Cape Verde [Western Africa]

Cape Verde’s Overall Export Performance under AGOA

  • Between 2007 and 2010, Cape Verde exported $146,000 worth of canned tuna. These exports were registered in 2010, see table 3.10.

 

 

 

 

Table 3.10. Cape Verde’s Exports to the U.S. under AGOA

  • The canned tuna exports were by Indupesca Limited.

 

Key Investment Factors Facing AGOA Businesses in Cape Verde

  • In the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2010-11, Cape Verde was ranked 117th, with an overall score exactly the same as the sub-Saharan African average.[53] In terms of obstacles to improved competitiveness, Cape Verde ranked poorly in quality of electricity supply, quality of management schools, prevalence of trade barriers, burden of customs procedures, degree of customer orientation, and local supplier quantity and quality.[54]
  • Our survey of Cape Verdean companies[55] engaged in fish exports revealed that ALL companies identified the cost of electricity as a very severe obstacle to additional investment. While companies that exported to the U.S. included AGOA’s expiry in 2015 as a very severe obstacle to additional investment.
  • Moreover, companies identified as a severe obstacle to additional investment the quality of electricity, the cost and quality of transport infrastructure, cost of telecommunications, import duties, quality of water, and cost of skilled labor.
  • In terms of moderate obstacles to additional investment, companies highlighted the following: fluctuations in foreign currency and export price; domestic price inflation; taxation rates; export duties; procedures and documents required to both export and import; cost of water supply; cost of telecommunications; costs of both skilled and unskilled labor; availability of skilled labor; and costs of land and availability of land.
  • The Cape Verdean Investment Agency identified key constraints facing Cape Verdean exports to the U.S. as logistics, transport, certification, standards, and high costs of inputs [due to geography] and language. In addition, they indicated that U.S. investment levels in Cape Verde would be better promoted through the signing of bilateral investment treaties and double taxation treaties.
  • Table 3.11 depicts the capital cost expenditures of Indupesca, the only Cape Verdean company to export to the U.S. under AGOA over the period 2007 to 2010.

Table 3.11. Investments by Exporters from Cape Verde under AGOA, 2007-2010

 

Ghana [Western Africa]

Ghana’s Overall Export Performance under AGOA

·       Ghana’s duty-free exports under AGOA, declined by 96% from 56.2 million in 2007 to 2.1 million in 2010, see table 3.12 below. These exports were primarily mineral fuels[56] and textiles and apparel. However, it is expected that with the coming online of Ghana’s crude oil from the Jubilee oil fields that Ghana’s mineral fuel AGOA exports will surge.

Table 3.12. Ghana’s Duty Free Exports Under AGOA

A listing of Ghanaian companies that export under AGOA by sector is outlined below:

·       Food Products:

o   Ernimich Ltd and Twintown Enterprise

·       Textile and Apparel:

o   Patex Enterprise [Social Enterprise]; Network Knitwear Fabrics Ltd; Oak Brook Ghana Ltd; PSI Properties/Gold Coast Collect; Sleek Garment Export Ltd; Extex Batix [Ghana]

·       Oil and Gas:

o   Tema Oil Refinery and Ghana National Petroleum Corp. [for Tullow Oil]

Key Investment Factors Facing AGOA Businesses in Ghana

·       In the global competitiveness index, Ghana was ranked 114th overall and performed better than the sub-Saharan African average.[57] Ghana performed well in public institutions and governance indicators and maintained a high investor protection ranking. By regional standards, Ghana’s government efficiency, ports and financial markets are viewed as well-performing.[58]

·       In terms of deficiencies, the education levels in Ghana lag international standards, labor markets are considered inefficient, the country is not harnessing new technologies for productivity enhancements and there is some evidence of inefficiencies in the financial system.[59]

·       In our survey of Ghanaian companies engaged in AGOA exports, the following were listed as very severe obstacles to additional investment: Agoa’s expiry in 2015; quality of electricity infrastructure; and cost of finance. Moreover, textile and apparel companies listed the expiration of the third country fabric provision in 2012 as a very severe obstacle to investment.

·       The following were listed as severe obstacles to additional investment: fluctuations in foreign currency; domestic price inflation; cost of electricity; cost and availability of land; cost and quality of water supply; cost and quality of telecommunications and availability of finance.

·       Table 3.13 identifies capital expenditure investments for Ghanaian companies that export to the U.S. under AGOA and for which data was available.

 

 

Table 3.13. Investments by Exporters from Ghana, 2007-2010, $ Thousands

Benin

Benin’s Overall Export Performance under AGOA

  • Benin did not register any exports to the U.S. under AGOA. Discussions with the Embassy of Benin, however, indicated that Benin has the opportunity to export textile and apparel products, arts and crafts, and agricultural products.

Key Investment Factors Facing Potential AGOA Exporters in Benin

  • In the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2010-11, Benin ranked 103rd and scored better than that of the sub-Saharan African average. The areas where Benin demonstrated a competitive advantage were in the extent of government regulation, quality of educational system, and hiring and firing practices.[60] However, key bottlenecks existed with respect to infrastructure, market-size and technological readiness.[61]
  • In discussions with officials from the Embassy of Benin, they indicated that two problems faced by potential exporters in taking advantage of AGOA is the challenge of meeting the volume demands and quality requirements of U.S. clients. They, therefore, advocated for greater support toward efforts of building the capacities of businesses in Benin.
  • Given Benin’s market-size bottlenecks, Benin’s competitiveness framework would be better improved within a regional framework, such as within that of ECOWAS. Consequently, the effort by Benin earlier this year to harmonize investment laws amongst ECOWAS member states is positive.[62]


ANNEX 1. Imports under AGOA between 2007 and 2010, $Thousands

ANNEX 2. Overall Competitiveness Performance of

Sub-Saharan African Countries, 2010-11

 

 

Source: WEF, GCR 2010-12

end_of_the_skype_highlighting

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


ANNEX 3. AGOA-Eligible and AGOA Non-Eligible Countries, 2007-2010

Sources: 2007 and 2008 Reports by the USTR.

Note: “T” stands for eligible to export textile and apparel under AGOA.

XIII. The Synthesis Report SMART Work Plan and Terms of Reference

AUM Synthesis Report

From

Prior African Union Mission Consultancies

Monday, 25 July 2011

 

AUM Synthesis Report

Table of Contents                                                                                                                                                 

  1. Consultancy Objective
  2. Specifications and focus
  3. Expected outcome
  4. Scope of work
  5. Terms of reference, in line with UN and AU declarations.
  6. Historical significance and international reference.
  7. Reports to be synthesized
  8. Evaluation of the African Growth and Opportunity Act,
  9. Latin-America study tour report,
  10. Data and knowledge management,
  11. Development of policy briefs,
  12. Communication and media strategy

 

  1. Deliverables & Payment Schedule
  2. Draft Synthesis Table of Content
  3. Report and Presentation
  4. Time Frame
  5. Budget and Payment schedule
  6. Attachments: Terms of Reference for Synthesis Consultancy

 

AUM Synthesis Consultancy Work Plan

SMART Work Plan. The following Synthesis SMART Work Plan that is designed to be specific, measurable, appropriate, relevant and time sensitive to the Synthesis Consultancy Terms of Reference, and is provided in line with the contractual requirements of the synthesizing of reports from Prior Consultancies Project of the African Union Representational Mission in Washington DC.

Project Objectives

  1. Engage a short-term consultant with experience in analyzing and formulating policies;
  2. Improve the coordination of policies affecting Africa’s development

Specifications and focus:

  1. This project’s focus is to provide the African Union Representational Mission with a framework for assessing information; strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, limitations and threats of the various consultations carried out.
  2. Provide “A Single Document” comprising of attributes (strengths, weaknesses, etcetera) that will facilitate the formulation and analysis of policies.

Expected Output

  • Policy Framework Document: The consultant will be required to synthesize/integrate input from previous consultations carried out into a single document.

Scope of Work

The nature and scope of work for the consultancy includes the following:

Integration of prior consultations into policy document: The Consultant will review in-depth reports from prior consultations conducted to date. Previous consultations executed include:

  1. Evaluation of the African Growth and Opportunity Act,
  2. Latin-America study tour,
  3. Data and Knowledge management,
  4. Development of policy briefs,
  5. Communication and media strategy.

 

Report

  • Analyzing, organizing and integrating information gleaned from past project documents into a single document.
  • The policy document will be written in a concise format, devoid of redundant information.

 

  1. Deliverables:
  2. A single policy document that integrates the different consultancy works into a policy framework that analyzes the challenges, opportunities, risks and threats with appropriate recommendations for decision makers.

 

  1. Presentation
  2. Time Frame: Flexible and dependent on the availability of initial AUM Consultancy reports
  3. Revised dates
  4. Analysis of reports from previous consultations: 26 July- 16 August 2011
  5. Synthesizing information into one document: 16 August-26 August 2011
  6. Initial proposed dates
I. Analysis of reports from previous consultations July 18th- 27th, 2011 (26 July-16 August 2011
ii. Synthesizing information into one document July 28th – August 8th, 2011

 

 

  1. Budget and Payment Schedule Days    Payments
  2. Analysis and synthesis 7 days
  3. Recommendations and Report 7 days $4,800

iii. Presentation                                                                             2 days                                                           $4,800

Total                                                                                                                    16 days                                       $9,600.

 

Sample Table of Content

  1. Introduction: Terms of reference and topics addressed
  2. Analysis: Strengths, weaknesses, risks and threats, limitations and opportunities
  3. Methodology: integration and synthesizing of reports from consultancies
  4. Discussion: Challenges and opportunities
  5. Conclusions & recommendations

 

 

Attachment: TOR

 

 

African Union Mission Representation in DC

Terms of Reference

Purpose: Consultant to synthesize inputs from consultations into policy document

  1. Introduction

African Union Representational Mission-Washington DC

The African Union, established as a unique Pan African continental body, is charged with spearheading Africa’s rapid integration and sustainable development.

The Goal of AUM

The goal of the African Union Representational Mission in Washington D.C. is to forge strategic partnerships with the United States government, for profit and nonprofit developmental organizations and the African Diaspora towards the political, social and economic development of Sub-Sahara Africa. It strives at fulfilling the aspirations of an integrated, prosperous and peaceful Africa, driven by its citizens and representing a dynamic force in the international arena.

The Mandate

The mandate of the African Union Representational Mission to the United States is to develop, maintain, and consolidate constructive and productive institutional relationships between the African Union and the government of the United States of America, the Bretton Woods Institutions, non-governmental and academic organizations engaged in Africa issues and policy, and Africans in the Diaspora.

How the Mission performs its tasks. It performs these tasks by promoting unity, solidarity, cohesion and cooperation among the peoples of Africa and developing new partnerships worldwide. The Mission’s Headquarters is located in Addis Ababa, capital city of Ethiopia.

Promoting Africa’s development. A critical component of promoting Africa’s development is the enactment of effective policies. Synthesizing inputs from the Consultations into policy briefs will spur the Mission’s decision-making process.

  1. Objectives

Project focus. This project’s focus is to provide the African Union Representational Mission with a framework for assessing information; strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, limitations and threats of the various consultations carried out. A single document comprising the attributes (strengths, weaknesses, and etcetera) will facilitate the policy formulation and analysis process.

Specific Objectives/Expected Achievement. The African Union Representational Mission seeks to achieve the following objectives:

  • Engage a short-term consultant with experience in analyzing and formulating policies;
  • Improve the coordination of policies affecting Africa’s development
  1. Expected Output
  • The consultant will be required to synthesis/integrate input from all consultations carried out into a single document.
  1. Scope of Work

The following will comprise the nature and scope of the Consultant’s responsibilities:

  • Integration of prior consultations into policy document:

 

  • Policy document: The Consultant will be granted in-depth reports from prior consultations conducted. Previous consultations executed include evaluation of the African Growth and Opportunity Act, Latin-America study tour, Knowledge sharing/ study tours to 3 countries in Asia, mobilization of the African Diaspora in the America’s, data and Knowledge management, development of policy briefs, development and training of African Union Representational Mission staff and volunteer corps on communication and media strategy.
  • Report: This stage will involve analyzing; organizing and integrating information gleaned from past project documents into a single document. In addition, the policy document must be written in a concise format, devoid of redundant information.
  1. Delivery schedule
Analysis of reports from previous consultations July 18th- 27th, 2011
Synthesizing information into one document July 28th – August 8th, 2011

 

Duration of Assignment: 16 Days

The estimated duration for the completion of this assignment is two weeks and two days (16 days). However, the number of days and level of effort required may be adjusted by the African Union Representational Mission, should circumstances necessitate changes to the schedule.

  1. Budget
Component and Activity Number of days Allocated Number Of days Used Number of days remaining Rate/day Amount Allocated (USD) Amount Used (USD) Amount Remaining (USD)
Consultant to synthesize inputs from consultations into a policy document 16 0 16 600 9,600 0 9,600
Report 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Total 0 0 $9,600 $ $9,600

 

  1. Information and Facilities to be provided by the Client

The consultant will be provided access to the African Union Representational Mission’s policy briefs and reports. Furthermore, based on the degree of necessity and availability, working space in the African Union Representational Mission’s offices and access to computers and other equipment (scanners, phones and photocopy) will be granted.

  1. Minimum Qualification and Experience
  • A/ M.A in International Development, International Relations, Public Policy, Communication or related areas;
  • Experience with government, either through direct work experience or analytic experience closely tied to government programs, preferred;
  • Experience related to formulation and analysis of policy;
  • Excellent writing, communication, analytic and organizational skills required;
  • Strong presentation skills;

 

Team work competency. The Synthesis project requires the ability to create and sustain positive working relationships with staff of diverse ethnicities, work independently and collaboratively as required.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

XIV. How to Write Synthesis Reports

  1. What is a Synthesis Essay?

Integrating and making insightful connections between different consultancies.

  • Synthesis essay or report is an integration of one or more works, where insightful connections show the relationships between the different parts and components of one or more previously reported works.

             The Purpose: To integrate and make insightful connections of previous AUM Consultations.

  • The main purpose of a synthesis essay is to integrate and make insightful connections. Those connections can show the relationship(s) between parts of a work or even between two 3or more works.
  1. What are Meaningful and insightful connections?

Seeking win-win partnerships for African development & investment

  • Explain why those relationships are important. In order to write a successful synthesis essay, the author must gather research on the chosen topic, discover meaningful connections throughout the research, and develop a unique and interesting argument or perspective.
  • An opportunity to create new knowledge a unique perspective of AU and Diaspora communities.

 

  1. What is the difference between a summary and synthesis report?

Opportunity to create new knowledge and a unique perspective!

  • A synthesis is not a summary. A synthesis is an opportunity to create new knowledge out of already existing knowledge, i.e., other sources. You combine, “synthesize,” the information in your sources to develop an argument or a unique perspective on a topic.

 

  • What is a thesis statement?

Presenting a perspective that identifies new knowledge!

  • Your thesis statement becomes a one-sentence claim that presents your perspective and identifies the new knowledge that you will create.
  1. What is the Theme?

             Diaspora Engagement for Sustainable development and Investment Opportunities

  • Diaspora engagement as a tool for promoting sustainable development and investment opportunities via MDG and Comprehensive Trade and Investment opportunities !
  1. What type of preparation is needed before writing your synthesis?
  2. Narrow a broad or general topic to a specific topic:    

                  “Diaspora engagement for African development & investment opportunities!”

  • In a short essay, completely covering a large topic is impossible, so picking a specific, focused topic is important. For example, the broad topic of global warming would need to be narrowed down to something more specific, like the effects of automobile exhaust on an ecosystem.
  1. Develop a working thesis statement: “Proactive engagement for development & investment”
  • A working thesis statement should include a rough idea of your topic and the important point you want to make about that topic.
  • Writing this statement at the top of a rough draft or outline and looking at it often can help you remain focused throughout the essay. However, the thesis statement that you begin with is not set in stone. If you find that your essay shifts topic slightly, you can change your thesis in later drafts so that it matches your new focus.
  1. Decide how you will use your sources: “choose those that best support the synthesis statement” (Policy briefs, ADHI, Policy framework, and AGOA Evaluations with ICT & SMN -Media Communication strategies.
  • After completing your research and gathering sources, you may have a large or overwhelming amount of information. However, the purpose of a synthesis essay is to use only the most important parts of your research, the information that will best support your claim. At this point, you must decide which sources, and/or which parts of those sources, you will use.
  1. Organize your research: Abstract, Executive summary and the Report Summary
  • Now, decide the order in which you will present your evidence, the various arguments you will employ, and how you will convince your readers.

The Big Picture: Global African Diaspora

The African diaspora was the movement of Africans and their descendants to places throughout the world – predominantly to the Americas, and also to Europe, the Middle East and other places around the globe.[1][2][3]

The term has been historically applied in particular to the descendants of the Africans who were enslaved and shipped to the Americas by way of the Atlantic slave trade, with the largest population in Brazil (see Afro-Brazilian).

In modern times, it is also applied to Africans who have emigrated from the continent in order to seek education, employment and better living for themselves and their children. People from Sub-Saharan Africa, including many Africans, number at least 800 million in Africa and over 140 million in the Western Hemisphere, representing around 14% of the world’s population.[4][5]

It is believed that this diaspora has the potential to revitalize Africa. Primarily, many academics, NGOs, and websites such as Social Entrepreneurs of the African Diaspora[6] view social entrepreneurship as a tool to be used by the African diaspora to improve themselves and their continent.

XIV. Reference: Further Reading: The LARGER PERSPECTIVE-

The African Diaspora is a dynamic and diverse cohort of highly dynamic populations that has a substantial presence around the globe. The historiography of this interesting population has not been yet fully documented in its appropriate cultural setting by people who have stake in its accuracy, relevancy and implication to future Diaspora generations.

The following Global Diaspora Distribution and natural history is a brief description of current available research in th making to understand other Africans who have immigrated to the different parts of the world and whose history and presence is not yet accounted for. It is recommended for AU to further study and connect with this special population as part of its sixth regional constituency framework tht gives it appropriate place and history. The following documents the different presentations currently available on the global Diaspora population and is by no means complete.

The Global African Diaspora

Table of Contents

·       1 History

o   1.1 Dispersal through slavery

o   1.2 Dispersal through migration

·       2 Definitions

·       3 Estimated population and distribution

·       4 Largest 15 African diaspora populations

·       5 The Americas

o   5.1 North America

§  5.1.1 Canada

o   5.2 Latin America

·       6 Europe

o   6.1 United Kingdom

o   6.2 France

o   6.3 Italy

o   6.4 Netherlands

o   6.5 Russia

o   6.6 Abkhazia

o   6.7 Turkey

·       7 Indian and Pacific Oceans

·       8 See also

·       9 References

·       10 Further reading

·       11 External links

History

Dispersal through slavery. The African Diaspora was initially dispersed along the most heinous crime and human tragedy of slavery. The more recent Diaspora since the late 1960s have left their African seeking by and large safe and better lives and with the intention to return home at the right time.

The Atlantic and Arab Slave Trades. Much of the earlier African diaspora was dispersed throughout Europe, Asia, and the Americas during the Atlantic and Arab Slave Trades. Beginning in the 9th century, Arabs took African slaves from the central and eastern portions of the continent (where they were known as the Zanj) and sold them into markets in the Middle East and eastern Asia.

Beginning in the 15th century, Europeans captured African slaves from West Africa and brought them to Europe and later to the Americas. Both the Arab and Atlantic slave trades ended in the 19th century.[7]

Largest forced migration in history. The dispersal through slave represents one of the largest forced migrations in human history. The economic effect on the African continent was devastating. Some communities created by descendants of African slaves in Europe and Asia have survived to the modern day, but in other cases, blacks intermarried with non-blacks and their descendants blended into the local population.

Part of the Multi-ethinic societies in the Americas. In the Americas, the confluence of multiple ethnic groups from around the world created multi-ethnic societies. In Central and South America, most people are descended from European, American Indian, and African ancestry. In Brazil, where in 1888 nearly half the population was descended from African slaves, the variation of physical characteristics extends across a broad range. In the United States, there was historically a greater colonial population in relation to African slaves, especially in the northern tier.

US-Racist Jim Crow & Anti-miscegenation laws.  he  anti-miscegenation laws after the Civil War, plus waves of vastly increased immigration from Europe in the 19th and 20th centuries, maintained some distinction between racial groups. In the 20th century, to institutionalize racial segregation, most southern states adopted the “one drop rule“, which defined anyone with any discernible African ancestry as African.[8]

Dispersal through migration

From the very onset of Spanish activity in the Americas, black Africans were present both as voluntary expeditionaries and as involuntary laborers.[9][10] Juan Garrido was one such black conquistador. He crossed the Atlantic as a freedman in the 1510s and participated in the siege of Tenochtitlan.[11]

Modern Diaspora. Emigration from Sub-equatorial Africa has been the primary reason for the modern diaspora. People have left the subcontinent because of warfare and social disruption in numerous countries over the years, and also to seek better economic opportunities.

Scholars estimate the current population of recent African immigrants to the United States alone is over 600,000, some of whom are Black Africans from the Sub-equatorial region.[12] Countries with the largest recorded numbers of immigrants to the U.S. are Ethiopians, NigeriaGhanaSierra Leone and mostly West African Countries. Some immigrants have come from AngolaCape VerdeMozambique (see Luso American), Equatorial GuineaKenya, and Cameroon. Immigrants typically congregate in major urban areas, moving to suburban areas over time.

There are significant populations of recent African immigrants in many other countries around the world, including the UK[13] and France, both nations that had colonies in Africa.[14][15]

Definitions

The African Union Perspective

The sixth regional constituents. The African Union defined the African diaspora as “[consisting] of people of African origin living outside the continent, irrespective of their citizenship and nationality and who are willing to contribute to the development of the continent and the building of the African Union.” Its constitutive act declares that it shall “invite and encourage the full participation of the African Diaspora as an important part of our continent, in the building of the African Union.”

Between 1500 and 1900, approximately four million enslaved Africans were transported to island plantations in the Indian Ocean, about eight million were shipped to Mediterranean-area countries, and about eleven million survived the Middle Passage to the New World.[16] Their descendants are now found around the globe. Due to intermarriage and genetic assimilation, just who is a descendant of the African diaspora is not entirely self-evident.

African diaspora populations outside of Sub-equatorial Africa include:

Estimated African Diaspora Population and distribution

 

Continent or region Country population Afro-descendants [18] Black and black-mixed population
Caribbean 39,148,115 73.2% 22,715,518
Haiti 9,719,932 95% (black) + 4.9% (Mulatto) 9,233,935 + 476,277
Dominican Republic [19][20] 10,090,000 11% (black) + 73% (mixed) 1,109,900 + 7,365,700
Cuba[21] 11,239,363 10.08% (black) + 24.86 (mixed – Mulatto) 1,132,928 + 2,794,106
Jamaica[22] 2,847,232 76.3% (black) + 18.5% (mixed) 2,172.438 + 526,738
Puerto Rico[23] 3,725,789 12.4% (black) + 3.3% (mixed) 461,998 + 122,951
Trinidad and Tobago 1,047,366 58.0% 607,472
The Bahamas[24] 307,451 85.0% 209,000
Barbados 281,968 90.0% 253,771
Netherlands Antilles 225,369 85.0% 191,564
Saint Lucia 172,884 82.5% 142,629
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 118,432 85.0% 100,667
Virgin Islands 108,210 79.7% 86,243
Grenada 110,000 91.0% 101,309
Antigua and Barbuda 78,000 94.9% 63,000
Bermuda 66,536 61.2% 40,720
Saint Kitts and Nevis 39,619 98.0% 38,827
Cayman Islands 47,862 60.0% 28,717
British Virgin Islands 24,004 83.0% 19,923
Turks and Caicos islands[25] 26,000 > 90.0% 18,000
South America 388,570,461 28.70% 111,511,261
Colombia [20] 45,925,397 4.0% (black) + 3.0% (Zambo) + 14.0% (Mulatto) 1,837,015 + 1,377,762 + 6,429,556
Venezuela[26][27] 29,105,632 ~10% (black) 2,910,563
Guyana 770,794 36.0% 277,486
Suriname 475,996 47.0% 223,718
French Guiana 199,509 66.0% 131,676
Brazil 190,732,694 6.84% (black) + 43.80% (multiracial) 13,046,116 + 83,540,920
Ecuador[28] 13,927,650 4.9% 680,000
Peru 29,496,000 2.0% 589,920
Bolivia 10,907,778 ~0.5% 54,539
Chile 17,094,270 < 0.1% 0*
Paraguay 6,349,000 3.5% (Mulatto) 222,215
Argentina 40,091,359 ~0.12% ~50,000
Uruguay 3,494,382 4.0% 139,775
North America 491,829,020 9.02% 44,361,299
United States[29] 308,745,538 13.6% 42,020,743
Canada[30] 33,098,932 2.7% 783,795
Mexico 108,700,891 < 0.1% 103,000
Belize 301,270 31.0% 93,394
Guatemala 13,002,206 < 1.0% 100,000
El Salvador 7,066,403 < 0.1% 0*
Honduras 7,639,327 2.0% 152,787
Nicaragua 5,785,846 9.0% 520,726
Costa Rica 4,195,914 3.0% 125,877
Panama 3,292,693 14.0% 460,977
Europe 738,856,462.00 0.95% ~7,034,1000
France[31][32] 62,752,136 5% (inc. overseas territories) 3,000,000
Italy[33] 60,020,805 ~0.44% ~264,500
United Kingdom 60,609,153 3.3% (inc. partial) 2,015,400
Netherlands[34] 16,491,461 3.1% 507,000
Spain 40,397,842 0,5% ~200,000
Germany 82,000,000 0.6% 500,000 [35]
Russia[36] 141,594,000 0.03% 40,000
Portugal 10,605,870 2.0% 201,200
Norway[37] 4,858,199 1.4% 67,000
Sweden 9,263,872 0.8% > 70,000
Belgium 10,666,866 0.4% 45,000
Republic of Ireland[38] 4,339,000 1.1% 45,000
Switzerland[39] 7,790,000 0.5% > 40,000
Austria 8,356,707 0.2% 14,223
Finland 5,340,783 0.37% 20,000
Poland 38,082,000 0.01% 4,500
Hungary[40] 10,198,325 0.0% 321
Asia 3,879,000,000 0.0% ?
Israel[41] 7,411,000 2.8% 200,000
Japan[42] 127,756,815 0.0% 10,000 –
India[43] 1,132,446,000 0.0% 40,000
Pakistan 172,900,000 0.0% 10,000
China[44] 1,321,851,888 0.0% 8,000+
Oceania
Australia[45] 21,000,000 ?% ?

(*)Note that population statistics from different sources and countries use highly divergent methods of rating the “race”, ethnicity, or national or genetic origin of individuals, from observing for color and racial characteristics, to asking the person to choose from a set of pre-defined choices, sometimes with an Other category, and sometimes with an open-ended option, and sometimes not, which different national populations tend to choose in divergent ways. Color and visual characteristics were considered an invalid way to determine the genetic “racial” branch in anthropology (the field of science that original conceived of “race”, as a genetic branch of people who could have a relative success together compared with other branches, now considered invalid) as of 1910, thus not fully reflecting the percentage of the population who actually are of African heritage.

Largest 15 African diaspora populations in the Americas

Key: The African diaspora in the Americas:

 Black, Black African ancestry; Brown, Black African & European ancestry; Wine-red, Multiracial.

 

Global Diaspora Distribution by population Rank

Country Population Rank
 Brazil 85,783,143 1
 United States 38,499,304 2
 Colombia 9,452,872 3
 Haiti 8,788,439 4
 Dominican Republic 7,985,991 5
 France 4,200,000 6
 Jamaica 2,731,419 7
 Venezuela 2,641,481 8
 United Kingdom 2,080,000 9
 Cuba 1,126,894 10
 Italy 1,100,000 11
 Puerto Rico 979,882 12
 Peru 875,427 13
 Canada 783,795 14
 Ecuador 680,000 15

African-American peoples of the Americas

  • African Americans– There are an estimated 40 million people of Black African descent in the US. Note that this figure (here, and in the chart, above) directly conflicts with information in this same article that says that 30% of US people have genetic content from the [post 1400] African diaspora.
  • Afro-Latin American– There are an estimated 100 million people of African descent living in Latin America, making up 45 % of Brazil‘s population.[46] There are also sizeable African populations in CubaHaitiColombiaDominican Republic and Venezuela.
  • The population in theCaribbean is approximately 23 million. Significant numbers of African-descended people include Haiti – 8 million, Dominican – 7.9 million, and Jamaica – 2.7 million,[47]

North America

Several migration waves to the Americas, as well as relocations within the Americas, have brought people of African descent to North America. According to the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, the first African populations came to North America in the 16th century viaMexico and the Caribbean to the Spanish colonies of FloridaTexas and other parts of the South.[48] Out of the 12 million people from Africa who were shipped to the Americas during the transatlantic slave trade,[49] 645,000 were shipped to the British colonies on the North American mainland and the United States; another 1,840,000 arrived at other British colonies, chiefly the West Indies.[50] In 2000, African Americans comprised 12.1 percent of the total population in the United States, constituting the largest racial minority group. The African American population is concentrated in the southern states and urban areas.[51]

In the construction of the African Diaspora, the transatlantic slave trade is often considered the defining element, but people of African descent have engaged in eleven other migration movements involving North America since the 16th century, many being voluntary migrations, although undertaken in exploitative and hostile environments.[48]

In the 1860s, people from sub-Saharan Africa, mainly from West Africa and the Cape Verde Islands, started to arrive in a voluntary immigration wave to seek employment as whalers in Massachusetts. This migration continued until restrictive laws were enacted in 1921 that in effect closed the door on non-Europeans, but by that time, men of African ancestry were already a majority in New England’s whaling industry, with African Americans working as sailors, blacksmiths, shipbuilders, officers, and owners, eventually bringing their trade to California.[52]

1.7 million people in the United States are descended from voluntary immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. African immigrants represent 6 percent of all immigrants to the United States and almost 5 percent of the African American community nationwide. About 57 percent immigrated between 1990 and 2000.[53] Immigrants born in Africa constitute 1.6 percent of the black population. People of the African immigrant diaspora are the most educated population group in the United States — 50 percent have bachelor’s or advanced degrees, compared to 23 percent of native-born Americans.[54] The largest African immigrant communities in the United States are in New York, followed by California,Texas, and Maryland.[53] The states with the highest percentages of Africans in their total populations are Mississippi (36.3%), and Louisiana(32.5%). While not a state, the District of Columbia is 60.0% black. Refugees represent a minority.

U.S. Bureau of the Census categorizes the population by race based on self-identification.[55] The census surveys have no provision for a “multiracial” or “biracial” self-identity, but since 2000, respondents may check off more than one box and claim multiple ethnicity that way.

Canada

Main article: Black Canadians

Much of the earliest black presence in Canada came from the United States; comprising African Americans who came as Loyalists, or escaped to locations in Nova Scotia and Southwestern Ontario via the Underground Railroad. Slavery had begun to be outlawed in Americas early as 1793. Later black immigration to Canada came primarily from the Caribbean, in such numbers that fully 70 per cent of all blacks now in Canada are of Caribbean origin.

As a result of the prominence of Caribbean immigration, the term “African Canadian”, while sometimes used to refer to the minority of Canadian blacks who have direct African or African American heritage, is not normally used to denote black Canadians. Blacks of Caribbean origin are usually denoted as “West Indian Canadian”, “Caribbean Canadian” or more rarely “Afro-Caribbean Canadian”, but there remains no widely used alternative to “Black Canadian” which is considered inclusive of the African, Afro-Caribbean, and African-American black communities in Canada.

Latin America

Main article: Afro-Latin American

At an intermediate level, in Latin America and in the former plantations in and around the Indian Ocean, descendants of enslaved people are a bit harder to define because many people are mixed in demographic proportion to the original slave population. In places that imported relatively few slaves (like Argentina or Chile), few if any are considered “black” today.[56] In places that imported many enslaved people (like Brazil or Dominican), the number is larger, though most identify themselves as being of mixed, rather than strictly African, ancestry.[57]

In Peru, the African population was very mixed with the other white, Indian and mestizo population, so someone is identified as negro if he or she has visible African features. Some mestizos and whites have a degree of African admixture.

Europe

 Black people in Europe and Emigration from Africa

In Europe Union countries, Black African immigrants are neither specifically identified nor described in national statistics by the colour of their skin. At best, both first and subsequent generations are described in national statistics as “foreign born citizens”. Of 42 countries surveyed by a European Commission against Racism and Intolerance study in 2007, it was found that 29 collected official statistics on country of birth, 37 on citizenship, 24 on religion, 26 on language, 6 on country of birth of parents, and 22 on nationality or ethnicity.

The major result of this routine is that even though people of Black African descent may outnumber other ethnic minorities in some European countries, there is no statistical evidence to support the notion that they may qualify for special measures as minorities where they live. They are, in a word, invisible.[58] It also means that EU countries do not differentiate their inhabitants by skin color.

United Kingdom

 Black British

2 million (not including British Mixed) split evenly between Afro-Caribbeans and Africans.

France

See also: Black people in France

Estimates of 2 to 3 million of African descent, although 1/4 of the Afro-French or French African population live in overseas territories.[59]

Italy

See also: African immigrants to Italy

There are an estimated 755,000 to 1.2 million immigrants from Africa in Italy, with only a minority of Sub-Saharan Africans. Most of the latter come from West African countries such as GhanaNigeriaSenegal, and Ivory Coast.

Netherlands

There are an estimated 500,000 black people in the Dutch Suriname and the Netherlands Antilles. They mainly live in the islands of Aruba,BonaireCuraçao and Saint Martin, the latter of which is also partly French-controlled. Many Afro-Dutch people reside in the Netherlands.

Russia

 Afro-Russians

The first blacks in Russia were the result of the slave trade of the Ottoman Empire[60] and their descendants still live on the coasts of the Black SeaCzar Peter the Great was recommended by his friend Lefort to bring in Africans to Russia for hard labor. Alexander Pushkin was the descendant of the African princeling Abram Petrovich Gannibal, who became Peter’s protege, was educated as a military engineer in France, and eventually became general-en-chef, responsible for the building of sea forts and canals in Russia.[61][62]

During the 1930s fifteen Black American families moved to the Soviet Union as agricultural experts.[63] As African states became independent in the 1960s, the Soviet Union offered them the chance to study in Russia; over 40 years, 400,000 African students came, and many settled there.[60][64]

Note that there are also non-African people within the former Soviet Union who are colloquially referred to as “the blacks” (chernye). Gypsies,Georgians, and Chechens fall into this category.[65]

Abkhazia

Main article: Afro-Abkhazians

Some blacks of unknown origin once inhabited the southern Abkhazian, today are assimilated to Abkhaz.

Turkey

Main article: Afro-Turks

Beginning several centuries ago, a number of sub-Saharan Africans, usually via Zanzibar and from places like KenyaSudanGhanaNigeria were brought by Turkish slave traders during the Ottoman Empire to plantations around DalamanMenderes and Gediz valleys, Manavgat, andÇukurova.

Indian and Pacific Oceans

There are a number of communities in South Asia that are descended from African slaves, traders or soldiers.[66] These communities are theSiddiSheediMakrani and Sri Lanka Kaffirs. In some cases, they became very prominent, such as Jamal-ud-Din YaqutHoshu Sheedi or theMurud-Janjira fort.

Some Pan-Africanists also consider other peoples as diasporic African peoples. These groups include, among others, Negritos, such as in the case of the peoples of the Malay Peninsula (Orang Asli);[67] New Guinea (Papuans);[68] Andamanese; certain peoples of the Indian subcontinent,[69][70] and the aboriginal peoples of Melanesia and Micronesia.[71][72] Most of these claims are rejected by mainstream ethnologists as pseudoscience and pseudoanthropology as part of ideologically motivated Afrocentrist irredentism, touted primarily among some extremist elements in the United States who do not reflect on the mainstream African-American community.[73] Mainstream anthropologists determine that the Andamanese and others are part of a network of Proto-Australoid and Paleo Mediterranean ethnic groups present in South Asia that trace their genetic ancestry to a migratory sequence that culminated in the Australian aboriginals rather than from African peoples directly (though indirectly, they did originate from prehistoric groups out of Africa as did all human beings on this planet).[74][75][76][77]

See also

References

  1. “Welcome to the official site of the African Diaspora in Europe”.
  2. Ade Ajayi, J. F; International Scientific Committee For The Drafting Of a General History Of Africa, Unesco (1998-07-01).General History of AfricaISBN 9780520067011.
  3. “Dictionary definition: African Diaspora”.
  4. Sub-Saharan Africa, The World Bank Group.
  5. Report on the African Diaspora Open House, The African Diaspora Medical Project.
  6. “Seadiaspora.com”. Seadiaspora.com. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  7. “Historical survey > The international slave trade”.Slavery.Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Retrieved 2007-09-30.
  8. Olson, Steve (2003).Mapping Human History: Genes, Race, and Our Common OriginsHoughton Mifflin Company. pp. 54–69.ISBN 0-618-35210-4.
  9. Warren, J. Benedict (1985).The Conquest of Michoacán.University of Oklahoma PressISBN 0-8061-1858-X.
  10. Krippner-Martínez, James (October 1990). “The Politics of Conquest: An Interpretation of the Relación de Michoacán”.The Americas (The Americas, Vol. 47, No. 2) 47 (2): 177–197.doi:2307/1007371JSTOR 1007371.
  11. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. p. 327.
  12. “Diversity in Black and White”.
  13. Mensah, John Freelove.“Persons Granted British Citizenship United Kingdom, 2006”. Home Office Statistical Bulletin 08/07, 22 May 2007. Retrieved 4 November 2007
  14. Thomas, Dominic (2006). Black France: Colonialism, Immigration, And Transnationalism. Indiana University Press, 2006, ISBN 0-253-34821-8.
  15. Tattersall, Nick. “Africans denounce French DNA immigration bill”Reuters Africa, 5 October 2007. Retrieved 4 November 2007.
  16. ^Larson, Pier M. (1999). “Reconsidering Trauma, Identity, and the African Diaspora: Enslavement and Historical Memory in Nineteenth-Century Highland Madagascar” (PDF). William and Mary Quarterly 56 (2): 335–362. doi:2307/2674122.JSTOR 2674122.
  17. “A Legacy Hidden in Plain Sight”,The Washington Post, 10 Jan 2004
  18. “CIA – The World Factbook>”. Cia.gov. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
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  20. a b [www.informaworld.com/index/902542287.pdf Inter-American Dialogue]
  21. “CIA – The World Factbook”. Cia.gov. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  22. -People[dead link]
  23. 2010 U.S. Census – Puerto Rico
  24. -People[dead link]
  25. Joshua Project.“Joshua Project – Ethnic People Groups of Turks and Caicos Islands”. Joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  26. “Venezuela”(PDF). Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  27. “Seeing Black”. Seeing Black. 2005-07-01. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  28. [1][dead link]
  29. ^“CIA – The World Factbook – United States”. Cia.gov. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  30. ^“Visible minority population, by province and territory (2001 Census)”. 0.statcan.ca. 2009-09-11. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  31. [http://paceebene.org/pace/nvns/nonviolence-news-service-archive/in-officially-colorblind-f[dead link]
  32. com: World[dead link]
  33. “ISTAT (Istituto Nazionale di Statistica), stranieri 2011 Africa”. Demo.istat.it. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  34. http://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyers/2DAFB377-8622-4A6f-9700-8E9EB8EDD61/0/pb01e067.pdf
  35. “‘Uncle Barack’s Cabin’: German Newspaper Slammed for Racist Cover – SPIEGEL ONLINE – News – International”. Spiegel.de. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  36. “Мймй Зпмдео Й Мймй Дйлупо. Фемертпелф “Юетоще Тхуулйе”: Уйопруйу”. Africana.ru. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  37. “Statistics Norway – Persons with immigrant background by immigration category, country background and sex. 1 January 2010”(in (Norwegian)). Ssb.no. 2010-01-01. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  38. “Ireland: People”The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2008-12-20.
  39. “Federal Office of Statistics”. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  40. “Hungarian census 2001”. Nepszamlalas.hu. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  41. .http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/04/05/ap/world/mainD8GPUNGG8.shtml.[dead link]
  42. POP AFRICA(Nagoya University) from the statictics at 2005 by the Immigration Bureau of Japan
  43. “colaco.net”. colaco.net. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  44. “>”. Cbc.ca. 2005-06-30. Retrieved 2011-02-22.[dead link]
  45. “20680-Country of Birth of Person (full classification list) by Sex – Australia (2006)”. Censusdata.abs.gov.au. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  46. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.htmlcia factbook
  47. http://www.un.org/esa/population/publications/WPP2004/World_Population_2004_chart.pdf
  48. ab Dodson, Howard and Sylviane A. Diouf, eds. (2005). In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library. Retrieved 24 November 2007.
  49. Ronald Segal (1995). The Black Diaspora: Five Centuries of the Black Experience Outside Africa. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 4. ISBN 0-374-11396-3. “It is now estimated that 11,863,000 slaves were shipped across the Atlantic. [Note in original: Paul E. Lovejoy, “The Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade on Africa: A Review of the Literature,” in Journal of African History 30 (1989), p. 368.] … It is widely conceded that further revisions are more likely to be upward than downward.”
  50. Stephen D. Behrendt, David Richardson, and David Eltis,  E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research,Harvard University. Based on “records for 27,233 voyages that set out to obtain slaves for the Americas”. Stephen Behrendt (1999). “Transatlantic Slave Trade”. Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. New York: Basic Civitas Books. ISBN 0-465-00071-1.
  51. United States African-American Population. CensusScope, Social Science Data Analysis Network. Retrieved 17 December 2007.
  52. Heros in the Ships: African Americans in the Whaling Industry. Old Dartmouth Historical Society / New Bedford Whaling Museum, 2001.
  53. a b Dodson, Howard and Sylviane A. Diouf, eds. (2005). The Immigration Waves: The numbersIn Motion: The African-American Migration Experience. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library. Retrieved 24 November 2007.
  54. Dodson, Howard and Sylviane A. Diouf, eds. (2005). The Brain DrainReversing Africa’s ‘brain drain’In Motion: The African-American Migration Experience. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library. Retrieved 24 November 2007.
  55. S. Census Bureau.State & County QuickFacts. Retrieved 6 November 2007.
  56. Harry Hoetink,Caribbean Race Relations: A Study of Two Variants (Lon-don, 1971), xii.
  57. Clara E. Rodriguez, “Challenging Racial Hegemony: Puerto Ricans in the United States,” inRace, ed. Steven Gregory and Roger Sanjek (New Brunswick NJ, 1994), 131–45, 137. See also Frederick P. Bowser, “Colonial Spanish America,” in Neither Slave Nor Free: The Freedmen of African Descent in the Slave Societies of the New World, ed. David W. Cohen and Jack P. Greene (Baltimore, 1972), 19–58, 38.
  58. “Basic Facts About the African Diaspora”, by M. Arthur Robinson Diakité, http://www.thelundian.com
  59. 1/4 of the French African population comes from theCaribbean in French
  60. a b “Лили Голден и Лили Диксон. Телепроект “Черные русские”: синопсис. Info on “Black Russians” film project in English”. Africana.ru. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  61. Gnammankou, Dieudonné.Abraham Hanibal – l’aïeul noir de Pouchkine, Paris 1996.[2]
  62. “Barnes, Hugh. ”Gannibal: The Moor of Petersburg”, London 2005″. Profilebooks.com. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  63. ANew York Times review of family memoir entitled Three Very Rare Generations
  64. “Film: Black Russians”. MediaRights. Retrieved 2011-02-22.
  65. The Unmaking of Soviet Life: Everyday Economies After SocialismBy Caroline Humphrey Cornell University 2002 p36-37
  66. Shanti Sadiq Ali,The African Dispersal in the Deccan: From Medieval to Modern TimesOrient Blackswan, 1996
  67. Runoko Rashidi (2000-11-04).“Black People in the Philippines”. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
  68. “West Papua New Guinea: Interview with Foreign Minister Ben Tanggahma”. 2007-07-25. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
  69. Iniyan Elango (2002-08-08).“Notes from a Brother in India: History and Heritage”. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
  70. Horen Tudu (2002-08-08).“The Blacks of East Bengal: A Native’s Perspective”. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
  71. Runoko Rashidi (1999-11-19).“Blacks in the Pacific”. Retrieved 2007-09-29.
  72. Micronesians
  73. Not Out Of Africa: How “Afrocentrism” Became An Excuse To Teach Myth As History byMary Lefkowitz, New Republic Press,ISBN 0-465-09838-XISBN 978-0-465-09838-5
  74. “Status of Austro-Asiatic groups in the peopling of India: An exploratory study based on the available prehistoric, linguistic and biological evidences”, Journal of Biosciences Springer,0250-5991,Volume 28, Number 4 / June, 2003, DOI:10.1007/BF02705125, Pages:507–522, Subject Collection:Biomedical and Life Sciences, Date:Thursday, September 20, 2007
  75. Multiple origins of the mtDNA 9-bp deletion in populations of South India W.S. Watkins 1 *, M. Bamshad 2, M.E. Dixon 1, B. Bhaskara Rao 3, J.M. Naidu 3, P.G. Reddy 4, B.V.R. Prasad 3, P.K. Das 5, P.C. Reddy 6, P.B. Gai 7, A. Bhanu 8, Y.S. Kusuma 3, J.K. Lum 1, P. Fischer 2, L.B. Jorde 1,American Journal of Physical Anthropology Volume 109 Issue 2, Pages 147 – 158, 2 June 1999
  76. P . ENDICOTT, The Genetic Origins of the Andaman Islanders . The American Journal of Human Genetics , Volume 72 , Issue 1 , Pages 178 – 184
  77. Genetic testing has shown the Andamani to belong to theHaplogroup D (Y-DNA), which is in common withAustralian Aboriginals and the Ainu people of Japan rather than the actual African diaspora, [3]

Further reading

  1. Okpewho, Isidore; Nzegwu, Nkiru (2009). The new African diaspora. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-35337-5.
  2. Olaniyan, Tejumola; Sweet, James H (2010). The African Diaspora and the Disciplines. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0-253-35464-8.
  3. Hine, Darlene Clark; Danielle Keaton, Trica; Small, Stephen (2009). Black Europe and the African diaspora. University of Illinois Press.ISBN 9780252076572.
  4. Davies, Carole Boyce (2008). Encyclopedia of the African diaspora: origins, experiences and culture, Volume 1. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.ISBN 978-1-85109-700-5.
  5. Wisdom, Tettey; Puplampu, Korbla P (2005). The African diaspora in Canada: negotiating identity & belonging. University of Calgary Press. ISBN 1-55238-175-7.
  6. Olliz-Boyd, Antonio (2010). The Latin American Identity and the African Diaspora: Ethnogenesis in Context. Cambria Press. ISBN 978-1-60497-704-2.
  7. Carter, Donald Martin (2010). Navigating the African Diaspora: The Anthropology of Invisibility. University of Minnesota Press. ISBN 978-0-8166-4777-4.
  8. Conyers, Jr, James L (2009). Racial structure and radical politics in the African diaspora. London : Transaction. ISBN 1-4128-1045-0.
  9. Curry, Dawne Y; Duke;, Eric D; Smith, Marshanda A (2009). Extending the diaspora : new histories of Black peopl. University of Illinois Press.ISBN 978-0-252-03459-6
  10. Arthur, John A (2008). The African diaspora in the United States and Europe: the Ghanaian experience. Ashgate. ISBN 9780754648413.

11.   [edit]External links

  1. The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean World, Omar H. Ali, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture
  2. Africans in Diaspora community on line
  3. Black History Information and Resources
  4. “African Diaspora”, a resource list, Columbia Universities, African Studies
  5. “The Blacks of East Bengal: A Native’s Perspective,” by Horen Tudu
  6. “Negrito and Negrillo”, by M. Stewart
  7. “Pan-Africanism in South Asia,” by Horen Tudu
  8. Report of the Meeting of Experts from Member States on the Definition of the African Diaspora, African Union, April 2005
  9. “West Papua New Guinea: Interview with Foreign Minister Ben Tanggahma”
  10. “Museum of the African Diaspora,” Online exhibits and other resources from the San Francisco-based museum.
  11. “African Diasporic and Indigenous cultures of Colombia and Brasil”
  12. African Diaspora and Study Abroad Brazil African Studies
  13. The African Diaspora Policy Centre (ADPC)
  14. Invisible sojourners: African immigrant diaspora in the United States By John A. Arthur
  15. Seadiaspora.com

[1]The Us Census classified the following countries under ‘other east Africa’; Burundi, Comoros, Djibouti, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, Juan de Nova Island, Madagascar, Malawi, Mayotte, Mozambique, Reunion, Rwanda, Mauritius, Seychelles, Somalia, Tanzania, Tromelin Island, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe

[2]US Diversity visa qualifications state “an applicant must have either a high school education or its equivalent, defined as successful completion of a 12-year course of elementary and secondary education; or two years of work experience within the past five years in an occupation requiring at least two years of training or experience to perform

[3] Source U.S. Energy Information Administration’s Database.

[4] http://www.agoa.gov/agoalegislation/

[5] http://www.agoa.info/index.php?view=about&story=product_lines

[6] An examination of AGOA 2011 countries imports to the U.S. of HTS12 categories in 2010 indicated imports in 436 categories.

[7] Estimates derived from examining AGOA 2011 country imports of HTS2 categories.

[8] Textile products consist of yarns, fabrics and made-up textile articles and apparel products include garments and clothing accessories, gloves, headwear and neckwear. See USITC’s “Textile and Apparel: Assessment of the Competitiveness of Certain Foreign Supplies to the U.S. Market, Vol. 1, dated Jan. 2004.

[9] These exogenous factors are the removal of quota restrictions with the phase out of the Multi-Fiber Agreement (MFA) in 2005, the sustained increase in oil prices since 2005, and the tempering of U.S. consumer demand following the global and financial crisis of 2007.

[10] Discussions with Mark Bennett on 1 August 2011.

[11] Discussions with ACTIF’s Rajeev Arora and African Coalition for Trade’s Paul Ryberg on 9th May 2011.

[12] Our discussion of the agriculture sector includes seafood exports.

[13] There have been policy briefs by institutions such as the Partnership to Cut Hunger and Poverty in Africa that have highlighted this concern.

[14] U.S. market is seen as a very large market for macadamias but one that offers lower prices compared to Japan, China, Far East and Europe.

[15] Australia’s free trade agreement with the U.S. has ensured that its products come into the U.S. duty-free. As a result, AGOA has provided AGOA-eligible African countries with the ability to market macadamia to the U.S. without tariffs. Under normal GSP, macadamia nuts face a of 1.3cts/kg and 5cts/kg tariff on shelled and unshelled macadamia nuts, respectively. Source USITC.

[16] See projection documents on the South Africa’s Macadamia Growers Association’s [SAMAC] website http://www.samac.org.za/docs/Projections.pdf.

[17] This point was captured during discussions with Valentine Growers in Kenya and Rosebuds of Uganda.

[18] See “U.S. Tariff Rate Quotas and AGOA Market Access” by David Skully – a joint-policy brief by the Partnership to Cut Hunger and Poverty Africa and the International Food and Agricultural Trade Policy Council.

[19] News articles mention significant investments by a Brazilian firm in Mozambique and an Egyptian firm in Sudan that are tied to the E.U. sugar reforms. See http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/8303308.stm, http://www.maccaferri.it/nqcontent.cfm?a_id=1479&lang=en.

[20] Source U.S. Energy Information Administration’s Database.

[21] Includes investments in Equatorial Guinea, which isn’t a part of AGOA. Source: Exxon-Mobil’s Annual Reports and SEC Filings.

[22] Investments in sub-Saharan Africa. Source: Chevron’s Annual Reports and SEC Filings.

[23] Investments in West Africa Region. Source. ENI’s Annual Reports

[24] Indications of a flurry of interest in the West Africa region following the Jubilee oil field discovery in Ghana as well as 2010 USGS assessments of significant undiscovered oil in West Africa’s Senegal Province and the Gulf of Guinea Province. See International Energy Outlook 2010: Is West Africa Region the World’s Next Frontier for Oil? Release Date 27 July 2010.

[25] SouthAfrica.info Article Titled “South Africa’s Automotive Industry” http://www.southafrica.info/business/economy/sectors/automotive-overview.htm Website last updated September 2008. Accessed 8 August 2011.

[26] Ibid.

[27] Ibid.

[28] Note an examination of the custom records of shipments by Sonangol indicates that many of the shipments listed under Sonangol were shipments of crude oil by the oil majors.

[29] Listing derived from search of Panjiva records of Angola’s oil exporters to the U.S.

[30] Utilizing a simple formula of a company’s total capital costs in Africa during a year attributed to the individual countries of export by the share of oil exported.

[31] U.S. CIA Factbook estimates Angola’s oil reserves at 13.5 billion barrels in January 2010. http://www.eia.gov/countries/country-data.cfm?fips=AO

[32] In the 2010-11 Global Competitiveness Report [GCR], Angola ranked 45th worldwide in its strength of investor protection. See World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2010-11, page 78-79.

[33] See World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2010-11, pages 78-79.

[34] In the 2010-11 GCR, Angola ranked 136th in the quality of overall infrastructure, 139th quality in the educational system, 137th in the burden of government regulation, 132nd in the affordability of financial services and 129th in the availability of financial services, See World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2010-11, pages 78-79.

[35] None of the companies provided a response to my attempts at getting them to survey.

[36] Performed a search on Panjiva for the last shipment dates of Microlith and CaraFashions

[37] No company from Botswana agreed to take the survey. However, the Embassy of Botswana was very helpful by sharing information from their own studies on constraints facing Botswana’s businesses exporting to the U.S. under AGOA.

[38] See WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-11, page 104-105.

[39] Ibid, pages 104-105.

[40] Ibid, pages 104-105.

[41] Note that the costs of fuel dramatically increased in 2005.

[42] Lesotho ranked 12th in total tax rate, 57th in number of procedures to start a business, 21st in % of females in labor-force, and 39th in legal rights index – see page 154 and 155 of the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2010-11.

[43] Lesotho ranked 137 in business impact of HIV; 138 in life expectancy; 128 in primary education enrollment rate, 120 in secondary education enrollment rate; 134 and 130 in the availability and affordability of financial services, respectively; and 136 in domestic market size index. See pages 154 and 155 of the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2010-11.

[44] They argue that the stringent SPS regimen has prevented Lesotho from exporting agricultural products to the U.S. under AGOA.

[45] No direct confirmation as exports occurred in 2007, prior to Panjiva’s shipping reports. However, UAAIE is the largest tomato processing company in Ethiopia and was just acquired by Ethiopian-American investors.

[46] See World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2010-11, pages 154-155.

[47] Ethiopia ranked 27th in burden of government regulation, 54th in business cost of crime and violence, 48th in quality of air infrastructure, 32nd in total tax rate (% of profits), 30th in number of procedures required to start a business, and 39th in agricultural policy costs. See World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2010-11, pages 154-155.

[48]Ethiopia ranked 139 out of 139 in inflation; 139 out of 139 in mobile telephone subscriptions per capita; 129 out of 139 on restrictions of capital flows, 129 out of 139 in production process sophistication, 124 out of 139 in availability of financial services; and 119 out of 139 in quality of electricity supply, Ibid, pages 154-155.

[49] Companies surveyed were FRESCOMAR, Indupesca Ltd, FAMA, and Padaria.

[50] See World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2010-11, pages 202-3.

[51] Kenya ranked 27th overall in financial market development, 32nd overall in quality of the educational system, 46th overall in labor market efficiency, and 56th overall in innovation. See pages 202-3 of the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2010-11

[52] I Kenya ranked 129th in public trust of politicians, 126th in inflation, 130th in HIV prevalence, 127th in HIV impact on business, 126th in malaria incidence and the business impact of TB, 123rd in tertiary enrollment rate, and 127th in broadband internet access. See pages 202-3 of the World Economic Forum’s Global Competitiveness Report 2010-11

[53] See Global Competitiveness Report 2010-11, pages 122-123.

[54] Cape Verde ranked 131st overall in terms of quality of electricity supply, 121st in terms of quality of management schools, 125th in terms of prevalence of trade barriers, 127th in terms of burden of custom procedures, 136th in terms of degree of customer orientation, 128th in terms of local supplier quantity and 130th in terms of local supplier quality. See Global Competitiveness Report 2010-11, pages 122-123.

[55] Companies surveyed were FRESCOMAR, Indupesca Ltd, FAMA, and Padaria.

[56] Mineral fuels were bi-products of refined Nigerian crude in Ghanaian refineries, which were on many occasions exported to the U.S.

[57] See WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-11, pages 166-167

[58] See WEF Global Competitiveness Report 2010-11, page 166-167.

[59] Ibid, pages 166-7.

[60] In the GCR 2010-11 Benin was ranked 34th overall in terms of burden of government regulation, 45th overall in terms of quality of educational system and 35th overall in terms of hiring and firing practices. See pages 128 and 129 of the World Economic Forum’s 2010-11 Global Competitiveness Report.

[61] In the GCR 2010-11, Benin ranked 125th overall in terms of quality of infrastructure, 124th overall in terms of [domestic and foreign] market-size, and 122nd overall in terms of technological readiness. See pages 128 and 129 of the World Economic Forum’s 2010-11 Global Competitiveness Report.

[62] See news on the ECOWAS meeting in Benin http://news.ecowas.int/presseshow.php?nb=055&lang=en&annee=2011

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