‘GPS-A novel approach to modern governance across the world
Belai Habte-Jesus, MD, MPH, FRSPH
Global Connect 4 Global Enterprises
Global Strategic Entprises, Inc.,
Addis Ababa, Ethiopia; London, Great Britain & Washington, D.C. USA
V: 571.225.5736; C: 703.933.8737; eFax: 1.888.88.606.27
15 June 2015
GPS led ACG/Alternative Consensus Governance-: – an Idea whose time has come!
Promoting our shared Divine Living by Serving Others in Diversity
The New Magna Carta/The New Great Charter of 21st Century!
- The Proposal/Thesis: TLPR/Term limited Proportional Representation based GPS
The time has come for a new Patriotic Consensus Good Governance revolution based on GPS/Good Governance, Progressive Prosperity and Sustainable Security towards term limit enabled proportional representation of greater than fifty one percent (>51%) females and greater than seventy percent (>70) youth representation at public and private institutions including the executive, judiciary and legislative branches of Governance across the world. GPS is driven by (IT) 3 that is innovation, integrity, investment, in talent, technology and transparent trade that promotes the culture of 3As and3Es: Accessible, Affordable, and Accountable Governance that is Efficient, Effective and Equitable to the changing needs of all stakeholders and provided in an atmosphere of Freedom of Choice.
Definitions & Terms of Reference.
- Consensus Good Governance/CGG is a universally shared, value driven governance of serving others in diversity (biodiversity, socio-economic diversity and ecological diversity), to sustain our shared divinity, security and prosperity. CGG depends on GPS that is Good Governance, that promotes Progressive Prosperity and Sustainable Security for all stakeholders (including the majority females (>51% global population) and youths (>70% global population).
- GPS=(IT) 3+3A+3E & FoC. GPS is Good Governance, Progressive Prosperity & Sustainable Security based on (IT) 3=Innovation, Integrity, Investment, Talent, Technology, and Transparent Trade, towards 3A & 3Es: Accessible, Affordable, and Accountable Governance that is Efficient, Effective and Equitable to all stakeholders within the environment of Freedom of Choice. A transparent, accountable and responsive system of governance promotes progressive prosperity and sustainable security for all stakeholders if it is term limited and focused on proportional representation of gender and age groups populations are allowed to have only three (03) alternative options of governance where the (left) social justice focused LIBERAL groups compete with the (right) -capital growth focused CONSERVATIVE and (central)-balanced equitable growth and social justice INDEPENDENT groups otherwise known as Liberal, Conservative, and Independents are allowed to have term limited proportional representation led good governance.
- Universal Diving Living in Diversity. UDLID is the process of integrating our body, mind and spiritual lives that is otherwise known as Arawit/Primate; Serawit/Human and Melkot/Divinity by serving others in Diversity- (biodiversity, socio-economic diversity and ecological diversity). Universal Divine Living is making an active intentional purposeful divine living by having constant and sustainable connection with the Omniscient, Omnipresent and Omni potent, Divine Creator that is all knowing, eternal and all powerful, for all eternity in time and universal space. We have to live by intention for Divine Living of Serving others in Diversity. The Creator is Divining and all the creation is Divining and all of us need to live by intention towards our shared divinity. The Divine life starts with the Divine self, where we spend our twenty four (24) hours per day integrated in time, space and person, balanced, healthy promoting the culture of ICE/integrity, compliance and excellence. Living by Intention and Managing time in space and person such as:
- The first eight hours of rest, diet and hygiene. We live by intention towards nurturing our mid, body and spirit at the rate of eight (08) hours for our Primate/body lives with qualitatively and quantitatively balanced rainbow colored diet- a fistful/225 ml liquid mainly water, and a fistful/225 mal balanced solids of rainbow color (50% fruits and vegetables, 25% carbohydrates/starch/fat, and 25% protein, minerals and vitamins for nourishment, with proper hygiene supported with restful sleep and creative recreational activities.
- The second eight (08) hours of productive work. We live by intention of productive work that promotes our humane/Mindful and positive purposeful intention driven productive work of serving others in Diversity. Calendar and goal oriented activity with SMART Productivity that is Specific Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time Sensitive with Teams of Pods with primary, secondary and tertiary responsibilities with colleagues towards a desired goal at a daily, weekly, monthly and quarterly productivity reports.
- The third eight hours of Creative leisure and service of others in Divinity. We live by intention of our spiritual life where we promote Divine and Spiritual life where we spend eight (08) hours of creative leisure, entertainment, directed towards Divine Living by serving the emotional, physical and spiritual needs of others in diversity. Others here mean biodiversity, socio-economic diversity and ecological diversity, the whole Divine Universe.
MGMG/Mock Geriatric Male Goons: Spiritually disconnected and cognitively challenged elderly males who promote the culture of “boom and bust”,” gloom and doom” and “apocalyptic word order” via a well developed systematic revolving door of 3Ps: politicians, princes and popes (socio economic and ideologically driven partisan governance) towards a self fulfilling winners and losers apocalyptic end of the world or world order, where the majority whom they have intentionally disenfranchised, disempowered and kept in perpetual disparity will forever loose their divinity in diversity of serving others in biodiversity, socioeconomic diversity and ecological diversity. The term limited proportional representation enabled consensus governance /GPS will allow all stakeholders including the MGMG attain their shared divinity in diversity, as such it is a win-win proposal for all concerned.
- GPS An Idea whose time has come!
GPS is a novel idea and an alternative to the current series of over three thousand (>3,000) years out of our recorded more than ten thousand (>10,000) years recorded human civilization, where a minority old powerful men (geriatric male goons) currently popularly known as the one per centers (<01%) of the globe in diverse communities have dominated and led a series of economic and social disenfranchisement of the majority (greater than fifty one (>51%) females and greater than seventy percent (>70%) youths. The Mock Geriatric Male Goons or one per centers have used a well organized revolving door of 3Ps: Politicians, Princes and Popes where they utilize the political and business and religious infrastructure by assuming the three critical roles of politicians, princes and popes to continuously disempowering the majority via a series overt and covert psychological, emotional and physical terrorist revolutions that took power and authority from the majority family centered civilization led by Divine Feminine or (women and youths). These geriatric oligarchies, dictatorships are not bound by geography, culture and civilizations. They change with the time and pretend to be leaders of change and even pretend to lead democracies that they refer to sic- (“governance of the people, by the people, for the people and with the people”), where in their world of fantasy people refers to the one per centers only.
The powerful old men (Geriatric Male Goons) assume different names and positions in different geographies and cultures but behave the same way disenfranchising the majority. In the East –Single Party Asian Dictatorships like the Japanese and Chinese and Koreans and the West-Multi-Party driven oppressive and partisan governance led by Euro-American corruption driven self selected minorities, and the xenophobic dictatorships in the Central Arabic and Southern African hemispheres! The current series of Capitalist, Communist, Religious and Xenophobic Tribal Greedy Geriatric Males driven forms of governance, that is run by, for and with the self selected one per centers (01%) lead with highly sophisticated overt and covert financial and banking institutions that manipulate or gamble the vulnerable market with constant manmade military industrial complex enforced systemic terror that is compounded by climate change led natural disasters that continues to make life a misery for the majority women and children across the world needs to change soon.
Alerting change by 3Ps: Pope Fracas, Prince Charles, and President Obama. These Geriatric MAs have unique system of self corrections where from time to time the team to lead the three Ps/Pope, Prince and Politicians can wake up and alert their leadership and their constituencies such as the current Divine Catholic Pope Francis, Prince Charles of Great Britain and President Obama of the USA- the self declared Only Serving Post Developmental Super Power nation state are leading the wave of alerting the world on Global Climate Change, Gun Violence and Corrupt Financial Markets with a substantial credible following towards the New Magna Carta- The Term Limited Proportional Representation led GPS movement representing the 3Ps: Pope, Prince and Politicians.
Usurping the role of the Divine Feminine. The current corrupt system that usurped the original divine feminine led majority governance has been in existence only for the past 3000 years of our known shared 14.6 billion years of Divine civilization. The current millennial generations across the world will not tolerate this unfair and at times outright evil system any more. The “Millennial Generation”, which will soon become the global majority are not tolerant of any injustice and are likely to generate a series of revolutions and disruption against the current unjust system, which the elderly geriatric generation cannot tolerate or survive. The solution is to consider a novel alternative of term limited proportional and representative governance that accommodates the interests of the future generation.
- The Challenge: Un Accountable & Unrepresentative Governance across the world.
The Root Cause of our perpetual crisis. Dictatorship by few Geriatric male goons across the world is causing a series of continuous disparities, disenfranchisement and dissatisfactions of the majority (>51%females & >70% global youths. The majority is being perpetually terrorized with highly sophisticated high risk gambling financial system, and callous military industrial complex and self serving politicians that sacrifice the interests of the majority for short term assumed gain. The status quo of few geriatric male goons callously disenfranchising the majority with serious short and log term negative impact resulting in perpetual manmade and natural disasters cannot be ignored by current leadership around the globe! The youths around the world are turning over the table and fighting back the geriatric goons with their own tools of refined terror over time supported by modern communication tools such as ICT and MSN technologies. It is time to have a deliberate response with consensus governance led by term-limited, proportional representation driven GPS.
3P: Pope, Prince & Politicians. The traditional global network of the minority geriatric male goons comprised of 3Ps -popes (religious goons), princes (economic mafias) and politicians (social and military operatives) and their well oiled revolving doors, have had a devastating impact on the progress of the majority, women and youths who are constantly disenfranchised and marginalized so much so today the Industrial countries like Eastern Japanese & Koreans, Scandinavians and Europeans are putting their marketing resources to encourage their young unsupported and unprotected women to have babies to bridge the serious demographic gap they have created. The explosive geriatric males reaching retirement age are concerned about the negative demographic trends where the current decline in fertility rate due to the economic and social challenges they created on young people has made it impossible to sustain themselves live alone produce new families. Many are force to have the critical number of population sustenance of 2.1 dogs and cats per family in their homes rather than babies. Many European and American Cities have well funded domestic animals such as dog and cat baby sitters than for human kindergartens.
Family and youth centered policies. It appears the geriatric European and Asian males are worried about the diminishing population who might not be able to pay into their golden parachute retirement funds nor look after them in their lavish retirement homes and understaffed nursing homes. They might also be worried about the imploding refugee populations that are crowding the air, sea and cyber world of their neighborhoods running away due to push and pull factors that are created by the same geriatric male goons. The global population has now over 60 Million Refugees created by the Push and Pull factors led by the 3Ps: Pope/Prince/Politicians of their respective communities mainly from Africa and Asia and Middle East. The 3Ps have overt and covert governance where they make money by using the overt United Nations and Public and Private Aid Agencies and Covert mafia like internal markets by collaborating with mafias of Europe and terrorists of Asia and Africa. The constant victims of both the overt and covert terrorist systems are youths and females commonly referred as communities of global families.
The Pull and Push Factors of Migration that supports the human trafficking and modern slavery track across the world is supported and encouraged by the same Geriatric Male Goons of “Popes, Princes and Politian’s who continue to exploit the youths and women of so called developing and developed nations to be exact geriatric male goons. The majority are pushed and pulled by the same geriatric male goons 3P/organizations of Pope, Prince and Politicians acting as pushers and pullers, making money of the backs of the refugees who happen to be the majority. The time has come for these majorities not to be pulled and pushed like objects but take the central place of governance with term limit enabled proportion representation driven Good Governance, Progressive Prosperity and Sustainable Security for all stakeholders. The US led Military Industrial Complex has their own famous associations that push their armaments to the international nation states and Bioterrorism, Explosive, Nuclear, Rifle Associations to push their automatic guns into highly organized criminal civilian and government employees. The recent Charlotsville AME Church Massacre and the Boston Marathon and School shootings in Inner Cities around the US and supported by organized police brutality that is integrated with the criminal, justice and policial system is turning point for the majority to demand term limited proportional representation driven good governance, progressive prosperity and sustainable security for all.
The Push Factors. The push factors of migration or internal and external displacement are the inhumane trade and economic policies the geriatric male goons are pushing or have been promoting, where a the youths and women are exploited by few rich geriatric male goons posing as investors and capitalists take over the farmlands, local community resources for international business in effect pushing the locals away from their rich inhabitants due to the oil, gems or rich agricultural farm lands. The new goons pose as oil tycoons, miners and developers or to be exact drug kings converting the local youths into slaves and prostitutions. CNN reports that the famous capital city of Angola, Luanda is the most expensive Expatriate city in the world while having the worst infant mortality rate and disparity of live where the majority live under $2 per day.
The Pull Factors. The pull factors are the human trafficking shark s and drug mafias who are recruiting these youths and females promising heaven as slaves in the geriatric homes of Arabian and European Popes, Princes and Politicians. The Geriatric Male Goons have decimated the global social network of economic enterprise led win-win communities, converting every thing to serve them even in their retirement communities and death beds or nursing homes. This is a serious social and economic cancer that needs immediate attention.
Self-fulfilling Doom and Gloom apocalyptic world of 3Ps. The selfish geriatric male goons deplete economic resources for the youths in their own communities by shipping jobs and enterprises to other nations where the legal and cultural system does not protect youths and women. These same geriatric males goons create new investment and enterprises that deplete talent and opportunities creating disconnected youths and women or their inner cities in their own home communities and create to cheap labor slavery like imarets by recruiting their prototype popes, princes and politicians in other parts of the world.
The Caliphate, Capitalist and Communist Male Geriatric Goons. These greedy geriatric male goons posing as capitalists in the West, Communists in the East and Geriatric tribal Oligarchs in the Arabian and African continents have created a world of self serving boom and bust, gloom and doom all their lives and now in their waning years of their short lives, they become preachers (foolish Rabi, Sheiks, Popes and demi gods of their respective foolish ideologies of apocalyptic doom and gloom and fund a military and drug industrial complex where the livelihoods of youths and women are decimated with artificial cold and hot wars of their making. As they age in life they discover there are no youths who can speak their language and understand their culture and feels threatened by the newly emerging immigrants who they have forced to come to look after them in their retirement home sand nursing homes. They crowd their political discourse with venous racists talking points they distribute to their media and political outlets creating fear and terror among the unsuspecting general public.
The fate of the Displaced youths and women. Most internally and externally displaced people called immigrants, migrants and refugees work in low paying health and human services industry looking after the very geriatric males who created the push and pull factors that disconnects them from their own homes and communities in low paying poor neighborhoods that does not appreciate them but consider them as the misguided enemy who has taken jobs from the local poor. The displaced and marginalized youths and women are forced to fight each other for crumbs that the geriatric male goons leave behind enough to foster discord and tension between the old and new youths and women in poverty driven inner city neighborhoods around the world.
The fate of Youths and Women in Geriatric Male Goon Industry. The displaced and disenfranchised youths and women compete with the newcomer low-income job market to serve the Greedy Geriatric Males in a highly hostile environment in effect competing aggressively between themselves under inhumane conditions for their survival. Unfortunately, the living conditions of the majority and their families who are destined to look after the greedy geriatric male goons in their old age, does not compete with the life style of their domestic toys or animals who have better health and social security coverage. The current global concern is that the geriatric male goons claim that hey have no one who speaks their language and who can competently look after them in their geriatric nursing homes. The concern is that there are no enough employed youth to pay into their rich retirement funds, hence the enticement for their young women to be pregnant with positive and negative inducements that includes rewards for unprotected sex leading to pregnancy or punishment for family planning and reproductive health choices.
The Discrepancy between animal welfare and human shelter. The new emerging disparity is not between the rich and the poor humans but between the poor humans and the rich domestic animals. We observe much better funded retirement homes and nursing homes, along with domestic animal and even wild animal shelters and well funded zoos and sanctuaries than human kindergartens and community colleges in inner cities. The well paying enterprises that has been deliberately shipped by the so called Western Capitalists to so called developing countries like Communist China, Vietnam, Luanda, Angola where the local youths are kept like modern day slavery inhumane workhouses. The world be it the so called developing or developed or post development is desperate for family and youth centered policies and this will not happen unless we develop a term limit enabled proportional representative consensus governance that promotes greater than fifty one percent (>51%) females and greater than seventy percent (>70%) youths in public and private leadership positions. The foolish old men become prophets in their old age and crown the faith institutions preaching the self-fulfilling Doom and Gloom apocalyptic end of the world that matches their aging body, mind and corrupt spirit of greed where there is no world after them but its end.
The story of Magna Carta/The Great Charter. An ignorant Pope Innocent the Third, at the request of a greedy and ignorant Prince, nullified the original Magna Carta that was drafted by enlightened politician/prince, to be exact under the commission of King John s of England, some 800 years ago on The 15th of June 1215. The Son of King John, King Hennery the third, in 1297, redrafted it and has remained the most important contract between humans and nature. The Magna Carta today considered the symbol of the rule of law, democracy and representative governance had to be redrafted by another enlightened prince. The geriatric males past and present tend to be ignorant, short signed, greedy and backward in terms of global progress and continue to pull our vulnerable global civilization by coordinating backward ideological greedy policies supported by selfish princes and politicians.
The Evolving Global Climate Change Challenge. Today, Pope Francis of Rome, Prince Charles of Great Britain and his prime minister, David Cameron and President Barack Husseine Obama are together trying to correct what the previous pope, prince and politicians unified within 15 days of the drafting of the Magna Carta by creating a sustainable network of responsible public private enterprises to address the emerging man made and natural disasters that is presenting itself as the evolving Global Climate Change. Unfortunately, the foolish US and European politicians are considering this emerging global challenge as a hoax and putting capital ad legal restrictions on scientists and enlightened peoples efforts to contain it. We need a new Great Charter of Term Limited Representative Consensus Governance that empowers the majority youths and women to ensure our civilization is sustainable for the next series of generations.
The solution: TLPPGPS/Term limited Proportional Representation based GPS, and leadership towards a measure of Success at greater than fifty one percent (@>51%) Female & greater than seventy percent (>70%) youth representation compliance of governance in all private and public life that includes fair representation at executive, judiciary & legislative branches of governance! The millennial generation across the world will not rest until a fair, accountable system of governance replaces the current unbalanced and rather unjust and at times destructive governance that promotes man made and natural disasters to overtake our present and future civilizations.
- The strategy: ER+RR & CCO. Eliminate Threat, Reduce Risk and Convert Challenges into Opportunities. Remember: Some one’s challenges are some body else’s opportunities. We just need to create the environment for shared prosperity and security to ensure our shared survival for perpetuity. Eliminate the current global Geriatric corrupt male dictatorships around the world by reducing the man made and natural risk of disasters, and convert it to consensus governance that promotes term limited, proportional representation where the youths and females are represented at greater seventy percent (>70%) and greater than fifty percent (>51%) leadership of governance respectively across the world. We have two choices where we can do this together via deliberate and organized change of wisdom or the youth will do it for us with their chaotic disorganized revolutions like they have done for the past IIWW and the current one may not have any end. The choice is between Wisdom or Chaos!
Our shared threat is uncontrolled disparity and insecurity. The risk is explosive “Millennial Response” of the so called the ninety nine percent (99%) Movement, exacerbated by global climate change facilitated geriatric man made and natural disasters. The Opportunity is term limited and proportional representation led GPS via (IT) 3 with 3A+3E and FoC Governance.
Governance Root Cause Analysis
The root cause analysis protocol demands that we need to answer these fundamental questions! What is the Threat and Risk in our modern world? Who is Responsible and who can change it? Why and how can we change our impending crisis into opportunities? When and where can we start the change? We need to answer the questions (what, who, why, how, when and where). The current global climate change, economic crisis and social unrest are the direct threat and perpetual risk generated by a global system of unaccountable greedy male geriatric terror system that is a serious threat to our shared global civilization.
Event, Fact, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom and Genius for Civilization
The events around us create facts that we collect them as information, which we then aggregate as knowledge and wisdom that creates an individual Genius or a collective civilization. The current series of events, facts and information around us are not designed to create individual geniuses or collective civilization but individual terrorists and collective chaos towards destroying our common shared existence or civilization. This generation has to wake up and change the course of history with GPS. It is time to seek for another “New Great Charter of GPS” , another “theory of relativity and accountability” another “Renaissance of Good Governance” led by a new set of youth and women leadership to replace the age old geriatric system of corrupt governance.
Current Observed facts: The science and our daily observation of our individual and shared collective experience as communicated by ICT/Information Communication Technology and SMN/Social Media Network is the greatest witness that does not need any more verification, research or pontification. The recent drowning of a US high school graduate while driving to or away from her graduation party in a Texas flood, regardless of all the weather reports and communication technology at her disposal is a grave reality of the dangers of global climate change. The recent public decapitation display and murder of refugees in Libya by criminal human traffickers of modern-day slavery gangsters turned terrorists posing as religious mafia, jihadists and consistently and intentionally sink the primitive Egyptian boats into the Mediterranean Sea under the watchful eye of European Union’s land, sea and air security guards and the UN’s International Organization of Migration /IOM is another example of how low human civilization has reached regardless of the constant warnings of the Great Catholic Church Living Saint Pope Francis and Great USA Nobel Laureate leader President Obama.
- Examples of individual and collective terror towards our shared eventual doom
Scanning current Governance across the global hemispheres
- 3F / Fact, Fiction or Fantasy of Man made and Natural Disasters.
Responding to man made and natural disasters. The most challenging phenomenon of our time is the lack of appreciation and readiness of global populations and leadership to face the changing global realities of denying the evolving man made and natural disasters.
1.Fact. The increasing incidences of illegal hunters of wild life and militarization of our civil lives and especially the police related brutality in our communities across the world is endangering wild and domestic life on earth. This development is making a mockery of the work of the brilliant scientists and their space voyage discoveries of looking for life within and outside our solar system while the rest of us are busy neglecting the emerging decimation of wild and domestic lives on earth, including our own.
The Post Developed Nation on Earth. Just imagine the self declared longest serving modern day superpower governance, either wise known in some circles the post-developed nation on earth has produced so far only two women as potential candidates for the 2016 Presidential Election Campaign. The geriatric males of both parties are over crowding the airwaves with their negative and childish campaign slogans gloom and doom, where there is no choice, alternatives or options to the current global crisis that is decimating the majority youths and women.
Promoting the empowerment of Youths and females and families. Issues like access to modern state of the art core curriculum education for all children regardless where they are born or live, access to modern technology inspired creative education from kindergarten to universities, small business green enterprises that replace the current geriatric too big to fail corrupt financial institutions, and fossil based energy sources or military industrial complex hat generates a series of marginalized disconnected veterans, etc., and inner city church bombings and massacre by deranged messengers of hate and evil, etc. need to change. Unfortunately the US presidential debates are gravitating to ones where the Geriatric Male Goon posing as “Citizens United” “Tea Party Goons” and are allowed to use their social media networks such television and radio talk shows and the resources of fossil fuel and military industrial complex and sickness insurance lobbyists to attack and dishonor the only one female alternative candidate who happens to have served as the first lady of the nation, first female senator of the great state of New York, and the third female Secretary of State of her nation is beyond pail. We need more female conservative, liberal and independent candidates.
We need more Divine Feminine leaders across the world. These United States who have more females college students than men, should be able to generate more leaders and presidential candidates. We need more Fiorina Hilary, Angela Markel’s, Margaret Thatchers, Indira Ghandies and Queen of Shebas and Queen Elizabeths and not less. We need more youth candidates like Obama from all sectors of societies to run for public and private enterprise leadership roles. The Geriatric Male Goons need to retire and share the Divine space with Divine Feminine. We as a nation and the globe will heal if we have more female and youth leaders. The Divine Feminine candidates will talk about youths and the families while the male geriatric goon candidates talk about preserving the yesterday of artificial “boom and bust”, “doom and gloom” and facilitating the “apocalyptic” worldview where the majority youths and women suffer endlessly and the fools become perpetual politicians, prince and popes perpetuating endless disenfranchisement, disempowerment and unbelievable disparities among the majority females and youths of the world. The New Magna Carta proposes to end this perpetual despair and terror with term limit enabled proportional representative GPS/Good Governance, Progressive Prosperity and Sustainable Security for all.
3Ds: Disempowerment, Disenfranchisement and Disparities. The current global governance is rampant with overt and covert system of bad governance supported by fake “pretend elections” without real options and alternatives for change. The story is the same in the current European, Asian, African and Latin American pseudo-elections! All changes in governance happen without options for change promoting the same geriatric male goons of yesterday, to perpetuate disenfranchisement, disempowerment and disparities across the globe. The Arabs and Persians do not even pretend to have elections but unashamedly practice outright male geriatric goons dominated “Stone Age-Middle Age Reminiscent -“Mock Jihadist Caliphates” type of perpetual terror where women and children are enslaved and auctioned at “Pretend Caliphate Slavery Markets” in broad day light under the watchful eye of global air, sea and land stationed millions of ICT/Information Communication Technology, and SMN/Social Media Network communications channels broadcast into our phones, radios, television screens and modern digital accessories. The Mock Jihadist Caliphate goons advertise their intention in advance and execute them, but the Heinous Mock KKK Racist goons pretend to attend a church service and sit for one full hour with their NRA facilitated automatic weapons and mow down the leadership and seniors (3 males and 6 females). Here again the majority targets of the terror were women (6/9=66.7%). This rate translates across the average proportion of the recently published UN Refugee figure of more than 60 Million Refugees that the Arab, African and Asian Geriatric Male Goons push every year into the Red Sea, Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean Sean while their counterpart in the crimes, the European Male Geriatric Goons share the profit margins and pull these vulnerable refugees into their Mediterranean graves by watching them with their air, sea and land ICT and MSW empowered security tools.
- 2. Fiction. Back to the Future Series of Fiction. The observable universe that is creation in perpetual evolution is all of time and space and its contents- planets, stars and galaxies and is considered to expand perpetually. The prevailing theory of Big Bang Creation in evolution cosmological model of the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution has transformed from the high-density state and continues to expand today.
Modern measurements place this movement at approximately 13.8 billion years of age for the universe. Surely this measurement can improve over time and we might increase or decrease this number over time. Our notion of time, space and matter is changing since the 100 years old “Theory of relativity of E=MCC”, where energy is equal to the product of mass and velocity squared continues to amaze modern scientists about it implication on the age of the universe and its contents.
Understanding space, time and its contents. Our quest to define “eternity and zero or emptiness is still in its infancy, leave alone the “omniscient, omnipresent and all powerful Divinity” Yes, this has not limited our ability fictionalize and entertain our selves via our digital screens about futuristic aliens exploring the future dinosaur fossils of our present day humans and wild animals remains on earth, while our scientists are busy discovering and carbon dating our past ancestor’s fossils. The amazing evolving reality of fact, fiction and fantasy is that we are ignoring the changing man made, to be exact geriatric male goons generated perpetual crises and climate change associated disasters. The irony is we are spending billions and may be trillions in the future looking for life in these desolate spaces while we are intentionally terrorizing all forms of life including humans here pn earth where life is abundant. I wonder will they pretend to be nice to these alien lives or is it another fantasy of genocide so that there is no life left in the universe!
Ignorance driven arrogance. Our modern scientific tools are expanding our knowledge of the universe and its contents, thus constantly embarrassing us about our current and past ignorance and arrogance in understanding our environment and the Divine source of our existence that is our past, present and future. Unfortunately most of the ideas and writing of our old sages of the past perception of time, space and its contents is not supported by our new discoveries and evidence based scientific understandings of our past, present and future. The challenges continue to be open minded and asking questions instead of pretending to know the answer when we do not. Hence the discrepancy of fact, fiction and fantasy. We need to revise regularly our understanding of self, others and the environment we live in as our ability to understand events change over time.
The Changing World Order. Our individual and collective understanding of the world order should change over time as our knowledge, facts and evidence become available to us over time. Imagine keeping the same geriatric male goons to deny their man made and natural disasters at our public and private institutions and allowing some of them running openly on these out of date fictional ideologies of perpetual crisis and actually winning governance across the world. The Disney Park and Jurassic Park Entertainment industries are brainwashing our youths and seniors respectively with this fiction of Doom and Gloom perception of the universe, preparing our minds and spirits for eventful world of perpetual terror. We need to replace this culture of “Doom and Gloom” driven Fact, Fiction and Fantasy world with GPS driven term limited proportional representation governance.
3.Fantasy. The culture of fantasy is being challenged by the culture of evidence and reason. Yet, the discrepancy of fact and fiction is constantly challenging our individual and collective lives. We might fantasize about other civilizations considering space voyage towards our planet earth and perhaps contemplating about exploring life on earth after our geriatric male made “Armageddon”- a fulfillment to the series of “Left Behind Screen Fantasies” that has been written and screened by so called religious goons pretending to be scientists and prophets of doom and gloom forecasting how soon we will be able to wipe out life on earth.
Imagine the whole global geriatric male conservative movement, be it East or West, South or North is based on facilitating the self fulfilling Cataclysmic End of the World at the battle of Armageddon propagated by the same geriatric male goons who profess to profit by holding the keys to the drones that take us to their imaginary new planets where they start over their doomed male geriatric dominated world of terror for the majority youths and women. So they keep global governance busy with their Cataclysmic Dooms Day ideology recruiting youths to explode perpetually for their fantasy of “End of the world Doomsday theology of Gloom and Doom.
Artificial Cold and Hot War on Terror. The current series of so called “War on Terror” and “Jihadist Caliphate Movement” or “Single Party Oligarchies;’ of Asia and Africa are reminiscent of the more efficient Jihadists, Crusades and Colonial Expeditionary forces of yester years that resulted in the chaotic World War I and II and the current Perpetual World Wars III & IV that has been raging in the world and that is led by more efficient Military Industrial Complex driven global war fare that is financed by the Gambling Hedge Fund Managers of Global Wall Street Bankers who produce perpetual global economic crisis to complement the “Geriatric Male Dooms Day” world order and disorder prophesy. The secret is that “Dooms Day Prophets” and their efficient overt and cover financiers and operators will continue to profit from the misery of the majority here on earth and their fantasy after life, whose key to the “drones” and the gates of imaginary paradise planets they hold. Unfortunately, the pictures taken by the Hubble telescope of our known Universe and Multiverse for the past few decades do not support this misery driven ideology. The Kingdom of God/The Divine is Here…. said Jesus the Christ some 2,000 years ago and the voice of reason and divinity is still unheard by the minority who fool the majority!
Lessons from Africa
The South and East Africa . The Xenophobic Zulu King and Shabab-Shabia Youths Terrorizing African Migrants. The Geriatric males in Africa and mainly in Southern African Zululand and the Horn of Africa geriatric goons are Ware foolishly promoting xenophobic terror on the very communities that protected them from the heinous terror of Dutch European ethnic Apartheid in South Africa for over 50 years. Without changing the governance of their communities and ensuring access to GPS, they have turned on the most vulnerable neighbors who are forced to leave their homes by the economic apartheid of the new African Xenophobic leaders.
South and East Africa is an excellent example of how victims are forced to victimize other victims when GPS is not initiated in a country that has been terrorized for centuries by Xenophobic Racist Apartheid System. The change many in the world expected of the new Southern Africa leadership of Nelson Mandela and Communist Jihadist did not live up to the expectations of the local and global communities making South Africa the capital of Criminal Activities’ mostly sanctioned by African Xenophobic Ethnic Geriatric Male Goons against the majority females and youths. Today, the home of African Unity region is surrounded by a series of geriatric male driven perpetual terror hosting the largest refugee population in the world and expiring the largest modern day human trafficking and slavery across the Indian Ocean, Red Sea and Mediterranean Sea who are turning to be their massive grave yards.
The North and West Africa. The story is the same in North and West Africa where the Geriatric male goons who misruled these unfortunate terror ties for a long time without any change or term limited representative governance where the majority youths and women are not represented. The likes military operatives like Colonel Gadhafi of Libya distributed his terror weapons to the youths of North Africa when his fantasy of the United States of Africa under his tutelage did not hold true, creating a massive distribution of weapons of mass destruction to unprepared uneducated poor North Africans who are terrorizing women and youths. The mother of past slavery and human trafficking is today changing into the home of massive terror and pseudo-jihadists like “boku haram” creating the largest human displacement, refugees and modern day slavery. The outcome of what happened 500 years ago is being repeated under a different name but with the same outcome of misery for the majority youths and women.
Lack of GPS the source of overt and cover “Terror” around the world. This is another example of human tragedy that is evolving in Africa, Asia, Middle East and the Americas and Europe where the current lack of good governance has exposed the new generation of the 21st century vulnerable populations who move between disenfranchised, displaced and trafficked and terrorized populations within weeks of tragedies. The Arabs have been exporting terror to the Northern Saharan and southern equatorial populations in Africa repeating what they did 500 years ago with the Massive Slave Trade of over 500 Million people across continents, which created the current disenfranchised African populations across the world.
The New Human Trafficking and Slavery Routes. The only difference is the current one is led by non-state actors of multinational conglomerate mafias and human traffickers. Unfortunately, the traditional shipping lanes Mediterranean and the Red Sea outlet to the Indian Ocean has become the largest graveyard of African youths that have been terrorized by the very same descendants who sold their ancestors as slaves some 500 years ago. The only sane voice is the Catholic Church Pope of Rome, St Francis and President Barack Obama of the USA and yet the UN and international bodies like the AU, EU, ASEAN, and the newly formed BRICS/Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa have said or done nothing to this great tragedy of our time History is repeating itself with vengeance among African youths and females who are being converted into the new modern day slaves by the same traditional terrorist human traffickers returning with vengeance.
Lessons from The Middle East
The Arab Terror and Trafficking Network. The Arabs for generations have been waging a terror network called “jihad” against their own tribes and others in the name of a misguided interpretation of our shared Divine, Human and Primate existence on earth. The current wave of terror between the Persian led “Shiites terror network wing “ and Turkish/Saudi led “Sunni terror network” will bring down the very governments and institutions that is supporting terror around the world. Already millions are displaced, trafficked and murdered and terrorized. The rate of terror every Friday afternoon at prayer houses has now come to the very institutions that support global terror displacing and disentrancing millions of people across the world. The challenge is to create GPS across all communities and not tribal or religious terror wars.
The Global Economic Crisis
The Americas and European Experience. The few privileged financial mafia, Economic Gamblers referred to as “Too Big To Fail Criminal Institutions” and their associates of International military industrial complex operators, supported by their non representative political appointees are bankrupting American and European and global governments and communities creating a series of ready to collapse vulnerable communities such as the PIGS-Portugal, Ireland, Greece and Spain leading the league of vulnerable communities to be followed by the Russian-Ukraine Xenophobic Terror Networks that has created un necessary military and economic terror for the Euro-Asian populations.
The Atlantic Alliance Vs. the BRICS Alternative. The current series of European Union challenges of managing debt defaulting governments like PIGS nations is keeping the Bretton Wood Institutions of current World Bank Group leadership awake and alerting the BRICS/Brazil, Russia, Indian, China and South Af4ic nations to develop alternative egalitarian and GPS system driven governance. The question is how can monolithic male geriatric led institutions change their governance unless they include the majority youths and women? The BRICS led alternative World Economic Order will follow the destiny of the Bretton Woods institutions unless they allow term limited proportional representation GPS.
The Government Shut Down and Senate Meta Data Base Fiasco. The very young vulnerable Arab youths like Sadam Hussein and Osama Bin Laden of Iraq and Yemen are recruited by the Western & Eastern and Communist Male Geriatric Goons to terrorize their own communities, and neighborhoods like Iran and Kuwait, and Former Yugoslavia and Afghanistan respectively with Biochemical Weapons of Mass destruction and stinger missiles, they acquired from the west they are considered a hero or at least as “our bastards” in the middle east. However, when they turn the very weapons very western weapons of Mass destruction against the west, they are considered a “Dictator and Terrorist respectively and deserve “Shock & Wave” & heroic covert “Geronimo” Operations.
Recruiting young disaffected youths into terrorists. Instead of tracking the very criminals who were being trained and equipped with the most lethal weapons of Mass Destruction, the Bin Laden family was allowed to fly home from Boston area when the International Flights were frozen during the 911 Tragedy. To date the CIA, FBI and Senate has not published the 28 page hearing documents about 911 where the role of Saudi Arabia where 16 of the 19 hijackers came from. Instead, he Senate publishes the “Patriotic Act” to collect private information from the public when we are not using the available information that the Intelligent Community had access to like what happened at the Boston Marathon Bombing.
Amending the 200 years or so constitution after 800 years of the Magna Carta. The Geriatric Males Goons believe they can fool themselves and fool the rest of the world by creating a series of foolish amendments and omnibus bills that cover their criminal activities against the majority youth and women for ever be it in the so called developing, developed and post developed nations. So the goons have a last minute Senate debate to cover up for the incompetence of not doing their job the whole year, passing bills without reading them leave alone debate them. To top it all, we have marathon weekend Senate Sessions by the likes of “Senator Cruzes” reading Kindergarten books in the senate so as to shut down the vey US Government they allowed to incur over $20 Trillion Dollar Debt with over $50,000 debt per person for current and future US citizens. The role of the geriatric male goons is no different from the so called developing and developed countries and this post development nation state, who at least allows citizens to dialogue and debate without sanction due to a series of amendments to the constitution that we have not had for a long time as tough the debate is over, now we have declared ourselves the are a post development nation. The irony is that most amendments of the constitution took place by less educated and less informed founding fathers, (not mothers or youths) than the present generation that is faced by apocalyptic gloom and doom with no ability to change or amend the age old 200 years constitutions. It is time to amend the 200 years old US constitution and UN Charter with the New Magna Carta of term limited, proportional representation enabled consensus governance where the majority (70%)youths and 51% females are empowered to take leadership roles in our public and private institutions. Imagine, the current world of New Magna Carta most of the prepared, educated and enlightened college graduates and potential wise leaders are women and we cannot afford to shut out these geniuses from their natural role of leadership.
Remembering 70th Anniversary of II World War. The Russian Male Geriatric Goons like Putin are no better as they use all the private and public institutions including the Winter Olympic Theater where they remove the same Government Security Agents into the Ukraine Territories to undertaken day light invasion of a sovereign nation when the world is watching with Modern ICT, MSN and CNN broadcasts that they are terrorizing their own youths and women. The Geriatric Foolish Males are behaving foolishly regardless of geographic or ethnic or ideological diversity. The problem is not nationality, ideology but the foolish Geriatric Male Goons that are terrorizing the majority youths and women without accountability. The foolishness so so gross that the very patriots of II War, that is Russia, US, Britain and Ethiopia could not even celebrate together their victory against the Geriatric Male Goons of Axis Power or GIP/Germany, Italy and Japan after Seventy Years of painful human and environmental disaster. History repeats itself with different actors in different generations, generating new losers and winners unless we make it a potent to learn from the past. . The heirs of the winner of WWII politicians who crafted the “Reset Button” not to repeat the Cold War – the aftermath of the II WW tragedy, are forced to sanction each other and create competing BRIC financial institutions to the Breton Institutions of IIWW that were designed to change the face of man made disasters once for all.
Back to the future of “Slavery and Terror: Instead of promoting GPS to these communities, the EU, Russian and US elites are “re-setting the cloak back” to the dark foolish days of the cold war by claiming foolish ethno-nationalistic and perverted sense of economic crisis making the whole communities displaced and disenfranchised into internal and external refugees. Their counterparts in the Middle East, East and South are not fairing any better as they are allowing Jihadists and Xenophobic terrorists and despotic Communist/Oligarchs of the far east to disenfranchise their youths and women literally re-setting the clock back to five hundred years of human trafficking and slavery terrorizing the majority of their populations, the youths and divine feminine.
The self declared Mother of Modern Democracy has only two female candidates and no youth candidates for the Presidency of the United States, regardless of the massive 99% Movement where many of the youths were criminalized by the Unjust Criminal Justice System and Elizabeth Warren the hero of that movement does not have the courage to stand leaving the space of Presidential campaign to be crowded by Geriatric Male Goons supported by their financial supporters. The youths that have been “criminalized” during the 99% Movement in response to the Global Economic Crisis that was engineered by the elite Wall Street Financial Gamblers or Black Lives Matter campaign against the Militarized Police and Criminal Justice System will not be allowed to vote yet again perpetuating the crisis of youths and females in the Americas like the rest of the world. The only solution is a term limited proportional representation based GPS to reverse this evolving tragedy in our modern 21st century governance.
The Common Victims are the Majority Women and Children
The Geriatric male goons masquerading as religious and ideological zealots supported by a corrupt high risk gambling-financial/economic and military industrial complex goons are terrorizing our vulnerable world communities via ideological, social, economic and military tools of consistent oppression of the majority, that is greater than fifty one percent (>51%) females and greater than seventy percent (>70%) youths. The majority victims of this perpetual terror and lack of GPS are some times popularly referred to as the “ninety nine percent (99%) “ Disenfranchised with serious disparities that is impoverishing their respective communities around the world.
Youths and Women are abused by the very police officers designed to protect them when they protest in the Wall Streets and City Streets of the globe, using highly militarized war machines in our respective communities around the world. President Obama is the only presiding executive who is actively campaigning against this new crime, save Divine Pope Francis the Roman Catholic Head of State. The Millennial Generation is not going to accept this self-made tragedy! The current series of Arab, African, Asian and European Revolutions are just the beginning of a restless youth that is looking for a sustainable solution, which we refer to as Term Limited Representative GPS. The sane adult population of the world has to act now and sooner to protect the future.
Governance CORT Analysis: Challenges, Opportunities, Risks and Opportunities
Converting Challenges of Governance into Opportunities of GPS
- Challenges of Bad Governance. Many of the present day eastern and western, north and southern nations have embarked on the path of what appears to be non self correcting form of lack of GPS or outright “Bad Governance” that is not representative, unaccountable and non accessible and non affordable system of oppression of the majority via so called elections that always end up where the minority privileged group (usually Geriatric Males) consistently win and the unfortunate majority (females and youths) consistently loose. Those who control the system rig the elections all the time with all sorts of excuses and justifications all the time. This non self-correcting trend of lack of GPS to the majority is a recipe for disaster and the current series of “Millennial Disenfranchised Youths” around the world who are using technology driven communication channels, explosives and mass causalities to disrupt the un just evil system that continuously disenfranchises the vulnerable majority. We can change the pathway to living hell, by creating a consensus inclusive system towards term limited proportional representation based GPS.
- Risk & Impact: Perpetual Disenfranchisement of the majority. The current common form of governance is a minority geriatric driven, winner takes it all approach where greater than fifty one percent (>51%) simple majority is disenfranchising forty nine percent (49%) equally a high majority, at any one time creating a series of disparities, poverty and highly marginalized societies that promotes a perpetual partisan system that crease a lot of disruption and discontent in individual and public space promoting a serous economic and social disruption for a long time to come!
- The opportunity. Good Governance that promotes Progressive prosperity and Sustainable Security is shared with the majority of the global population via term-limited proportional representation. The alternative is a Consensus based, term limited proportional representation based Good Governance towards proportional representation & empowerment of fifty one percent (51%) females & greater than seventy percent (>70%) Youth with term limits of one term for leadership and two terms for the winning party is about transparency & accountability to all stakeholders’ interests and perspectives.
- The solution. Best Options and Win- win approach to all. The current Corrupt Single party Monopoly of the East, and resources dominated multi- party based Corrupt Competitive Governance and the corrupt ideological, ethnic and xenophobic dictatorships of the Arabs and Africans in the Southern Hemispheres needs to be replaced by consensus and term limited proportional representative governance, based on values organized at Social Justice, Capital Growth and Balanced Equitable Systems comparable to the current conservative, liberal and independent parties across the world.
- 5. The opportunity: Term limited Proportional Representation. By consensus, we mean governance that takes into consideration all options and alternative and makes best option or win- win or compromise option on all decision making process! Enlightened people that are organized and mobilized for change create all the opportunities for our shared security and prosperity. That mobilization needs to be led by sane term limited proportional representative members of GPS and not left to the current series of self appointed criminals like in the east, west, northern and southern self recruiting criminals of our continuously evolving world.
- The strategy: ER/Eliminate Threat; RR/Reduce Risk & CCO/Convert Challenges into Opportunities! The challenge is the constant disparity that is being created by self-recruiting geriatric male interest groups, disenfranchising the majority of Youths and women around the world! The opportunity is creating a term-limited proportional representation of the global population of greater than seventy percent (>70%) Youth and greater than fifty one percent (>51%) women in global leadership!
The solution and the means is GPS governance!
By proportional representative governance, we mean the choice/decisions of governance are made by frequent elections at least once in four to five years, and should be made by proportional majority vote and not party Leadership or votes that are organized by rich campaign contributors, as in the east and west respectively or by ideological terrorizing dictatorship of few partisan led Geriatric men-leadership at the top of a single party system as in the East or theocracies around the Arab world or ethnic xenophobic goons that benefits only geriatric men around the world at the expense of the global demography is a Majority youth and females! The victims are always the majority-women and youths!
The Few Geriatric Male Goons Vs. the Majority Disenfranchised, Displaced Women & Youths
We need to move away from the current us versus them self fulfilling tragedy towards a shared sane and egalitarian system of governance that promotes 3A+3Es/accessible, affordable and accountable governance that is efficient, effective and equitable provided in an environment of freedom of choice-Always The current status quo that disenfranchises the majority, creating huge populations of disenfranchised, displaced communities of disparities are not sustainable! The millennial generation across the World does not have patience or the desire to entertain this perpetual unjust system that does not allow or give them access to productivity and prosperity!
- The option appraisal: Best Option, Win-win option and Compromise Option
The concept of opposition parties and ideas of win-loose governance should be replaced by a term limited proportional representation led consensus governance where we vote for ideas and alternatives and not parties be it monopoly or multi- Party level that perpetuate disparity and hopelessness to the majority global population in perpetuity. At Least we should have three options: best option, win-win option and compromise options that provide the synergy of left leaning, (Gira Sefari) right leaning (Qegne Sefari) and independent or central leaning (Mahil Sefari) consensus governance that are term limited and led by proportional representation of the global population (>51%) females and (>70%) youths. We can use the process of option appraisal for so called developing, developed and post development nations to consider the best, win-win and compromise options towards our eventual goal of term limit enabled proportional representation where the majority, that is youths (>70%) and females (>51%) will have their rightful place of leadership in our public and private enterprises across the world.
- All Citizens belong to the same competitive governance pool! All People belong to the same one national election system with out Parties but with representatives of people with divergent ideas and ability to organize themselves around ideas in three formats- those Leaning to the left, right or middle, i.e. Social justice, Capital and Growth and Equitable ones that match growth with socio/economic Diversity, etc. It is critical to appreciate the current partisan structure of competitive party led governance is the root cause of perpetual disenfranchisement of the majority youths and females by the super minority geriatric male goons around the world.
Ideas, innovation and productivity driven competition should be the reason and candidates for election with one and two term limits at individual & group level respectively! Use of Root Cause Analysis tools, Needs, Demand and Supply Interaction Models, CORT/Challenges, Opportunities, Risks and Threat Analysis, Option Appraisal Tools and SMART/Specific, Measurable, Achievable, Realistic and Time Sensitive Strategic Work Plan of Global Enterprises, Inc will transform the world of GPS/Good Governance, Progressive Prosperity and Sustainable Security for all.
- ICP/ Ideas, creativity & productivity compete where the majority Females and youth benefit! As such the competitive alternatives can only be organized into three main groups where the majority wins regardless of who governs! This means the competitors organize into one of the following three potential ideas or solution based election choices and options? Elections for options and choices! Not for status quo!
- Labor/Socialist/Liberal Left leaning: (Gira Sefari)_ Social & Justice Centered choices/Alternatives/options
- Capitalist/Conservative/Right leaning: (Qegne Sefari) Capital & growth Centered choices/alternatives/options
- Independent/Progressive: (Mehal Sefari) Balanced and equitable social and capital growth Centered choice/alternatives/options
Remember to avoid the term “parties” that promotes partisanship and the cause of current crisis.
The three alternative ideas and options create opportunities while the old terms of parties create partisanship, disparity and eventual terror!! We prefer the term choices, options or alternatives!
- Term limits: One Term for leadership team and two term for the Party/Option
Regardless of how popular and successful is a leader or his alternative ideas and team is, we should have one term limit for the leadership and two term limits for one of the three parties/alternatives or options to ensure the ever increasing disparity that exists with monopolistic governance that stays in power for more than two terms!
- Term limited Proportional Representative Governance
The alternative consensus governance is a unique system of governance that promotes Good Governance, Progressive Prosperity & sustainable Security over time for all members of any one society! That is assured with term-limited proportional representation in private and public institutions that includes the legislative, judiciary and executive branches of government.
The consensus governance concept and principle can create a new opportunity to global peace and security as the financial, military or theocracy based geriatric led governance have in the past created a serous of disparities between men and women, youths and geriatrics, by the historical military, financial or religious Oligarchies that have created a serous inter-generational disenfranchisement and disparities with potential for a perpetual conflict and terror for a long time to come!
- Progressive Prosperity towards Sustainable Security
The principle of progressive prosperity is driven from the concept of (IT) 3=innovation, integrity and investment for talent, technology and transparent trade that promotes consistent and progressive prosperity for all citizens. All the current real billionaires, be it AFBG/Apple, Face Book, Google, Microsoft are using (IT) 3 and associated public responsible creative philanthropic charities to create wealth and share the entrepreneurship spirit across the world, as such it can be replicated across the world.
- Understanding current global youth discontent
The current youth discontent, demonstrations and associated police brutality in the west and terror based revolutions in the Arabian, African, American and Asian continents is forcing the global youth movement for change that is being forced to follow old mafia like gang activities posing as copy cat crusades, jihads, expeditionary forces of colonialism, modern day slavery related trafficking of youths and women which is the shadow of perpetual unrest and terror that will be unleashed by the future millennial generation that has no future or potential in the geriatric dominated cruel world!
The youth have time and technology on their side and will win in the end any way! The question is can the rest of us show maturity and share our resources to explore their talents!
14.Scanning the future!
The future demands on our preparation today! We need innovative and novel approach to life that promotes GPS here on earth and forever in eternity. Remember: The Kingdom of God/the Divine is here…Jesus the Christ, 2000 years ago! We wasted 2000 years of precious time to make his vision realty, how long do we have to wait!
Regardless of ones success, be it with consensus leadership or competitive elections we need to agree on the principle of term limits both for the leadership group and ideas alternatives/groups! No one leadership team should lead for more than one term and no one-party or alternative for more than two terms! Imagine trusting the real Stakeholders of the future – our youth and our mothers, sister’s and Daughters! The current US political elections of the Bush and Clinton family oligarchy is making a mockery of democracy where the political elites are organized around families and interest groups like the middle ages in Europe and Africa and Asians today. This trend can only change if there is a term limited proportional representative governance that is accountable to all citizens.
Rotating the innovative proportional representative leadership and ideas based alternatives/parties will correct the challenges of interest groups and conflict of interest that naturally evolved from long-term leadership and term of office! Competitive and alternative ideas supported with term limits promote GPS.
- SMART Implementation Strategy
- Specific: Demand regional Term limited Proportional Representative GPS/Governance by the United Nations to be reported regularly
- Measurable: Every 5 years-Qualitative and Quantitative based Election Audits
- Achievable: Use current electoral system and UN monitoring tools (MoS@90% Compliance for greater than seventy percent (>70%) Youths and greater than fifty one percent (>51%) Divine Female leadership)
- Realistic: regional and international bodies to ensure realistic compliance should monitor The Electoral Process of each country.
- Time Sensitive: Initiate a Calendar based Productivity Report towards Term-Limited Proportional Representative GPS/Good Governance, Progressive Prosperity and Sustainable Security.
Belai Habte-Jesus, MD. MPH
Global Connect & Global Enterprises for GPS
V: 703.933.8737. C: 571.225.5738.Fx: 1888.88.606.27
Universal Divine Living in Serving Others Diversity
Global Strategic Enterprises, Inc.
In honor of:
- “Memorial Day” Remembrance Day” and “Arbegnoch-Quen”/Patriots Day of USA, British, Ethiopian and Global Patriots of the last Century
- The 70th Anniversary of II WW Memorial of the Great British, Ethiopian & Russian & USA Patriots
- The 70thAnniversay of the Divine connection of Amish-Mennonite and Ethiopian Communities of Divine Living in Diversity by serving others with GPS/Good Governance, Progressive Prosperity and & Sustainable Security
- The 800th Anniversary of the “Magna Charta”/The Great Charter that initiated the GPS Movement
- Honoring 35 Years of Transparent Global News Coverage by CNN that changed the world of communication
- The One Hundred Anvers of the Declaration of the Theories of Relativity, E=MCC, where Energy, Matter and the Velocity of Light were integrated
- The 60th Birthday of Steve Jobs who digitally integrated “Vision Voice and Data” that generated the “Interment of every thing” the ICT and MSN Movement of Google, Apple and Microsoft that enabled the GPS movement
Never again! Means creative term limited proportional representative governance where >70% youths and >51% Women are empowered for leadership in all sectors of our lives.
The Original Magna Carta/The Great Charter of the Liberties
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article is about the English charter of 1215. For other uses, see Magna Carta (disambiguation).
|Cotton MS. Augustus II. 106, one of only four surviving exemplifications of the 1215 text.|
|Part of a series of articles on|
|V t e|
Magna Carta (Latin for “the Great Charter“), also called Magna Carta Liber Tatum (Latin for “the Great Charter of the Liberties“), is a charter agreed by King John of England at Runnymede, near Windsor, on 15 June 1215.[a]
First drafted by the Archbishop of Canterbury to make peace between the unpopular King and a group of rebel barons, it promised the protection of church rights, protection for the barons from illegal imprisonment, access to swift justice, and limitations on feudal payments to the Crown, to be implemented through a council of 25 barons.
Neither side stood behind their commitments, and the charter was annulled by Pope Innocent III, leading to the First Barons’ War. After John’s death, the regency government of his young son, Henry III, reissued the document in 1216, stripped of some of its more radical content, in an unsuccessful bid to build political support for their cause.
At the end of the war in 1217, it formed part of the peace treaty agreed at Lambeth, where the document acquired the name Magna Carta, to distinguish it from the smaller Charter of the Forest, which was issued at the same time. Short of funds, Henry reissued the charter again in 1225 in exchange for a grant of new taxes; his son, Edward I, repeated the exercise in 1297, this time confirming it as part of England’s statute law.
The charter became part of English political life and was typically renewed by each monarch in turn, although as time went by and the fledgling English Parliament passed new laws, it lost some of its practical significance. At the end of the 16th century there was an upsurge in interest in Magna Carta.
Lawyers and historians at the time believed that there was an ancient English constitution, going back to the days of the Anglo-Saxons, which protected individual English freedoms. They argued that the Norman invasion of 1066 had overthrown these rights, and that Magna Carta had been a popular attempt to restore them, making the charter an essential foundation for the contemporary powers of Parliament and legal principles such as habeas corpus.
Although this historical account was badly flawed, jurists such as Sir Edward Coke used Magna Carta extensively in the early 17th century, arguing against the divine right of kings propounded by the Stuart monarchs. Both James I and his son Charles I attempted to suppress the discussion of Magna Carta, until the issue was curtailed by the English Civil War of the 1640s and the execution of Charles.
The political myth of Magna Carta and its protection of ancient personal liberties persisted after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 until well into the 19th century. It influenced the early American colonists in the Thirteen Colonies and the formation of the American Constitution in 1789, which became the supreme law of the land in the new republic of the United States.
Research by Victorian historians showed that the original 1215 charter had concerned the medieval relationship between the monarch and the barons, rather than the rights of ordinary people, but the charter remained a powerful, iconic document, even after almost all of its content was repealed from the statute books in the 19th and 20th centuries. Magna Carta still forms an important symbol of liberty today, often cited by politicians and campaigners, and is held in great respect by the British and American legal communities, Lord Denning describing it as “the greatest constitutional document of all times – the foundation of the freedom of the individual against the arbitrary authority of the despot”. 
In the 21st century, four exemplifications of the original 1215 charter remain in existence, held by the British Library and the cathedrals of Lincoln and Salisbury. There are also a handful of the subsequent charters in public and private ownership, including copies of the 1297 charter in both the United States and Australia. The original charters were written on vellum sheets using quill pens, in a particular style of abbreviated Latin. Each was sealed with the royal great seal using beeswax and resin, most of which have not survived. Although academics refer to the 63 numbered “clauses” of Magna Carta, this is a modern system of numbering, introduced by Sir William Blackstone in 1759; the original charter formed a single, long unbroken text. The four original 1215 charters were displayed together at the British Library for one day, 3 February 2015, to mark the 800th anniversary of Magna Carta.
- 1 History
- 1 13th century
- 1.1 Background
- 1.2 Great Charter of 1215
- 1.2.1 Lists of participants in 1215
- 1.3 Great Charter of 1216
- 1.4 Great Charter of 1217
- 1.5 Great Charter of 1225
- 1.5.1 Witnesses in 1225
- 1.6 Great Charter of 1297: statute
- 1.7 Magna Carta’s influence on English medieval law
- 2 14th–15th centuries
- 3 16th century
- 4 17th–18th centuries
- 4.1 Political tensions
- 4.2 Glorious Revolution
- 4.3 Use in the Thirteen Colonies and the United States
- 5 19th–21st centuries
- 5.1 Interpretation
- 5.2 Repeal of articles and constitutional influence
- 5.3 Modern legacy
- 5.4 Celebration of the 800th anniversary
- 2 Content
- 1 Physical design
- 2 Exemplifications
- 2.1 1215 exemplifications
- 2.2 Later exemplifications
- 3 Clauses
- 3.1 Clauses in detail
- 3.2 Clauses remaining in English law
- 3 Usage of the definite article and spelling
- 4 See also
- 5 Notes
- 6 References
- 7 Bibliography
- 8 Further reading
- 9 External links
- 1 13th century
13th century 
Main article: John, King of England
Magna Carta originated as an unsuccessful attempt to achieve peace between royalist and rebel factions in 1215, as part of the events leading to the outbreak of the First Barons’ War. England was ruled by King John, the third of the Angevin kings.
Although the kingdom had a robust administrative system, the nature of government under the Angevin monarchs was ill defined and uncertain.  John and his predecessors had ruled using the principle of vis et voluntas, or “force and will”, taking executive and sometimes arbitrary decisions, often justified on the basis that a king was above the law. Many contemporary writers believed that monarchs should rule in accordance with the custom and the law, with the counsel of the leading members of the realm, but there was no model for what should happen if a king refused to do so.
John had lost most of his ancestral lands in France to King Philip II in 1204 and had struggled to regain them for many years, raising extensive taxes on the barons to accumulate money to fight a war, which ultimately ended in expensive failure in 1214.  Following the defeat of his allies at the Battle of Bouvines, John had to sue for peace and pay compensation. John was already personally unpopular with many of the barons, many of whom owed money to the Crown, and little trust existed between the two sides.
A triumph would have strengthened his position, but in the face of his defeat, within a few months of his return from France John found that rebel barons in the north and east of England were organizing resistance to his rule. The rebels took an oath that they would “stand fast for the liberty of the church and the realm”, and demanded that the King confirm the Charter of Liberties that had been declared by King Henry I in the previous century, and which was perceived by the barons to protect their rights.
The rebel leadership was unimpressive by the standards of the time, even disreputable, but were united by their hatred of John; Robert FitzWalter, later elected leader of the rebel barons, claimed publicly that John had attempted to rape his daughter, and was implicated in a plot to assassinate John in 1212.
Contemporary mural of Pope Innocent III
John held a council in London in January 1215 to discuss potential reforms, and sponsored discussions in Oxford between his agents and the rebels during the spring. Both sides appealed to Pope Innocent III for assistance in the dispute. During the negotiations, the rebellious barons produced an initial document, which historians have termed “the Unknown Charter of Liberties”, which drew on Henry I’s Charter of Liberties for much of its language; seven articles from that document later appeared in the “Articles of the Barons” and the subsequent charter.
It was John’s hope that the Pope would give him valuable legal and moral support, and accordingly he played for time; the King had declared himself to be a papal vassal in 1213 and correctly believed he could count on the Pope for help. John also began recruiting mercenary forces from France, although some were later sent back to avoid giving the impression that the King was escalating the conflict. In a further move to shore up his support, John took an oath to become a crusader, a move which gave him additional political protection under church law, even though many felt the promise was insincere.
Letters backing John arrived from the Pope in April, but by then, the rebel barons had organised into a military faction. They congregated at Northampton in May and renounced their feudal ties to John, marching on London, Lincoln, and Exeter. John’s efforts to appear moderate and conciliatory had been largely successful, but once the rebels held London, they attracted a fresh wave of defectors from the royalists.
The King offered to submit the problem to a committee of arbitration with the Pope as the supreme arbiter, but this was not attractive to the rebels.  Stephen Langton, the Archbishop of Canterbury, had been working with the rebel barons on their demands, and after the suggestion of papal arbitration failed, John instructed Langton to organize peace talks.
Great Charter of 1215
The Articles of the Barons, 1215, held by the British Library
John met the rebel leaders at Runnymede, near both the royal fortress of Windsor Castle and the rebel base at Staines, on 10 June 1215, where they presented him with their draft demands for reform, the “Articles of the Barons”. Stephen Langton’s pragmatic efforts at mediation over the next ten days turned these incomplete demands into a charter capturing the proposed peace agreement; a few years later, this agreement was renamed Magna Carta, meaning “Great Charter”.
By 15 June, general agreement had been made on a text, and on 19 June, the rebels renewed their oaths of loyalty to John and copies of the charter were formally issued.Although, as the historian David Carpenter has noted, the charter “wasted no time on political theory”, it went beyond simply addressing individual baronial complaints, and formed a wider proposal for political reform.
It promised the protection of church rights, protection from illegal imprisonment, access to swift justice, and, most importantly, limitations on taxation and other feudal payments to the Crown, with certain forms of feudal taxation requiring baronial consent. It focused on the rights of free men—in particular the barons—excluding serfs and unfree labour.[b]
Its style and content reflected Henry I’s Charter of Liberties, as well as a wider body of legal traditions, including the royal charters issued to towns, the operations of the Church and baronial courts and European charters such as the Statute of Pamiers. 
Under what historians later labeled “clause 61”, or the “security clause”, a council of 25 barons would be created to monitor and ensure John’s future adherence to the charter. If John did not conform to the charter within 40 days of being notified of a transgression by the council, the 25 barons were empowered by clause 61 to seize John’s castles and lands until, in their judgment, amends had been made.
Men were to be compelled to swear an oath to assist the council in controlling the King, but once redress had been made for any breaches, the King would continue to rule as before. In one sense this was not unprecedented; other kings had previously conceded the right of individual resistance to their subjects if the King did not uphold his obligations. Magna Carta was however novel in that it set up a formally recognized means of collectively coercing the King. The historian Wilfred Warren argues that it was almost inevitable that the clause would result in civil war, as it as “was crude in its methods and disturbing in its implications”. The barons were trying to force John to keep to the charter, but clause 61 was so heavily weighted against the King that this version of the charter could not survive.
John and the rebel barons did not trust each other, and neither side seriously attempted to implement the peace accord.  The 25 barons selected for the new council were all rebels, chosen by the more extremist barons, and many among the rebels found excuses to keep their forces mobilized. Disputes began to emerge between those rebels who had expected the charter to return lands that had been confiscated and the royalist faction.
Clause 61 of Magna Carta contained a commitment from John that he would “seek to obtain nothing from anyone, in our own person or through someone else, whereby any of these grants or liberties may be revoked or diminished”. Despite this, the King appealed to Pope Innocent for help in July, arguing that the charter compromised the Pope’s rights as John’s feudal lord. As part of the June peace deal the barons were supposed to surrender London by 15 August, but this they refused to do.
Meanwhile, instructions from the Pope arrived in August, written before the peace accord, with the result that papal commissioners excommunicated the rebel barons and suspended Langton from office in early September. Once aware of the charter, the Pope responded in detail: in a letter dated 24 August and arriving in late September, he declared the charter to be “not only shameful and demeaning but also illegal and unjust” since John had been “forced to accept” it, and accordingly the charter was “null, and void of all validity for ever”; under threat of excommunication, the King was not to observe the charter, nor the barons try to enforce it.
By then, violence had broken out between the two sides; less than three months after it had been agreed, John and the loyalist barons firmly repudiated the failed charter: the First Barons’ War erupted. The rebel barons concluded that peace with John was impossible, and turned to Philip II’s son, the future Louis VIII, for help, offering him the English throne.[c] The war soon settled into a stalemate. The King became ill and died on the night of 18 October, leaving the nine-year-old Henry III as his heir.
Lists of participants in 1215
Counsellors named in Magna Carta
The Council of Twenty-Five Barons
Great Charter of 1216
Although the Charter of 1215 was a failure as a peace treaty, it was resurrected under the new government of the young Henry III as a way of drawing support away from the rebel faction. On his deathbed, King John appointed a council of thirteen executors to help Henry reclaim the kingdom, and requested that his son be placed into the guardianship of William Marshal, one of the most famous knights in England.
The young King inherited a difficult situation, with over half of England occupied by the rebels. He had substantial support though from Guala, who intended to win the civil war for Henry and punish the rebels.
Guala set about strengthening the ties between England and the Papacy, starting with the coronation itself, during which Henry gave homage to the Papacy, recognizing the Pope as his feudal lord. Pope Honorius III declared that Henry was the Pope’s vassal and ward, and that the legate had complete authority to protect Henry and his kingdom.
As an additional measure, Henry took the cross, declaring himself a crusader and thereby entitled to special protection from Rome. 
The war was not going well for the loyalists, but Prince Louis and the rebel barons were also finding it difficult to make further progress.  John’s death had defused some of the rebel concerns, and the royal castles were still holding out in the occupied parts of the country. Henry’s government encouraged the rebel barons to come back to his cause in exchange for the return of their lands, and reissued a version of the 1215 Charter, albeit having first removed some of the clauses, including those unfavourable to the Papacy and clause 61, which had set up the council of barons. The move was not successful, and opposition to Henry’s new government hardened.
Great Charter of 1217
Charter of the Forest, 1217, held by the British Library
In February 1217, Louis set sail for France to gather reinforcements.  In his absence, arguments broke out between Louis’ French and English followers, and Cardinal Guala declared that Henry’s war against the rebels was the equivalent of a religious crusade. This declaration resulted in a series of defections from the rebel movement, and the tide of the conflict swung in Henry’s favor. Louis returned at the end of April, but his northern forces were defeated by William Marshal at the Battle of Lincoln in May.
Meanwhile, support for Louis’ campaign was diminishing in France, and he concluded that the war in England was lost. He negotiated terms with Cardinal Guala, under which Louis would renounce his claim to the English throne; in return, his followers would be given back their lands, any sentences of excommunication would be lifted, and Henry’s government would promise to enforce the charter of the previous year. The proposed agreement soon began to unravel amid claims from some loyalists that it was too generous towards the rebels, particularly the clergy who had joined the rebellion.
In the absence of a settlement, Louis remained in London with his remaining forces, hoping for the arrival of reinforcements from France. When the expected fleet did arrive in August, it was intercepted and defeated by loyalists at the Battle of Sandwich. Louis entered into fresh peace negotiations, and the factions came to agreement on the final Treaty of Lambeth, also known as the Treaty of Kingston, on 12 and 13 September 1217. The treaty was similar to the first peace offer, but excluded the rebel clergy, whose lands and appointments remained forfeit; it included a promise, however, that Louis’ followers would be allowed to enjoy their traditional liberties and customs, referring back to the Charter of 1216. Louis left England as agreed and joined the Albigensian Crusade in the south of France, bringing the war to an end.
A great council was called in October and November to take stock of the post-war situation; this council is thought to have formulated and issued the Charter of 1217.  The charter resembled that of 1216, although some additional clauses were added to protect the rights of the barons over their feudal subjects, and the restrictions on the Crown’s ability to levy taxation were watered down. There remained a range of disagreements around the management of the royal forests, which involved a special legal system that had resulted in a source of considerable royal revenue; complaints existed over both the implementation of these courts, and the geographic boundaries of the royal forests. A complementary charter, the Charter of the Forest, was created, pardoning existing forest offences, imposing new controls over the forest courts, and establishing a review of the forest boundaries. To distinguish the two charters, the term magna carta libertatum, “the great charter of liberties”, was used by the scribes to refer to the larger document, which in time became known simply as Magna Carta.
Great Charter of 1225
Magna Carta became increasingly embedded into English political life during Henry III’s minority. As the King grew older, his government slowly began to recover from the civil war, regaining control of the counties and beginning to raise revenue once again, taking care not to overstep the terms of the charters.
Henry remained a minor and his government’s legal ability to make permanently binding decisions on his behalf was limited. In 1223, the tensions over the status of the charters became clear in the royal court, when Henry’s government attempted to reassert its rights over its properties and revenues in the counties, facing resistance from many communities that argued—if sometimes incorrectly—that the charters protected the new arrangements.
This resistance resulted in an argument between Archbishop Langton and William Brewer over whether the King had any duty to fulfil the terms of the charters, given that he had been forced to agree to them. On this occasion, Henry gave oral assurances that he considered himself bound by the charters, enabling a royal inquiry into the situation in the counties to progress.
Two years later, the question of Henry’s commitment to the charters re-emerged, when Louis VIII of France invaded Henry’s remaining provinces in France, Poitou and Gascony. Henry’s army in Poitou was under-resourced, and the province quickly fell.
It became clear that Gascony would also fall unless reinforcements were sent from England.  In early 1225, a great council approved a tax of £40,000 to dispatch an army, which quickly retook Gascony.  In exchange for agreeing to support Henry, the barons demanded that the King reissue Magna Carta and the Charter of the Forest.  The content was almost identical to the 1217 versions, but in the new versions, the King declared that the charters were issued of his own “spontaneous and free will” and confirmed them with the royal seal, giving the new Great Charter and the Charter of the Forest of 1225 much more authority than the previous versions.
The barons anticipated that the King would act in accordance with these charters, subject to the law and moderated by the advice of the nobility.  Uncertainty continued, and in 1227, when he was declared of age and able to rule independently, Henry announced that future charters had to be issued under his own seal.  This brought into question the validity of the previous charters issued during his minority, and Henry actively threatened to overturn the Charter of the Forest unless the taxes promised in return for it were actually paid.  In 1253, Henry confirmed the charters once again in exchange for taxation. 
Henry placed a symbolic emphasis on rebuilding royal authority, but the Magna Carta relatively circumscribed his rule.  He generally acted within the terms of the charters, which prevented the Crown from taking extrajudicial action against the barons, including the fines and expropriations that had been common under his father, John. The charters did not address the sensitive issues of the appointment of royal advisers and the distribution of patronage, and they lacked any means of enforcement if the King chose to ignore them.
The inconsistency with which he applied the charters over the course of his rule alienated many barons, even those within his own faction.  Despite the various charters, the provision of royal justice was inconsistent and driven by the needs of immediate politics: sometimes action would be taken to address a legitimate baronial complaint, while on other occasions the problem would simply be ignored.  The royal courts, which toured the country to provide justice at the local level, typically for lesser barons and the gentry claiming grievances against major lords, had little power, allowing the major barons to dominate the local justice system. Henry’s rule became lax and careless, resulting in a reduction in royal authority in the provinces and, ultimately, the collapse of his authority at court.
In 1258, a group of barons seized power from Henry in a coup d’état, citing the need to strictly enforce Magna Carta and the Charter of the Forest, creating a new baronial-led government to advance reform through the Provisions of Oxford.  The barons were not militarily powerful enough to win a decisive victory, and instead appealed to Louis IX of France in 1263–1264 to arbitrate on their proposed reforms. The reformist barons argued their case based on Magna Carta, suggesting that it was inviolable under English law and that the King had broken its terms. 
Louis came down firmly in favor of Henry, but the French arbitration failed to achieve peace as the rebellious barons refused to accept the verdict. England slipped back into the Second Barons’ War, which was won by Henry’s son, Prince Edward. Edward also invoked Magna Carta in advancing his cause, arguing that the reformers had taken matters too far and were themselves acting against Magna Carta.  In a conciliatory gesture after the barons had been defeated, in 1267 Henry issued the Statute of Marlborough, which included a fresh commitment to observe the terms of Magna Carta.
Witnesses in 1225
Witnesses to the 1225 charter
Great Charter of 1297: statute [
The Confirmatio Cartarum (Confirmation of Charters) was issued in Norman French by Edward I in 1297. Edward, needing money, had taxed the nobility, and they had armed themselves against him, forcing Edward to issue his confirmation of Magna Carta and the Forest Charter to avoid civil war. The nobles had sought to add another document, the De Tallagio, to Magna Carta. Edward I’s government was not prepared to concede this, they agreed to the issuing of the Confirmatio, confirming the previous charters and confirming the principle that taxation should be by consent, although the precise manner of that consent was not laid down.
A passage mandates that copies shall be distributed in “cathedral churches throughout our realm, there to remain, and shall be read before the people two times by the year”, hence the presence of a copy during the month of May 2014 at St Edmundsbury Cathedral, and the permanent installation of a copy in Salisbury Cathedral. In the Confirmation’s second article, it is confirmed thatif any judgement be given from henceforth contrary to the points of the charters aforesaid by the justices, or by any other our ministers that hold plea before them against the points of the charters, it shall be undone, and holden for nought.
With the reconfirmation of the Charters in 1300, an additional document was granted, the Articuli super Cartas (The Articles upon the Charters). It was composed of 17 articles and sought in part to deal with the problem of enforcing the Charters. Magna Carta and the Forest Charter were to be issued to the sheriff of each country, and should be read four times a year at the meetings of the county courts. Each county should have a committee of three men who could hear complaints about violations of the Charters.
Pope Clement V continued the papal policy of supporting monarchs (who ruled by divine grace) against any claims in Magna Carta which challenged the King’s rights, and annulled the Confirmatio Cartarum in 1305. Edward I interpreted Clement V’s papal bull annulling the Confirmatio Cartarum as effectively applying to the Articuli super Cartas, although the latter was not specifically mentioned. In 1306 Edward I took the opportunity given by the Pope’s backing to reassert forest law over large areas which had been “disafforested”.
Both Edward and the Pope were accused by some contemporary chroniclers of “perjury”, and it was suggested by Robert McNair Scott that Robert the Bruce refused to make peace with Edward I’s son, Edward II, in 1312 with the justification: “How shall the king of England keep faith with me, since he does not observe the sworn promises made to his liege men…”
Magna Carta’s influence on English medieval law
The Great Charter was referred to in legal cases throughout the medieval period. For example, in 1226, the knights of Lincolnshire argued that their local sheriff was changing customary practice regarding the local courts, “contrary to their liberty which they ought to have by the charter of the lord king”. In practice, cases were not brought against the King for breach of Magna Carta and the Forest Charter, but it was possible to bring a case against the King’s officers, such as his sheriffs, using the argument that the King’s officers were acting contrary to liberties granted by the King in the charters.
In addition, medieval cases referred to the clauses in Magna Carta which dealt with specific issues such as wardship and dower, debt collection, and keeping rivers free for navigation. Even in the 13th century, some clauses of Magna Carta rarely appeared in legal cases, either because the issues concerned were no longer relevant, or because Magna Carta had been superseded by more relevant legislation. By 1350 half the clauses of Magna Carta were no longer actively used.
Magna carta cum statutis angliae (Great Charter with English Statutes), early 14th-century
During the reign of King Edward III six measures, later known as the Six Statutes, were passed between 1331 and 1369. They sought to clarify certain parts of the Charters. In particular the third statute, in 1354, redefined clause 29, with “free man” becoming “no man, of whatever estate or condition he may be”, and introduced the phrase “due process of law” for “lawful judgement of his peers or the law of the land”.
Between the 13th and 15th centuries Magna Carta was reconfirmed 32 times according to Sir Edward Coke, and possibly as many as 45 times. Often the first item of parliamentary business was a public reading and reaffirmation of the Charter, and, as in the previous century, parliaments often exacted confirmation of it from the monarch. The Charter was confirmed in 1423 by King Henry VI.
By the mid-15th century, Magna Carta ceased to occupy a central role in English political life, as monarchs reasserted authority and powers which had been challenged in the 100 years after Edward I’s reign. The Great Charter remained a text for lawyers, particularly as a protector of property rights, and became more widely read than ever as printed versions circulated and levels of literacy increased.
Version of Charter of 1217, produced between 1437 and c. 1450
During the 16th century, the interpretation of Magna Carta and the First Barons’ War shifted. Henry VII took power at the end of the turbulent Wars of the Roses, followed by Henry VIII, and extensive propaganda under both rulers promoted the legitimacy of the regime, the illegitimacy of any sort of rebellion against royal power, and the priority of supporting the Crown in its arguments with the Papacy.
Tudor historians rediscovered the Barnwell chronicler, who was more favourable to King John than other 13th-century texts, and, as historian Ralph Turner describes, they “viewed King John in a positive light as a hero struggling against the papacy”, showing “little sympathy for the Great Charter or the rebel barons”. Pro-Catholic demonstrations during the 1536 uprising cited Magna Carta, accusing the King of not giving it sufficient respect.
The first mechanically printed edition of Magna Carta was probably the Magna Carta cum aliis Antiquis Statutis of 1508 by Richard Pynson, although the early printed versions of the 16th century incorrectly attributed the origins of Magna Carta to Henry III and 1225, rather than to John and 1215, and accordingly worked from the later text. An abridged English-language edition was published by John Rastell in 1527 and, in 1534, George Ferrers published the first unabridged English-language edition of Magna Carta, dividing the Charter into 37 numbered clauses.
At the end of the 16th century, there was an upsurge in antiquarian interest in England. This work concluded that there was a set of ancient English customs and laws, temporarily overthrown by the Norman invasion of 1066, which had then been recovered in 1215 and recorded in Magna Carta, which in turn gave authority to important 16th century legal principles. Modern historians note that although this narrative was fundamentally incorrect—many refer to it as a “myth” – it took on great importance among the legal historians of the time.[d]
The antiquarian William Lambarde, for example, published what he believed were the Anglo-Saxon and Norman law codes, tracing the origins of the 16th-century English Parliament back to this period, albeit misinterpreting the dates of many documents concerned. Francis Bacon argued that clause 39 of Magna Carta was the basis of the 16th-century jury system and judicial processes. Antiquarians Robert Beale, James Morice, and Richard Cosin argued that Magna Carta was a statement of liberty and a fundamental, supreme law empowering English government. Those who questioned these conclusions, including the Member of Parliament Arthur Hall, faced sanctions.
In the early 17th century, Magna Carta became increasingly important as a political document in arguments over the authority of the English monarchy. James I and Charles I both propounded greater authority for the Crown, justified by the doctrine of the divine right of kings, and Magna Carta was cited extensively by their opponents to challenge the monarchy.
Magna Carta, it was argued, recognised and protected the liberty of individual Englishmen, made the King subject to the common law of the land, formed the origin of the trial by jury system, and acknowledged the ancient origins of Parliament: because of Magna Carta and this ancient constitution, an English monarch was unable to alter these long-standing English customs. Although the arguments based on Magna Carta were historically inaccurate, they nonetheless carried symbolic power, as the charter had immense significance during this period; antiquarians such as Sir Henry Spelman described it as “the most majestic and a sacrosanct anchor to English Liberties”.
Sir Edward Coke was a leader in using Magna Carta as a political tool during this period. Still working from the 1225 version of the text—the first printed copy of the 1215 charter only emerged in 1610 – Coke spoke and wrote about Magna Carta repeatedly. His work was challenged at the time by Lord Ellesmere, and modern historians such as Ralph Turner and Claire Breay have critiqued Coke as “misconstruing” the original charter “anachronistically and uncritically”, and taking a “very selective” approach to his analysis. More sympathetically, J. C. Holt noted that the history of the charters had already become “distorted” by the time Coke was carrying out his work.
John Lilburne criticised Magna Carta as an inadequate definition of English liberties
In 1621, a bill was presented to Parliament to renew Magna Carta; although this bill failed, lawyer John Selden argued during Darnell’s Case in 1627 that the right of habeas corpus was backed by Magna Carta. Coke supported the Petition of Right in 1628, which cited Magna Carta in its preamble, attempting to extend the provisions, and to make them binding on the judiciary. The monarchy responded by arguing that the historical legal situation was much less clear-cut than was being claimed, restricted the activities of antiquarians, arrested Coke for treason, and suppressed his proposed book on Magna Carta. Charles initially did not agree to the Petition of Right, and refused to confirm Magna Carta in any way that would reduce his independence as King.
England descended into civil war in the 1640s, resulting in Charles I’s execution in 1649. Under the republic that followed, some questioned whether Magna Carta, an agreement with a monarch, was still relevant. Oliver Cromwell, the Lord Protector, disdained Magna Carta, at one point describing it as “Magna Farta” to a defendant who sought to rely on it; nevertheless, he accepted some limits on his powers, agreeing to rule with the advice and consent of his council.
The radical groups that flourished during this period held differing opinions of Magna Carta. The Levellers rejected history and law as presented by their contemporaries, holding instead to an “anti-Normanism” viewpoint. John Lilburne, for example, argued that Magna Carta contained only some of the freedoms that had supposedly existed under the Anglo-Saxons before being crushed by the Norman yoke.
The Leveller Richard Overton described the charter as “a beggarly thing containing many marks of intolerable bondage”. Both saw Magna Carta as a useful declaration of liberties that could be used against governments they disagreed with. Gerrard Winstanley, the leader of the more extreme Diggers, stated “the best lawes that England hath, [viz., the Magna Carta] were got by our Forefathers importunate petitioning unto the kings that still were their Task-masters; and yet these best laws are yoaks and manicles, tying one sort of people to be slaves to another; Clergy and Gentry have got their freedom, but the common people still are, and have been left servants to work for them.”
1733 engraving of the Charter of 1215 by John Pine
The first attempt at a proper historiography was undertaken by Robert Brady, who refuted the supposed antiquity of Parliament and belief in the immutable continuity of the law. Brady realised that the liberties of the Charter were limited and argued that the liberties were the grant of the King. By putting Magna Carta in historical context, he cast doubt on its contemporary political relevance; his historical understanding did not survive the Glorious Revolution, which, according to the historian J. G. A. Pocock, “marked a setback for the course of English historiography.”
According to the Whig interpretation of history, the Glorious Revolution was an example of the reclaiming of ancient liberties. Reinforced with Lockean concepts, the Whigs believed England’s constitution to be a social contract, based on documents such as Magna Carta, the Petition of Right, and the Bill of Rights.
Ideas about the nature of law in general were beginning to change. In 1716, the Septennial Act was passed, which had a number of consequences. First, it showed that Parliament no longer considered its previous statutes unassailable, as it provided for a maximum parliamentary term of seven years, whereas the Triennial Act (1694) (enacted less than a quarter of a century previously) had provided for a maximum term of three years. It also greatly extended the powers of Parliament. Under this new constitution, monarchical absolutism was replaced by parliamentary supremacy. It was quickly realised that Magna Carta stood in the same relation to the King-in-Parliament as it had to the King without Parliament. This supremacy would be challenged by the likes of Granville Sharp. Sharp regarded Magna Carta as a fundamental part of the constitution, and maintained that it would be treason to repeal any part of it. He also held that the Charter prohibited slavery.
Sir William Blackstone published a critical edition of the 1215 Charter in 1759, and gave it the numbering system still used today. In 1763, Member of Parliament John Wilkes was arrested for writing an inflammatory pamphlet, No. 45, 23 April 1763; he cited Magna Carta continually. Lord Camden denounced the treatment of Wilkes as a contravention of Magna Carta. Thomas Paine, in his Rights of Man, would disregard Magna Carta and the Bill of Rights on the grounds that they were not a written constitution devised by elected representatives.
Use in the Thirteen Colonies and the United States
Magna Carta replica and display in the rotunda of the United States Capitol, Washington, D.C.
When English colonists left for the New World, they brought royal charters that established the colonies. The Massachusetts Bay Company charter, for example, stated that the colonists would “have and enjoy all liberties and immunities of free and natural subjects.”
The Virginia Charter of 1606, which was largely drafted by Sir Edward Coke, stated that the colonists would have the same “liberties, franchises and immunities” as people born in England. The Massachusetts Body of Liberties contained similarities to clause 29 of Magna Carta; when drafting it, the Massachusetts General Court viewed Magna Carta as the chief embodiment of English common law. The other colonies would follow their example. In 1638, Maryland sought to recognise Magna Carta as part of the law of the province, but the request was denied by Charles I.
In 1687, William Penn published The Excellent Privilege of Liberty and Property: being the birth-right of the Free-Born Subjects of England, which contained the first copy of Magna Carta printed on American soil. Penn’s comments reflected Coke’s, indicating a belief that Magna Carta was a fundamental law. The colonists drew on English law books, leading them to an anachronistic interpretation of Magna Carta, believing that it guaranteed trial by jury and habeas corpus.
The development of parliamentary supremacy in the British Isles did not constitutionally affect the Thirteen Colonies, which retained an adherence to English common law, but it directly affected the relationship between Britain and the colonies. When American colonists fought against Britain, they were fighting not so much for new freedom, but to preserve liberties and rights that they believed to be enshrined in Magna Carta.
In the late 18th century, the United States Constitution became the supreme law of the land, recalling the manner in which Magna Carta had come to be regarded as fundamental law. The Constitution’s Fifth Amendment guarantees that “no person shall be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law”, a phrase that was derived from Magna Carta. In addition, the Constitution included a similar writ in the Suspension Clause, Article 1, Section 9: “The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.”
Each of these proclaim that no person may be imprisoned or detained without evidence that he or she committed a crime. The Ninth Amendment states “The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.” The writers of the U.S. Constitution wished to ensure that the rights they already held, such as those that they believed were provided by Magna Carta, would be preserved unless explicitly curtailed.
Romanticised 19th-century recreation of King John signing Magna Carta
Initially, the Whig interpretation of Magna Carta and its role in constitutional history remained dominant during the 19th century. The historian William Stubbs‘s Constitutional History of England, published in the 1870s, formed the high-water mark of this view. Stubbs argued that Magna Carta had been a major step in the shaping of the English nation, and he believed that the barons at Runnymede in 1215 were not just representing the nobility, but the people of England as a whole, standing up to a tyrannical ruler in the form of King John.
This view of Magna Carta began to recede. The late-Victorian jurist and historian Frederic William Maitland provided an alternative academic history in 1899, which began to return Magna Carta to its historical roots.  In 1904, Edward Jenks published an article entitled “The Myth of Magna Carta”, which undermined the traditionally accepted view of Magna Carta.
Historians such as Albert Pollard agreed with Jenks in concluding that Edward Coke had largely “invented” the myth of Magna Carta in the 17th century; these historians argued that the 1215 charter had not referred to liberty for the people at large, but rather to the protection of baronial rights. This view also became popular in wider circles, and in 1930 Sellar and Yeatman published their parody on English history, 1066 and All That, in which they mocked the supposed importance of Magna Carta and its promises of universal liberty: “Magna Charter was therefore the chief cause of Democracy in England, and thus a Good Thing for everyone (except the Common People)”.
In many literary representations of the medieval past, however, Magna Carta remained a foundation of English national identity. Some authors used the medieval roots of the document as an argument to preserve the social status quo, while others pointed to Magna Carta to challenge perceived economic injustices.  The Baronial Order of Magna Charta was formed in 1898 to promote the ancient principles and values felt to be displayed in Magna Carta.
The legal profession in England and the United States continued to hold Magna Carta in high esteem; they were instrumental in forming the Magna Carta Society in 1922 to protect the meadows at Runnymede from development in the 1920s, and in 1957, the American Bar Association erected the Magna Carta Memorial at Runnymede.  The prominent lawyer Lord Denning described Magna Carta in 1956 as “the greatest constitutional document of all times – the foundation of the freedom of the individual against the arbitrary authority of the despot”.
Repeal of articles and constitutional influence
Radicals such as Sir Francis Burdett believed that Magna Carta could not be repealed, but in the 19th century clauses which were obsolete or had been superseded began to be repealed. The repeal of clause 26 in 1829, by the Offences against the Person Act 1828 (9 Geo. 4 c. 31 s. 1), was the first time a clause of Magna Carta was repealed. Over the next 140 years, nearly the whole charter was repealed, leaving just clauses 1, 9, and 29 still in force after 1969. Most of the clauses were repealed in England and Wales by the Statute Law Revision Act 1863, and in Ireland by the Statute Law (Ireland) Revision Act 1872.
Many later attempts to draft constitutional forms of government trace their lineage back to Magna Carta. The British dominions, Australia and New Zealand, Canada (except Quebec), and formerly the Union of South Africa and Southern Rhodesia, reflected the influence of Magna Carta in their laws, and the Charter’s effects can be seen in the laws of other states that evolved from the British Empire.
The Magna Carta Memorial at Runnymede erected by the American Bar Association in 1957
Magna Carta continues to have a powerful iconic status in British society, being cited by politicians and lawyers in support of constitutional positions. Its perceived guarantee of trial by jury and other civil liberties, for example, led to Tony Benn‘s reference to the debate in 2008 over whether to increase the maximum time terrorism suspects could be held without charge from 28 to 42 days as “the day Magna Carta was repealed”.
Although rarely invoked in court in the modern era, in 2012 the Occupy London protestors attempted to use Magna Carta in resisting their eviction from St. Paul’s Churchyard by the City of London. In his judgment the Master of the Rolls gave this short shrift, noting somewhat drily that although clause 29 was considered by many the foundation of the rule of law in England, he did not consider it directly relevant to the case, and the two other surviving clauses actually concerned the rights of the Church and the City of London.
Magna Carta carries little legal weight in modern Britain, as most of its clauses have been repealed and relevant rights ensured by other statutes, but the historian James Holt remarks that the survival of the 1215 charter in national life is a “reflexion of the continuous development of English law and administration” and symbolic of the many struggles between authority and the law over the centuries. The historian W. L. Warren has observed that “many who knew little and cared less about the content of the Charter have, in nearly all ages, invoked its name, and with good cause, for it meant more than it said”. It also remains a topic of great interest to historians; Natalie Fryde characterised the charter as “one of the holiest of cows in English medieval history”, with the debates over its interpretation and meaning unlikely to end.
In many ways still a “sacred text”, Magna Carta is generally considered part of the uncodified constitution of the United Kingdom; in a 2005 speech, the Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, Lord Woolf, described it as the “first of a series of instruments that now are recognised as having a special constitutional status”.
The document also continues to be honoured in the United States as an antecedent of the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights. In 1976, the UK lent one of four surviving originals of the 1215 Magna Carta to the United States for their bicentennial celebrations and also donated an ornate display case for it. The original was returned after one year, but a replica and the case are still on display in the United States Capitol Crypt in Washington, D.C.
Celebration of the 800th anniversary
The plan for four surviving original copies of Magna Carta to be brought together in 2015, at the British Library in collaboration with Lincoln Cathedral and Salisbury Cathedral and supported by the law firm Linklaters
The 800th anniversary of the original charter will occur on 15 June 2015, and organisations and institutions are planning celebratory events. The British Library brought together the four existing copies of the 1215 manuscript on 3 February 2015 for a special exhibition. British artist Cornelia Parker was commissioned to create a new artwork, Magna Carta (An Embroidery), which was unveiled at the British Library on 15 May 2015 and will remain on display until 24 July. The artwork is a copy of an earlier version of this Wikipedia page (as it appeared on the document’s 799th anniversary, 15 June 2014), embroidered into the form of a tapestry.
The copy held by Lincoln Cathedral was exhibited in the Law Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., from November 2014 until January 2015. A new visitor centre at Lincoln Castle will also be opened for the anniversary. The Royal Mint will release a commemorative two-pound coin.
Numerous copies, known as exemplifications, were made of the various charters, and many of them still survive. The documents were written in abbreviated Latin in clear handwriting, using quill pens on sheets of vellum made from sheep skin, approximately 15 by 20 inches (380 by 510 mm) across. They were sealed with the royal great seal by an official called the spigurnel, equipped with a special seal press, using beeswax and resin. There were no signatures on the charter of 1215, and the barons present did not attach their own seals to it. The charters were not numbered or divided into paragraphs or separate clauses at the time; the numbering system used today was introduced by the jurist Sir William Blackstone in 1759.
1225 charter, held in the British Library, with the royal great seal attached
At least 13 original copies of the 1215 charter were issued by the royal chancery at the time, seven in the first tranche distributed on 24 June and another six later; they were sent to county sheriffs and bishops, who would probably have been charged for the privilege. Variations would have existed between each of these copies and there was probably no single “master copy”. Of these documents, only four survive, all held in the UK—two in the British Library, one by Lincoln Cathedral, and one in Salisbury Cathedral. Each of these versions is slightly different in size and text, and each is considered by historians to be equally authoritative.
The two 1215 charters held by the British Library, known as Cotton MS. Augustus II.106 and Cotton Charter XIII.31a, were acquired by the antiquarian Sir Robert Cotton in the 17th century. One of these was originally found by Humphrey Wyems, a London lawyer, who may have discovered it in a tailor’s shop. The other was found in Dover Castle in 1630 by Sir Edward Dering. The Dering charter is usually identified as the copy originally sent to the Cinque Ports in 1215. (In 2015 it was announced that David Carpenter had found Dering’s copy to be identical to a 1290s transcription made from Canterbury Cathedral‘s 1215 copy and so he suggests that the Dering copy’s destination was the Cathedral rather than the Cinque Ports.) This copy was badly damaged in a fire in Ashburnham House in 1731, however, and although a facsimile was made of it in 1733, the parchment itself is now faded and largely illegible. This is the only surviving 1215 copy to still have its great seal attached, although badly melted in the fire.
Lincoln Cathedral’s original copy of the 1215 charter has been held by the county since 1215; it was displayed in the Common Chamber in the cathedral before being moved to another building in 1846. It was being displayed at the 1939 World Fair in New York when the Second World War broke out, and it spent the majority of the war in Fort Knox for safety. Winston Churchill wanted to gift the charter to the American people, hoping that this would encourage the United States, then neutral, to enter the war against the Axis powers, but the cathedral was unwilling and the plans were dropped. The copy was returned to England and put on display in 1976 as part of the cathedral’s medieval library.
It was subsequently displayed in San Francisco, and was taken out of display for a time to undergo conservation in preparation for another visit to the United States, where it was exhibited in 2007 at the Contemporary Art Center of Virginia and the National Constitution Center in Philadelphia. The document returned to New York to be displayed at the Fraunces Tavern Museum during 2009.
The fourth copy, owned by Salisbury Cathedral, was first given in 1215 to Old Sarum, which was the original cathedral in the region. Rediscovered by the cathedral in 1812, it has remained in Salisbury throughout its history, except when being taken off-site for restoration work. It is possibly the best preserved of the four, although small pin holes can be seen in the parchment from where it was once pinned up. The handwriting on this version is different from that of the other three, suggesting that it was not written by a royal scribe but rather by a member of the cathedral staff, who then had it exemplified by the royal court.
1297 copy of Magna Carta, owned by the Australian Government and on display in the Members’ Hall of Parliament House, Canberra
Other early versions of the charters survive today. Only one exemplification of the 1216 charter survives, held in Durham Cathedral. Four copies of the 1217 charter exist; three of these are held by the Bodleian Library in Oxford and one by Hereford Cathedral. Hereford’s copy is occasionally displayed alongside the Mappa Mundi in the cathedral’s chained library and has survived along with a small document called the Articuli super Cartas that was sent along with the charter, telling the sheriff of the county how to observe the conditions outlined in the document. One of the Bodleian’s copies was displayed at San Francisco’s California Palace of the Legion of Honor in 2011.
Four exemplifications of the 1225 charter survive: the British Library holds one, which was preserved at Lacock Abbey until 1945; Durham Cathedral also holds a copy, with the Bodleian Library holding a third. The fourth copy of the 1225 exemplification was held by the museum of the Public Record Office and is now held by The National Archives. The Society of Antiquaries also holds a draft of the 1215 charter (discovered in 2013 in a late 13th century register from Peterborough Abbey), a copy of the 1225 third re-issue (within an early 14th century collection of statutes) and a roll copy of the 1225 reissue.
Only two exemplifications of Magna Carta are held outside England, both from 1297. One of these was purchased in 1952 by the Australian Government for £12,500 from King’s School, Bruton, England. This copy is now on display in the Members’ Hall of Parliament House, Canberra. The second was originally held by the Brudenell family, earls of Cardigan, before they sold it in 1984 to the Perot Foundation in the U.S.A., which in 2007 sold it to U.S. businessman David Rubenstein for US$21.3 million.
Rubenstein commented “I have always believed that this was an important document to our country, even though it wasn’t drafted in our country. I think it was the basis for the Declaration of Independence and the basis for the Constitution”. This exemplification is now on permanent loan to the National Archives in Washington, D.C. Only two other 1297 exemplifications survive, one of which is held in the UK’s National Archives.
Seven copies of the 1300 exemplification by Edward I survive, in Faversham, Oriel College, Oxford, the Bodleian Library, Durham Cathedral, Westminster Abbey, the City of London (held in the archives at the London Guildhall) and Sandwich (held in the Kent County Council archives). The Sandwich copy was rediscovered in early 2015 in a Victorian scrapbook in the town archives of Sandwich, Kent, one of the Cinque Ports. In the case of the Sandwich and Oriel College exemplifications, the copies of the Charter of the Forest originally issued with them also survive.
Most of the 1215 charter and later versions sought to govern the feudal rights of the Crown over the barons. Under the Angevin kings, and in particular during John’s reign, the rights of the King had frequently been used inconsistently, often in an attempt to maximise the royal income from the barons. Feudal relief was one way that a king could demand money, and clauses 2 and 3 fixed the fees payable when an heir inherited an estate or when a minor came of age and took possession of his lands.
Scutage was a form of medieval taxation; all knights and nobles owed military service to the Crown in return for their lands, which theoretically belonged to the King, but many preferred to avoid this service and offer money instead; the Crown often used the cash to pay for mercenaries. The rate of scutage that should be payable, and the circumstances under which it was appropriate for the King to demand it, was uncertain and controversial; clauses 12 and 14 addressed the management of the process.
The English judicial system had altered considerably over the previous century, with the royal judges playing a larger role in delivering justice across the country. John had used his royal discretion to extort large sums of money from the barons, effectively taking payment to offer justice in particular cases, and the role of the Crown in delivering justice had become politically sensitive among the barons. Clauses 39 and 40 demanded due process be applied in the royal justice system, while clause 45 required that the King appoint knowledgeable royal officials to the relevant roles. Although these clauses did not have any special significance in the original charter, this part of Magna Carta became singled out as particularly important in later centuries.
In the United States, for example, the Supreme Court of California interpreted clause 45 in 1974 as establishing a requirement in common law that a defendant faced with the potential of incarceration is entitled to a trial overseen by a legally trained judge.
King John holding a church, painted c.1250–59 by Matthew Paris
Royal forests were economically important in medieval England and were both protected and exploited by the Crown, supplying the King with hunting grounds, raw materials, and money. They were subject to special royal jurisdiction and the resulting forest law was, according to the historian Richard Huscroft, “harsh and arbitrary, a matter purely for the King’s will”. The size of the forests had expanded under the Angevin kings, an unpopular development.
The 1215 charter had several clauses relating to the royal forests; clauses 47 and 48 promised to deforest the lands added to the forests under John and investigate the use of royal rights in this area, but notably did not address the forestation of the previous kings, while clause 53 promised some form of redress for those affected by the recent changes, and clause 44 promised some relief from the operation of the forest courts. Neither Magna Carta nor the subsequent Charter of the Forest proved entirely satisfactory as a way of managing the political tensions around the operation of the royal forests.
Some of the clauses addressed wider economic issues. The concerns of the barons over the treatment of their debts to Jewish moneylenders, who occupied a special position in medieval England and were by tradition under the King’s protection, were addressed by clauses 10 and 11. The charter concluded this section with the phrase “debts owing to other than Jews shall be dealt with likewise”, so it is debatable to what extent the Jews were being singled out by these clauses. Some issues were relatively specific, such as clause 33 which ordered the removal of all fishing weirs—an important and growing source of revenue at the time—from England’s rivers.
The role of the English Church had been a matter for great debate in the years prior to the 1215 charter. The Norman and Angevin kings had traditionally exercised a great deal of power over the church within their territories. From the 1040s onwards, however, successive popes had emphasised the importance of the church being governed more effectively from Rome, and had established an independent judicial system and hierarchical chain of authority. After the 1140s, these principles had been largely accepted within the English church, even if accompanied by an element of concern about centralising authority in Rome.
These changes brought the customary rights of lay rulers such as John over ecclesiastical appointments into question. As described above, John had come to a compromise with Pope Innocent III in exchange for his political support for the King, and clause 1 of Magna Carta prominently displayed this arrangement, promising the freedoms and liberties of the church. The importance of this clause may also reflect the role of Archbishop Langton in the negotiations: Langton had taken a strong line on this issue during his career.
Clauses in detail
Magna Carta clauses in the 1215 and later charters
Clauses remaining in English law
Only three clauses of Magna Carta still remain on statute in England and Wales. These clauses concern the freedom of the English Church, the “ancient liberties” of the City of London (clause 13 in the 1215 charter, clause 9 in the 1297 statute), and a right to due legal process (clauses 39 and 40 in the 1215 charter, clause 29 in the 1297 statute). In detail, these clauses (using the numbering system from the 1297 statute) state that:
- FIRST, We have granted to God, and by this our present Charter have confirmed, for Us and our Heirs for ever, that the Church of England shall be free, and shall have all her whole Rights and Liberties inviolable. We have granted also, and given to all the Freemen of our Realm, for Us and our Heirs for ever, these Liberties under-written, to have and to hold to them and their Heirs, of Us and our Heirs for ever.
- THE City of London shall have all the old Liberties and Customs which it hath been used to have. Moreover We will and grant, that all other Cities, Boroughs, Towns, and the Barons of the Five Ports, as with all other Ports, shall have all their Liberties and free Customs.
- NO Freeman shall be taken or imprisoned, or be disseised of his Freehold, or Liberties, or free Customs, or be outlawed, or exiled, or any other wise destroyed; nor will We not pass upon him, nor condemn him, but by lawful judgment of his Peers, or by the Law of the land. We will sell to no man, we will not deny or defer to any man either Justice or Right.
Usage of the definite article and spelling[
Magna Carta was given its name in Latin, a language which has no direct, consistent correlate of the English definite article “the”. As a result, the usual academic convention is to refer to the document in English without the article as “Magna Carta” rather than “the Magna Carta”. Nonetheless, “the Magna Carta” is frequently used in both academic and non-academic speech.
Especially in the past, the document has also been referred to as “Magna Charta”, but the pronunciation was the same. “Magna Charta” is still an acceptable variant spelling recorded in many dictionaries due to continued use in some reputable sources. From the 13th to the 17th centuries, only the spelling “Magna Carta” was used. The spelling “Magna Charta” began to be used in the 18th century but never became more common despite also being used by some reputable writers.
- Fundamental Laws of England
- History of democracy
- History of human rights
- Magna Carta Hiberniae – an issue of the English Magna Carta, or Great Charter of Liberties in Ireland
- Statutes of Mortmain
Notes & References
- Jump up ^ Within this article, dates before 14 September 1752 are in the Julian calendar. Later dates are in the Gregorian calendar.
- Jump up ^ The Runnymede Charter of Liberties did not apply to Chester, which at the time was a separate feudal domain. Earl Ranulf granted his own Magna Carta. Some of its articles were similar to the Runnymede Charter.
- Jump up ^ Louis’ claim to the English throne, described as “debatable” by the historian David Carpenter, derived from his wife, Blanche of Castile, who was the granddaughter of King Henry II of England. Louis argued that since John had been legitimately deposed, the barons could then legally appoint him king over the claims of John’s son Henry.
- Jump up ^ Among the historians to have discussed the “myth” of Magna Carta and the ancient English constitution are Claire Breay, Geoffrey Hindley, James Holt, John Pocock, Danny Danziger, and John Gillingham.
References & Resources
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- Jump up ^ Roger de Montbegon is named only in one of the four early sources (BL, Harley MS 746, fol. 64); whereas the others name Roger de Mowbray. However, Holt (1992b, p. 478) believes the Harley listing to be “the best”, and the de Mowbray entries to be an error.
- Jump up ^ Carpenter 1990, pp. 14–15.
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- Jump up ^ Carpenter 1990, p. 60.
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- Jump up ^ Carpenter 1990, pp. 374–375.
- Jump up ^ Carpenter 1990, pp. 376, 378.
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- Jump up ^ Carpenter 1990, p. 379.
- ^ Jump up to: a b Carpenter 2004, p. 307.
- Jump up ^ Carpenter 1990, p. 383.
- Jump up ^ Carpenter 1990, pp. 2–3, 383, 386
- Jump up ^ Carpenter 2004, p. 307
- ^ Jump up to: a b Clanchy 1997, p. 147.
- ^ Jump up to: a b Davis 2013, p. 71.
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- ^ Jump up to: a b Carpenter 1996, pp. 76, 99.
- Jump up ^ Carpenter 1990, p. 3.
- Jump up ^ Carpenter 1996, pp. 26, 29, 37, 43.
- ^ Jump up to: a b Carpenter 1996, p. 105.
- Jump up ^ Davis 2013, pp. 195–197.
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- Jump up ^ 
- ^ Jump up to: a b Prestwich 1997, p. 427.
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- ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Danziger & Gillingham 2004, p. 280.
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- ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Breay 2010, p. 46.
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- ^ Jump up to: a b Hindley 1990, p. 189.
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- Jump up ^ Magna Carta: a Precedent For Recent Constitutional Change, a speech by Harry Woolf, Baron Woolf, Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales, given on 15 June 2005 at Royal Holloway, University of London
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- Further reading
- McKechnie, William Sharp (1914). Magna Carta: A Commentary on the Great Charter of King John with an Historical Introduction (PDF). Glasgow, UK: James Maclehose and Sons.
- Sandoz, Ellis (2008). Roots of Liberty: Magna Carta, Ancient Constitution and the Anglo-American Tradition of Rule of Law. Liberty Fund Inc. ISBN978-0865977099.
- Blick, Andrew (2015). Magna Carta and contemporary constitutional change. History & Policy.
- External links Quotations related to Magna Carta at Wikiquote
- Text of the Magna Carta 1297 as in force today (including any amendments) within the United Kingdom, from the UK Statute Law Database
- Magna Carta Libertatum Latin and English text of the 1215 charter
- Text of Magna Carta English translation, with introductory historical note. From the Internet Medieval Sourcebook.
- “Magna Carta and Its American Legacy” The influence of Magna Carta on the United States Constitution and Bill of Rights
- Glossary of terms in Magna Carta
- Interactive, high-resolution view of a copy from 1297, owned by David Rubenstein and on permanent loan to the US National Archives
- Magna Carta at BBC Radio 4, 2015
- Magna Carta public domain audiobook at LibriVox