Universal Diving Living in Diversity- The new consciousness

Uiversal Divine Connections http://www.Globalbelai4u.blogspot.com; http://www.GlobalBelaiJesus.com Universal Divine Living in Diversity Our knowledge, attitude and practice about the Expanding Universal Divine Living is changing day by day as our ability to understand the latest information on the universe, the divine, the human experience is improving. We are at a unique time in history where knowledge is expanding at astronomical pace. Our knowledge, our attitude and practice in life changes with the new knowledge. This site attempts to connect Ancient history and knowledgewith modern developments and expanding innovations, knowledge and practice to enrich our lives and connect us to the Universal Divine Existenced and blessed living compliant to our most current understanding of the expanding universe and knowledge. Diversity is the essence of Divinity The Trinity in Universal Divinity in Diversity Father, Mother and Child (Boy and Daughter) God, Mary and Jesus Spirit, Body and Mind Primate, Human and Divine Faith, Food and Fitness Universal Divinity with self, family and friends The life and legacy of Divinity in all of us Universal Divine Living: Living 4 Others (Diversity) The Universal Divine Diet Movement: 3F: Faith, food and Fitness Integrating our Body, Mind and Spirit and our Primate, Human and Divine Living The trinity of divine living 1 Divinity and Diversity begins within our ecosystem that is our home and community- with self, family and friends. 2 Divine Love yourself first before you love and serve others. 3 Divine love means respect, dignity and connection to the Universal Divine God, who is just, omniscient, omnipresent and loves all his creation and humans equally. Defining Divine living: • Developing the habit, the option, and will power and the mindset to Be Divine at all times- (Living 4 Others). The trinity of Divine habit Our Divine body needs balanced nutrition, productivity and restful sleep Our Divine resources are our integrated Divine self (body, mind, and spirit) We need to integrate our lives in time, place and person, the three dimensions of life on earth and the universe. The trinity of Divine time Serving others with time and energy of life The 8:8:8 rule (8 hours sleep, 8 hours productivity and 8 hours leisure) The Science of Divine life Balanced food, balanced (isometric and isotonic exercise) and restful sleep, generates the good hormones, boosts our immunity and allows more blood flow to the brain that allows us to make better choice and better decision. Divine Diversity in faith, food, and fitness leads to Diversity in life that is Divine and gives us the Divine resources to serve others Biodiversity in food: Organic and balanced diet that has multiple colors, taste and biodiversity in food value. Divine Nutrition The Rainbow/Vibgryo Diet: Violent Indigo, Brown, Green, Yellow and Orange. The normal light and color spectrum Eating food of diverse colors and value, at least three colors per serving Our Divine Body The body is the holy temple of the Divine. Our BMI (Body Mass Index) is a critical measure of our health (BMI=Weight/height x height). 1 One in three (1:3) Americans are obese: BMI>30, sickness 2 The Dinosaur mind: brain shrinks as body size increases 3 Good habit: It takes 6 weeks to develop a habit (40 days); 40 days to a healthier you The Divine Life is a second to second, minute-to-minute, hour-to-hour, day by day positive experience. Faith, Food and Fitness for Diving Living The Trinity in Divinity and Diversity Father, Mother and Child God, Mary and Jesus Spirit, Body and Mind Primate, Human and Divine Faith, Food and Fitness Divinity with self, family and friends The life and legacy of Divinity in all of us Divine Living: Living 4 Others! The Divine Diet Movement: 3F: Faith, food and Fitness Integrating our Body, Mind and Spirit and our Primate, Human and Divine Living The trinity of divine living 4 Divinity and Diversity begins within our ecosystem that is our home and community- with self, family , friends and community at large. 5 Divine Love yourself first before you love and serve others. 6 Divine love means respect, dignity and connection to the Universal Divine God, who is just, omniscient, omnipresent and loves all his creation and humans equally. Defining Divine living: • Developing the habit, the option, and will power and the mindset to Be Divine at all times- (Living 4 Others). The trinity of Divine habit Our Divine body needs balanced nutrition, productivity and restful sleep Our Divine resources are our integrated Divine self (body, mind, and spirit) We need to integrate our lives in time, place and person, the three dimensions of life on earth and the universe. The trinity of Divine time, energy and matter (Body, Mind and Spirit) Serving others with time and energy of life The 8:8:8 rule (8 hours sleep, 8 hours productivity and 8 hours leisure) The Science of Divine living Divine living is an integrated Balanced food, balanced (isometric and isotonic exercise) and restful sleep, generates the good hormones, boosts our immunity and allows more blood flow to the brain that allows us to make better choice and better decision. Divine Diversity in faith, food, and fitness leads to Diversity in life that is Divine and gives us the Divine resources to serve others Biodiversity in food: Organic and balanced diet that has multiple colors, taste and biodiversity in food value. Divine Nutrition The Rainbow/Vibgryo Diet: Violent Indigo, Brown, Green, Yellow and Orange. The normal light and color spectrum Eating food of diverse colors and value, at least three colors per serving Our Divine Body The body is the holy temple of the Divine. Our BMI (Body Mass Index) is a critical measure of our health (BMI=Weight/height x height). 4 One in three (1:3) Americans are obese: BMI>30, sickness 5 The Dinosaur mind: brain shrinks as body size increases 6 Good habit: It takes 6 weeks to develop a habit (40 days); 40 days to a healthier you The Divine Life is a second to second, minute-to-minute, hour-to-hour, day by day positive experience. Faith, Food and Fitness for Diving Living The Trinity in Divinity and Diversity Father, Mother and Child God, Mary and Jesus Spirit, Body and Mind Primate, Human and Divine Faith, Food and Fitness Divinity with self, family and friends The life and legacy of Divinity in all of us Divine Living: Living 4 Others! The Divine Diet Movement: 3F: Faith, food and Fitness Integrating our Body, Mind and Spirit and our Primate, Human and Divine Living The trinity of divine living 1. Divinity and Diversity begins within our ecosystem that is our home and community- with self, family and friends. 2. Divine Love yourself first before you love and serve others. 3. Divine love means respect, dignity and connection to the Universal Divine God, who is just, omniscient, omnipresent and loves all his creation and humans equally. Defining Divine living: • Developing the habit, the option, and will power and the mindset to Be Divine at all times- (Living 4 Others). The trinity of Divine habit Our Divine body needs balanced nutrition, productivity and restful sleep Our Divine resources are our integrated Divine self (body, mind, and spirit) We need to integrate our lives in time, place and person, the three dimensions of life on earth and the universe. The trinity of Divine time Serving others with time and energy of life The 8:8:8 rule (8 hours sleep, 8 hours productivity and 8 hours leisure) The Science of Divine life Balanced food, balanced (isometric and isotonic exercise) and restful sleep, generates the good hormones, boosts our immunity and allows more blood flow to the brain that allows us to make better choice and better decision. Divine Diversity in faith, food, and fitness leads to Diversity in life that is Divine and gives us the Divine resources to serve others Biodiversity in food: Organic and balanced diet that has multiple colors, taste and biodiversity in food value. Divine Nutrition The Rainbow/Vibgryo Diet: Violent Indigo, Brown, Green, Yellow and Orange. The normal light and color spectrum Eating food of diverse colors and value, at least three colors per serving Our Divine Body The body is the holy temple of the Divine. Our BMI (Body Mass Index) is a critical measure of our health (BMI=Weight/height x height). 7 One in three (1:3) Americans are obese: BMI>30, sickness 8 The Dinosaur mind: brain shrinks as body size increases 9 Good habit: It takes 6 weeks to develop a habit (40 days); 40 days to a healthier you The Divine Life is a second to second, minute-to-minute, hour-to-hour, day-by-day positive experience. Faith, Food and Fitness for Diving Living The Trinity in Divinity and Diversity Father, Mother and Child God, Mary and Jesus Spirit, Body and Mind Primate, Human and Divine Faith, Food and Fitness Divinity with self, family and friends The life and legacy of Divinity in all of us Divine Living: Living 4 Others! The Divine Diet Movement: 3F: Faith, food and Fitness Integrating our Body, Mind and Spirit and our Primate, Human and Divine Living The trinity of divine living 1. Divinity and Diversity begins within our ecosystem that is our home and community- with self, family and friends. 2. Divine Love yourself first before you love and serve others. 3. Divine love means respect, dignity and connection to the Universal Divine God, who is just, omniscient, omnipresent and loves all his creation and humans equally. Defining Divine living: • Developing the habit, the option, and will power and the mindset to Be Divine at all times- (Living 4 Others). The trinity of Divine habit Our Divine body needs balanced nutrition, productivity and restful sleep Our Divine resources are our integrated Divine self (body, mind, and spirit) We need to integrate our lives in time, place and person, the three dimensions of life on earth and the universe. The trinity of Divine time Serving others with time and energy of life The 8:8:8 rule (8 hours sleep, 8 hours productivity and 8 hours leisure) The Science of Divine life Balanced food, balanced (isometric and isotonic exercise) and restful sleep, generates the good hormones, boosts our immunity and allows more blood flow to the brain that allows us to make better choice and better decision. Divine Diversity in faith, food, and fitness leads to Diversity in life that is Divine and gives us the Divine resources to serve others Biodiversity in food: Organic and balanced diet that has multiple colors, taste and biodiversity in food value. Divine Nutrition The Rainbow/Vibgryo Diet: Violent Indigo, Brown, Green, Yellow and Orange. The normal light and color spectrum Eating food of diverse colors and value, at least three colors per serving Our Divine Body The body is the holy temple of the Divine. Our BMI (Body Mass Index) is a critical measure of our health (BMI=Weight/height x height). 1. One in three (1:3) Americans are obese: BMI>30, sickness 2. The Dinosaur mind: brain shrinks as body size increases 3. Good habit: It takes 6 weeks to develop a habit (40 days); 40 days to a healthier you The Divine Life is a second to second, minute-to-minute, hour-to-hour, day by day positive experience. Faith, Food and Fitness for Diving Living Universal Divine Living: The Universe, the Divine, The Human Body, The Human Mind, the Human Spirit We are at the beginning of the eighth millennia (7500-8,500). Many consider this to be the beginning of the last days or the end of time. Many consider this is a special time of the expansion of knowledge about the universe and the cosmos. It is the end of ignorance and the beginning of knowledge, wisdom and instant information. The computer and Internet revolution and information super highway is the beginning of this new world of instant information, and the expansion of knowledge. The presence of ICT (Information, Communication Technology, and SMN (Social Media Network) is making these new beginnings really interesting. This is December in 7506 according to the Ethiopian Calendar, the oldest and perhaps the most accurate calendar since humans began to document time as we know it. We will review the Universal Diving Living series by looking at the new information we have on the Universe, the Divine, the Human Body, the Human Mind and the Human Spirit so as to understand this new Universal Divine Living, the beginning of the new Universal Order and the new Universal Divine Living. We will examine the latest information on the Universe, the Divine, the Human Body, the Human Mind and the Human Spirit. We will look at the scientific and material evidence of the universe in all its totality to discover what Universal Divine Life offers. The Universe- the Cosmos, the Expanding universe , age of the Universe , the Big Bang, Chronology of the Universe Universe From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). Part of a series on Physical cosmology • Universe • Big Bang • Age of the universe • Chronology of the universe Early universe[show] Expanding universe[show] Structure formation[show] Future of universe[show] Components[show] History[show] Experiments[show] Scientists[show] Social impact[show] • Astronomy portal • Category: Physical cosmology • V • T • E The Universe is commonly defined as the totality of existence,[1][2][3][4] including planets, stars, galaxies, the contents of intergalactic space, and all matter andenergy.[5][6] Similar terms include the cosmos, the world and nature. The observable universe is about 46 billion light years in radius.[7] Scientific observation of the Universe has led to inferences of its earlier stages. These observations suggest that the Universe has been governed by the same physical laws and constants throughout most of its extent and history. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model that describes the early development of the Universe, which is calculated to have begun 13.798 ± 0.037 billion years ago.[8][9]Observations of a supernovae have shown that the Universe is expanding at an accelerating rate.[10] There are many competing theories about the ultimate fate of the universe. Physicists remain unsure about what, if anything, preceded the Big Bang. Many refuse to speculate, doubting that any information from any such prior state could ever be accessible. There are various multiverse hypotheses, in which some physicists have suggested that the Universe might be one among many universes that likewise exist.[11][12] Contents • 1 History o 1.1 Observational history o 1.2 History of the Universe • 2 Etymology, synonyms and definitions o 2.1 Broadest definition: reality and probability o 2.2 Definition as reality o 2.3 Definition as connected space-time o 2.4 Definition as observable reality • 3 Size, age, contents, structure, and laws o 3.1 Fine tuning • 4 Historical models o 4.1 Creation o 4.2 Philosophical models o 4.3 Astronomical models • 5 Theoretical models o 5.1 General theory of relativity o 5.2 Special relativity and space-time o 5.3 Solving Einstein’s field equations o 5.4 Big Bang model o 5.5 Multiverse theory • 6 Shape of the Universe • 7 See also • 8 Notes and references • 9 Bibliography • 10 Further reading • 11 External links o 11.1 Videos History Observational history Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF) XDF size compared to the size of theMoon – several thousand galaxies, each consisting of billions of stars, are in this small view. XDF (2012) view – each light speck is agalaxy – some of these are as old as 13.2 billion years[13] – the visible Universe is estimated to contain 200 billion galaxies. XDF image shows fully mature galaxiesin the foreground plane – nearly mature galaxies from 5 to 9 billion years ago –protogalaxies, blazing with young stars, beyond 9 billion years. Throughout recorded history, several cosmologies and cosmogonies have been proposed to account for observations of the Universe. The earliest quantitative geocentricmodels were developed by the ancient Greek philosophers. Over the centuries, more precise observations and improved theories of gravity led to Copernicus’sheliocentric model and the Newtonian model of the Solar System, respectively. Further improvements in astronomy led to the realization that the Solar System is embedded in a galaxy composed of billions of stars, the Milky Way, and that other galaxies exist outside it, as far as astronomical instruments can reach. Careful studies of the distribution of these galaxies and their spectral lines have led to much of modern cosmology. Discovery of the red shift and cosmic microwave background radiation suggested that the Universe is expanding and had a beginning.[14] History of the Universe Main article: Chronology of the universe According to the prevailing scientific model of the Universe, known as the Big Bang, the Universe expanded from an extremely hot, dense phase called the Planck epoch, in which all the matter and energy of the observable universe was concentrated. Since the Planck epoch, the Universe has been expanding to its present form, possibly with a brief period (less than 10−32 seconds) of cosmic inflation. Several independent experimental measurements support this theoretical expansion and, more generally, the Big Bang theory. The universe is composed of ordinary matter (5%) including atoms, stars, and galaxies, dark matter (25%) which is a hypothetical particle that has not yet been detected, and dark energy (70%), which is a kind of energy density that seemingly exists even in completely empty space.[15] Recent observations indicate that this expansion is accelerating because of dark energy, and that most of the matter in the Universe may be in a form which cannot be detected by present instruments, called dark matter.[16] The common use of the “dark matter” and “dark energy” placeholder names for the unknown entities purported to account for about 95% of the mass-energy density of the Universe demonstrates the present observational and conceptual shortcomings and uncertainties concerning the nature andultimate fate of the Universe.[17] On 21 March 2013, the European research team behind the Planck cosmology probe released the mission’s all-sky map of the cosmic microwave background.[18][19][20][21][22] The map suggests the universe is slightly older than thought. According to the map, subtle fluctuations in temperature were imprinted on the deep sky when the cosmos was about 370,000 years old. The imprint reflects ripples that arose as early, in the existence of the universe, as the first nonillionth (10−30) of a second. Apparently, these ripples gave rise to the present vast cosmic web of galaxy clusters and dark matter. According to the team, the universe is 13.798 ± 0.037 billion years old,[9][23] and contains 4.9% ordinary matter, 26.8% dark matter and 68.3% dark energy. Also, the Hubble constant was measured to be 67.80 ± 0.77 (km/s)/Mpc.[18][19][20][22][23] An earlier interpretation of astronomical observations indicated that the age of the Universe was 13.772 ± 0.059 billion years,[24] and that the diameter of the observable universe is at least 93 billion light years or 8.80×1026 meters.[25] According to general relativity, space can expand faster than the speed of light, although we can view only a small portion of the Universe due to the limitation imposed by light speed. Since we cannot observe space beyond the limitations of light (or any electromagnetic radiation), it is uncertain whether the size of the Universe is finite or infinite. Etymology, synonyms and definitions See also: Cosmos, Nature, World (philosophy), and Celestial spheres The word Universe derives from the Old French word Univers, which in turn derives from the Latin word universum.[26] The Latin word was used by Cicero and later Latin authors in many of the same senses as the modern English word is used.[27] The Latin word derives from the poetic contraction Unvorsum — first used by Lucretius in Book IV (line 262) of his De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things) — which connects un, uni (the combining form of unus, or “one”) with vorsum, versum (a noun made from the perfect passive participle of vertere, meaning “something rotated, rolled, changed”).[27] An alternative interpretation of unvorsum is “everything rotated as one” or “everything rotated by one”. In this sense, it may be considered a translation of an earlier Greek word for the Universe, περιφορά, (periforá, “circumambulation”), originally used to describe a course of a meal, the food being carried around the circle of dinner guests.[28] This Greek word refers to celestial spheres, an early Greek model of the Universe. Regarding Plato’s Metaphor of the sun, Aristotle suggests that the rotation of the sphere of fixed stars inspired by the prime mover, motivates, in turn, terrestrial change via the Sun. Careful astronomical and physical measurements (such as theFoucault pendulum) are required to prove the Earth rotates on its axis. A term for “Universe” in ancient Greece was τὸ πᾶν (tò pán, The All, Pan (mythology)). Related terms were matter, (τὸ ὅλον, tò ólon, see also Hyle, lit. wood) and place (τὸ κενόν, tò kenón).[29][30] Other synonyms for the Universe among the ancient Greek philosophers included κόσμος (cosmos) and φύσις (meaning Nature, from which we derive the word physics).[31] The same synonyms are found in Latin authors (totum, mundus, natura)[32] and survive in modern languages, e.g., the German words Das All, Weltall, and Natur for Universe. The same synonyms are found in English, such as everything (as in the theory of everything), the cosmos (as in cosmology), the world (as in the many-worlds interpretation), and Nature (as in natural laws or natural philosophy).[33] Broadest definition: reality and probability See also: Essence–Energies distinction#Distinction between created and uncreated The broadest definition of the Universe is found in De divisione naturae by the medieval philosopher and theologian Johannes Scotus Eriugena, who defined it as simply everything: everything that is created and everything that is not created. Definition as reality See also: Reality and Physics More customarily, the Universe is defined as everything that exists, (has existed, and will exist)[citation needed]. According to our current understanding, the Universe consists of three principles: spacetime, forms of energy, including momentum and matter, and the physical laws that relate them. Definition as connected space-time See also: Eternal inflation It is possible to conceive of disconnected space-times, each existing but unable to interact with one another. An easily visualized metaphor is a group of separate soap bubbles, in which observers living on one soap bubble cannot interact with those on other soap bubbles, even in principle. According to one common terminology, each “soap bubble” of space-time is denoted as a universe, whereas our particular space-time is denoted as the Universe, just as we call our moon the Moon. The entire collection of these separate space-times is denoted as the multiverse.[34] In principle, the other unconnected universes may have different dimensionalities and topologies of space-time, different forms of matter and energy, and different physical laws and physical constants, although such possibilities are purely speculative. Definition as observable reality See also: Observable universe and Observational cosmology According to a still-more-restrictive definition, the Universe is everything within our connected space-time that could have a chance to interact with us and vice versa.[citation needed] According to the general theory of relativity, some regions of space may never interact with ours even in the lifetime of the Universe due to the finite speed of light and the ongoing expansion of space. For example, radio messages sent from Earth may never reach some regions of space, even if the Universe would live forever: space may expand faster than light can traverse it. Distant regions of space are taken to exist and be part of reality as much as we are, yet we can never interact with them. The spatial region within which we can affect and be affected is the observable universe. Strictly speaking, the observable Universe depends on the location of the observer. By traveling, an observer can come into contact with a greater region of space-time than an observer who remains still. Nevertheless, even the most rapid traveler will not be able to interact with all of space. Typically, the observable Universe is taken to mean the Universe observable from our vantage point in the Milky Way Galaxy. Size, age, contents, structure, and laws Main articles: Observable universe, Age of the universe, and Abundance of the chemical elements The size of the Universe is unknown; it may be infinite. The region visible from Earth (the observable universe) is a sphere with a radius of about 46 billion light years,[35] based on where the expansion of spacehas taken the most distant objects observed. For comparison, the diameter of a typical galaxy is 30,000 light-years, and the typical distance between two neighboring galaxies is 3 million light-years.[36] As an example, the Milky Way Galaxy is roughly 100,000 light years in diameter,[37] and the nearest sister galaxy to the Milky Way, the Andromeda Galaxy, is located roughly 2.5 million light years away.[38] There are probably more than 100 billion (1011) galaxies in the observable Universe.[39] Typical galaxies range from dwarfs with as few as ten million[40] (107) stars up to giants with one trillion[41] (1012) stars, all orbiting the galaxy’s center of mass. A 2010 study by astronomers estimated that the observable Universe contains 300 sextillion (3×1023) stars.[42] The Universe is believed to be mostly composed of dark energy and dark matter, both of which are poorly understood at present. Less than 5% of the Universe is ordinary matter, a relatively small contribution. The observable matter is spread homogeneously (uniformly) throughout the Universe, when averaged over distances longer than 300 million light-years.[43] However, on smaller length-scales, matter is observed to form “clumps”, i.e., to cluster hierarchically; many atoms are condensed into stars, most stars into galaxies, most galaxies into clusters, superclusters and, finally, the largest-scale structures such as the Great Wall of galaxies. The observable matter of the Universe is also spreadisotropically, meaning that no direction of observation seems different from any other; each region of the sky has roughly the same content.[44] The Universe is also bathed in a highly isotropic microwave radiation that corresponds to a thermal equilibrium blackbody spectrum of roughly 2.725 kelvin.[45] The hypothesis that the large-scale Universe is homogeneous and isotropic is known as the cosmological principle,[46] which is supported by astronomical observations. The present overall density of the Universe is very low, roughly 9.9 × 10−30 grams per cubic centimetre. This mass-energy appears to consist of 73% dark energy, 23% cold dark matter and 4% ordinary matter. Thus the density of atoms is on the order of a single hydrogen atom for every four cubic meters of volume.[47] The properties of dark energy and dark matter are largely unknown. Dark matter gravitates as ordinary matter, and thus works to slow the expansion of the Universe; by contrast, dark energy accelerates its expansion. The current estimate of the Universe’s age is 13.798 ± 0.037 billion years old.[9] The Universe has not been the same at all times in its history; for example, the relative populations of quasars and galaxies have changed and space itself appears to have expanded. This expansion accounts for how Earth-bound scientists can observe the light from a galaxy 30 billion light years away, even if that light has traveled for only 13 billion years; the very space between them has expanded. This expansion is consistent with the observation that the light from distant galaxies has been redshifted; the photons emitted have been stretched to longer wavelengths and lower frequency during their journey. The rate of this spatial expansion is accelerating, based on studies of Type Ia supernovae and corroborated by other data. The relative fractions of different chemical elements — particularly the lightest atoms such as hydrogen, deuterium and helium — seem to be identical throughout the Universe and throughout its observable history.[48] The Universe seems to have much more matter than antimatter, an asymmetry possibly related to the observations of CP violation.[49] The Universe appears to have no net electric charge, and therefore gravity appears to be the dominant interaction on cosmological length scales. The Universe also appears to have neither net momentum nor angular momentum. The absence of net charge and momentum would follow from accepted physical laws (Gauss’s law and the non-divergence of the stress-energy-momentum pseudotensor, respectively), if the Universe were finite.[50] The elementary particles from which the Universe is constructed. Six leptons and six quarks comprise most of the matter; for example, the protons and neutrons of atomic nuclei are composed of quarks, and the ubiquitous electronis a lepton. These particles interact via the gauge bosonsshown in the middle row, each corresponding to a particular type of gauge symmetry. The Higgs boson is believed to confer mass on the particles with which it is connected. Thegraviton, a supposed gauge boson for gravity, is not shown. The Universe appears to have a smooth space-time continuum consisting of three spatial dimensions and one temporal (time) dimension. On the average, space is observed to be very nearly flat (close to zero curvature), meaning that Euclidean geometry is experimentally true with high accuracy throughout most of the Universe.[51] Spacetime also appears to have a simply connected topology, at least on the length-scale of the observable Universe. However, present observations cannot exclude the possibilities that the Universe has more dimensions and that its spacetime may have a multiply connected global topology, in analogy with the cylindrical or toroidal topologies of two-dimensional spaces.[52] The Universe appears to behave in a manner that regularly follows a set of physical laws and physical constants.[53] According to the prevailing Standard Model of physics, all matter is composed of three generations of leptons and quarks, both of which are fermions. These elementary particles interact via at most three fundamental interactions: the electroweak interaction which includes electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force; the strong nuclear forcedescribed by quantum chromodynamics; and gravity, which is best described at present by general relativity. The first two interactions can be described by renormalized quantum field theory, and are mediated by gauge bosons that correspond to a particular type of gauge symmetry. A renormalized quantum field theory of general relativity has not yet been achieved, although various forms of string theory seem promising. The theory of special relativity is believed to hold throughout the Universe, provided that the spatial and temporal length scales are sufficiently short; otherwise, the more general theory of general relativity must be applied. There is no explanation for the particular values that physical constants appear to have throughout our Universe, such as Planck’s constant h or the gravitational constant G. Several conservation laws have been identified, such as the conservation of charge, momentum, angular momentum and energy; in many cases, these conservation laws can be related to symmetries or mathematical identities. Fine tuning Main article: Fine-tuned Universe It appears that many of the properties of the Universe have special values in the sense that a Universe where these properties differ slightly would not be able to support intelligent life.[14][54] Not all scientists agree that this fine-tuning exists.[55][56] In particular, it is not known under what conditions intelligent life could form and what form or shape that would take. A relevant observation in this discussion is that for an observer to exist to observe fine-tuning, the Universe must be able to support intelligent life. As such the conditional probability of observing a Universe that is fine-tuned to support intelligent life is 1. This observation is known as the anthropic principle and is particularly relevant if the creation of the Universe was probabilistic or if multiple universes with a variety of properties exist (see below). Historical models See also: Cosmology and Timeline of cosmology Many models of the cosmos (cosmologies) and its origin (cosmogonies) have been proposed, based on the then-available data and conceptions of the Universe. Historically, cosmologies and cosmogonies were based on narratives of gods acting in various ways. Theories of an impersonal Universe governed by physical laws were first proposed by the Greeks and Indians. Over the centuries, improvements in astronomical observations and theories of motion and gravitation led to ever more accurate descriptions of the Universe. The modern era of cosmology began with Albert Einstein’s 1915 general theory of relativity, which made it possible to quantitatively predict the origin, evolution, and conclusion of the Universe as a whole. Most modern, accepted theories of cosmology are based on general relativity and, more specifically, the predicted Big Bang; however, still more careful measurements are required to determine which theory is correct. Creation Main articles: Creation myth and Creator deity Many cultures have stories describing the origin of the world, which may be roughly grouped into common types. In one type of story, the world is born from a world egg; such stories include the Finnish epic poem Kalevala, the Chinese story of Pangu or the Indian Brahmanda Purana. In related stories, the Universe is created by a single entity emanating or producing something by him- or herself, as in the Tibetan Buddhism concept of Adi-Buddha, the ancient Greek story of Gaia (Mother Earth), the Aztec goddess Coatlicue myth, the ancient Egyptian god Atum story, or the Genesis creation narrative. In another type of story, the Universe is created from the union of male and female deities, as in the Maori story of Rangi and Papa. In other stories, the Universe is created by crafting it from pre-existing materials, such as the corpse of a dead god — as from Tiamat in the Babylonian epic Enuma Elish or from the giant Ymir in Norse mythology – or from chaotic materials, as in Izanagi and Izanami in Japanese mythology. In other stories, the Universe emanates from fundamental principles, such as Brahman and Prakrti, the creation myth of the Serers,[57] or the yin and yang of the Tao. Philosophical models Further information: Cosmology See also: Pre-Socratic philosophy, Physics (Aristotle), Hindu cosmology, Islamic cosmology, and Time From the 6th century BCE, the pre-Socratic Greek philosophers developed the earliest known philosophical models of the Universe. The earliest Greek philosophers noted that appearances can be deceiving, and sought to understand the underlying reality behind the appearances. In particular, they noted the ability of matter to change forms (e.g., ice to water to steam) and several philosophers proposed that all the apparently different materials of the world are different forms of a single primordial material, or arche. The first to do so was Thales, who proposed this material is Water. Thales’ student, Anaximander, proposed that everything came from the limitless apeiron. Anaximenes proposed Air on account of its perceived attractive and repulsive qualities that cause the arche to condense or dissociate into different forms.Anaxagoras, proposed the principle of Nous (Mind). Heraclitus proposed fire (and spoke of logos). Empedocles proposed the elements: earth, water, air and fire. His four element theory became very popular. Like Pythagoras, Plato believed that all things were composed of number, with the Empedocles’ elements taking the form of the Platonic solids. Democritus, and later philosophers—most notably Leucippus—proposed that the Universe was composed of indivisible atoms moving through void (vacuum). Aristotle did not believe that was feasible because air, like water, offers resistance to motion. Air will immediately rush in to fill a void, and moreover, without resistance, it would do so indefinitely fast. Although Heraclitus argued for eternal change, his quasi-contemporary Parmenides made the radical suggestion that all change is an illusion, that the true underlying reality is eternally unchanging and of a single nature. Parmenides denoted this reality as τὸ ἐν (The One). Parmenides’ theory seemed implausible to many Greeks, but his student Zeno of Elea challenged them with several famous paradoxes. Aristotle responded to these paradoxes by developing the notion of a potential countable infinity, as well as the infinitely divisible continuum. Unlike the eternal and unchanging cycles of time, he believed the world was bounded by the celestial spheres, and thus magnitude was only finitely multiplicative. The Indian philosopher Kanada, founder of the Vaisheshika school, developed a theory of atomism and proposed that light and heat were varieties of the same substance.[58] In the 5th century AD, the Buddhist atomist philosopher Dignāga proposed atoms to be point-sized, durationless, and made of energy. They denied the existence of substantial matter and proposed that movement consisted of momentary flashes of a stream of energy.[59] The theory of temporal finitism was inspired by the doctrine of Creation shared by the three Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The Christian philosopher, John Philoponus, presented the philosophical arguments against the ancient Greek notion of an infinite past and future. Philoponus’ arguments against an infinite past were used by the early Muslim philosopher, Al-Kindi (Alkindus); the Jewish philosopher, Saadia Gaon (Saadia ben Joseph); and the Muslim theologian, Al-Ghazali (Algazel). Borrowing from Aristotle’s Physics and Metaphysics, they employed two logical arguments against an infinite past, the first being the “argument from the impossibility of the existence of an actual infinite”, which states:[60] “An actual infinite cannot exist.” “An infinite temporal regress of events is an actual infinite.” ” An infinite temporal regress of events cannot exist.” The second argument, the “argument from the impossibility of completing an actual infinite by successive addition”, states:[60] “An actual infinite cannot be completed by successive addition.” “The temporal series of past events has been completed by successive addition.” ” The temporal series of past events cannot be an actual infinite.” Both arguments were adopted by Christian philosophers and theologians, and the second argument in particular became more famous after it was adopted by Immanuel Kant in his thesis of the first antinomyconcerning time.[60] Astronomical models[edit] Main article: History of astronomy Aristarchus’s 3rd century BCE calculations on the relative sizes of from left the Sun, Earth and Moon, from a 10th-century AD Greek copy Astronomical models of the Universe were proposed soon after astronomy began with the Babylonian astronomers, who viewed the Universe as a flat disk floating in the ocean, and this forms the premise for early Greek maps like those of Anaximander and Hecataeus of Miletus. Later Greek philosophers, observing the motions of the heavenly bodies, were concerned with developing models of the Universe based more profoundly on empirical evidence. The first coherent model was proposed by Eudoxus of Cnidos. According to Aristotle’s physical interpretation of the model, celestial spheres eternally rotate with uniform motion around a stationary Earth. Normal matter, is entirely contained within the terrestrial sphere. This model was also refined by Callippus and after concentric spheres were abandoned, it was brought into nearly perfect agreement with astronomical observations by Ptolemy. The success of such a model is largely due to the mathematical fact that any function (such as the position of a planet) can be decomposed into a set of circular functions (the Fourier modes). Other Greek scientists, such as the Pythagorean philosopher Philolaus postulated that at the center of the Universe was a “central fire” around which the Earth, Sun, Moon andPlanets revolved in uniform circular motion.[61] The Greek astronomer Aristarchus of Samos was the first known individual to propose a heliocentric model of the Universe. Though the original text has been lost, a reference in Archimedes’ book The Sand Reckoner describes Aristarchus’ heliocentric theory. Archimedes wrote: (translated into English) You King Gelon are aware the ‘Universe’ is the name given by most astronomers to the sphere the center of which is the center of the Earth, while its radius is equal to the straight line between the center of the Sun and the center of the Earth. This is the common account as you have heard from astronomers. But Aristarchus has brought out a book consisting of certain hypotheses, wherein it appears, as a consequence of the assumptions made, that the Universe is many times greater than the ‘Universe’ just mentioned. His hypotheses are that the fixed stars and the Sun remain unmoved, that the Earth revolves about the Sun on the circumference of a circle, the Sun lying in the middle of the orbit, and that the sphere of fixed stars, situated about the same center as the Sun, is so great that the circle in which he supposes the Earth to revolve bears such a proportion to the distance of the fixed stars as the center of the sphere bears to its surface. Aristarchus thus believed the stars to be very far away, and saw this as the reason why there was no parallax apparent, that is, no observed movement of the stars relative to each other as the Earth moved around the Sun. The stars are in fact much farther away than the distance that was generally assumed in ancient times, which is why stellar parallax is only detectable with precision instruments. The geocentric model, consistent with planetary parallax, was assumed to be an explanation for the unobservability of the parallel phenomenon, stellar parallax. The rejection of the heliocentric view was apparently quite strong, as the following passage from Plutarch suggests (On the Apparent Face in the Orb of the Moon): Cleanthes [a contemporary of Aristarchus and head of the Stoics] thought it was the duty of the Greeks to indict Aristarchus of Samos on the charge of impiety for putting in motion the Hearth of the Universe [i.e. the earth], . . . supposing the heaven to remain at rest and the earth to revolve in an oblique circle, while it rotates, at the same time, about its own axis. [1] The only other astronomer from antiquity known by name who supported Aristarchus’ heliocentric model was Seleucus of Seleucia, a Hellenistic astronomer who lived a century after Aristarchus.[62][63][64]According to Plutarch, Seleucus was the first to prove the heliocentric system through reasoning, but it is not known what arguments he used. Seleucus’ arguments for a heliocentric theory were probably related to the phenomenon of tides.[65] According to Strabo (1.1.9), Seleucus was the first to state that the tides are due to the attraction of the Moon, and that the height of the tides depends on the Moon’s position relative to the Sun.[66] Alternatively, he may have proved the heliocentric theory by determining the constants of a geometric model for the heliocentric theory and by developing methods to compute planetary positions using this model, like what Nicolaus Copernicus later did in the 16th century.[67] During the Middle Ages, heliocentric models may have also been proposed by the Indian astronomer, Aryabhata,[68]and by the Persian astronomers, Albumasar[69] and Al-Sijzi.[70] Model of the Copernican Universe byThomas Digges in 1576, with the amendment that the stars are no longer confined to a sphere, but spread uniformly throughout the space surrounding theplanets. The Aristotelian model was accepted in the Western world for roughly two millennia, until Copernicus revived Aristarchus’ theory that the astronomical data could be explained more plausibly if the earth rotated on its axis and if the sun were placed at the center of the Universe. “ In the center rests the sun. For who would place this lamp of a very beautiful temple in another or better place than this wherefrom it can illuminate everything at the same time? ” —Nicolaus Copernicus, in Chapter 10, Book 1 of De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestrum (1543) As noted by Copernicus himself, the suggestion that the Earth rotates was very old, dating at least to Philolaus (c. 450 BC), Heraclides Ponticus (c. 350 BC) andEcphantus the Pythagorean. Roughly a century before Copernicus, Christian scholar Nicholas of Cusa also proposed that the Earth rotates on its axis in his book, On Learned Ignorance (1440).[71] Aryabhata (476–550), Brahmagupta (598–668), Albumasar and Al-Sijzi, also proposed that the Earth rotates on its axis.[citation needed]The first empirical evidence for the Earth’s rotation on its axis, using the phenomenon of comets, was given by Tusi (1201–1274) and Ali Qushji (1403–1474).[citation needed] Johannes Kepler published theRudolphine Tables containing a star catalog and planetary tables using Tycho Brahe’s measurements. This cosmology was accepted by Isaac Newton, Christiaan Huygens and later scientists.[72] Edmund Halley (1720)[73] andJean-Philippe de Cheseaux (1744)[74] noted independently that the assumption of an infinite space filled uniformly with stars would lead to the prediction that the nighttime sky would be as bright as the sun itself; this became known as Olbers’ paradox in the 19th century.[75] Newton believed that an infinite space uniformly filled with matter would cause infinite forces and instabilities causing the matter to be crushed inwards under its own gravity.[72] This instability was clarified in 1902 by the Jeans instability criterion.[76] One solution to these paradoxes is the Charlier Universe, in which the matter is arranged hierarchically (systems of orbiting bodies that are themselves orbiting in a larger system, ad infinitum) in a fractal way such that the Universe has a negligibly small overall density; such a cosmological model had also been proposed earlier in 1761 by Johann Heinrich Lambert.[36][77] A significant astronomical advance of the 18th century was the realization by Thomas Wright, Immanuel Kant and others ofnebulae.[73] The modern era of physical cosmology began in 1917, when Albert Einstein first applied his general theory of relativity to model the structure and dynamics of the Universe.[78] Theoretical models[edit] High-precision test of general relativity by the Cassini space probe (artist’s impression): radio signals sent between the Earth and the probe (green wave) aredelayed by the warping of space and time(blue lines) due to the Sun’s mass. Of the four fundamental interactions, gravitation is dominant at cosmological length scales; that is, the other three forces play a negligible role in determining structures at the level of planetary systems, galaxies and larger-scale structures. Because all matter and energy gravitate, gravity’s effects are cumulative; by contrast, the effects of positive and negative charges tend to cancel one another, making electromagnetism relatively insignificant on cosmological length scales. The remaining two interactions, the weak and strong nuclear forces, decline very rapidly with distance; their effects are confined mainly to sub-atomic length scales. General theory of relativity[edit] Main articles: Introduction to general relativity, General relativity, and Einstein’s field equations Given gravitation’s predominance in shaping cosmological structures, accurate predictions of the Universe’s past and future require an accurate theory of gravitation. The best theory available is Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity, which has passed all experimental tests to date. However, because rigorous experiments have not been carried out on cosmological length scales, general relativity could conceivably be inaccurate. Nevertheless, its cosmological predictions appear to be consistent with observations, so there is no compelling reason to adopt another theory. General relativity provides a set of ten nonlinear partial differential equations for the spacetime metric (Einstein’s field equations) that must be solved from the distribution of mass-energy and momentum throughout the Universe. Because these are unknown in exact detail, cosmological models have been based on thecosmological principle, which states that the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic. In effect, this principle asserts that the gravitational effects of the various galaxies making up the Universe are equivalent to those of a fine dust distributed uniformly throughout the Universe with the same average density. The assumption of a uniform dust makes it easy to solve Einstein’s field equations and predict the past and future of the Universe on cosmological time scales. Einstein’s field equations include a cosmological constant (Λ),[78][79] that corresponds to an energy density of empty space.[80] Depending on its sign, the cosmological constant can either slow (negative Λ) or accelerate (positive Λ) the expansion of the Universe. Although many scientists, including Einstein, had speculated that Λ was zero,[81] recent astronomical observations of type Ia supernovae have detected a large amount of “dark energy” that is accelerating the Universe’s expansion.[82] Preliminary studies suggest that this dark energy corresponds to a positive Λ, although alternative theories cannot be ruled out as yet.[83]Russian physicist Zel’dovich suggested that Λ is a measure of the zero-point energy associated with virtual particles of quantum field theory, a pervasive vacuum energy that exists everywhere, even in empty space.[84] Evidence for such zero-point energy is observed in the Casimir effect. Special relativity and space-time[edit] Main articles: Introduction to special relativity and Special relativity Only its length L is intrinsic to the rod (shown in black); coordinate differences between its endpoints (such as Δx, Δy or Δξ, Δη) depend on their frame of reference (depicted in blue and red, respectively). The Universe has at least three spatial and one temporal (time) dimension. It was long thought that the spatial and temporal dimensions were different in nature and independent of one another. However, according to the special theory of relativity, spatial and temporal separations are interconvertible (within limits) by changing one’s motion. To understand this interconversion, it is helpful to consider the analogous interconversion of spatial separations along the three spatial dimensions. Consider the two endpoints of a rod of length L. The length can be determined from the differences in the three coordinates Δx, Δy and Δz of the two endpoints in a given reference frame using the Pythagorean theorem. In a rotated reference frame, the coordinate differences differ, but they give the same length Thus, the coordinates differences (Δx, Δy, Δz) and (Δξ, Δη, Δζ) are not intrinsic to the rod, but merely reflect the reference frame used to describe it; by contrast, the length L is an intrinsic property of the rod. The coordinate differences can be changed without affecting the rod, by rotating one’s reference frame. The analogy in spacetime is called the interval between two events; an event is defined as a point in spacetime, a specific position in space and a specific moment in time. The spacetime interval between two events is given by where c is the speed of light. According to special relativity, one can change a spatial and time separation (L1, Δt1) into another (L2, Δt2) by changing one’s reference frame, as long as the change maintains the spacetime interval s. Such a change in reference frame corresponds to changing one’s motion; in a moving frame, lengths and times are different from their counterparts in a stationary reference frame. The precise manner in which the coordinate and time differences change with motion is described by the Lorentz transformation. Solving Einstein’s field equations[edit] See also: Big Bang and Ultimate fate of the Universe Animation illustrating the metric expansion of the universe The distances between the spinning galaxies increase with time, but the distances between the stars within each galaxy stay roughly the same, due to their gravitational interactions. This animation illustrates a closed Friedmann Universe with zero cosmological constant Λ; such a Universe oscillates between a Big Bangand a Big Crunch. In non-Cartesian (non-square) or curved coordinate systems, the Pythagorean theorem holds only on infinitesimal length scales and must be augmented with a more general metric tensor gμν, which can vary from place to place and which describes the local geometry in the particular coordinate system. However, assuming thecosmological principle that the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic everywhere, every point in space is like every other point; hence, the metric tensor must be the same everywhere. That leads to a single form for the metric tensor, called the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker metric where (r, θ, φ) correspond to a spherical coordinate system. This metric has only two undetermined parameters: an overall length scale R that can vary with time, and a curvature index k that can be only 0, 1 or −1, corresponding to flat Euclidean geometry, or spaces of positive or negative curvature. In cosmology, solving for the history of the Universe is done by calculating R as a function of time, given k and the value of the cosmological constant Λ, which is a (small) parameter in Einstein’s field equations. The equation describing how R varies with time is known as the Friedmann equation, after its inventor, Alexander Friedmann.[85] The solutions for R(t) depend on k and Λ, but some qualitative features of such solutions are general. First and most importantly, the length scale R of the Universe can remain constant only if the Universe is perfectly isotropic with positive curvature (k=1) and has one precise value of density everywhere, as first noted by Albert Einstein. However, this equilibrium is unstable and because the Universe is known to be inhomogeneous on smaller scales, R must change, according to general relativity. When R changes, all the spatial distances in the Universe change in tandem; there is an overall expansion or contraction of space itself. This accounts for the observation that galaxies appear to be flying apart; the space between them is stretching. The stretching of space also accounts for the apparent paradox that two galaxies can be 40 billion light years apart, although they started from the same point 13.8 billion years ago[86] and never moved faster than the speed of light. Second, all solutions suggest that there was a gravitational singularity in the past, when R goes to zero and matter and energy became infinitely dense. It may seem that this conclusion is uncertain because it is based on the questionable assumptions of perfect homogeneity and isotropy (the cosmological principle) and that only the gravitational interaction is significant. However, the Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems show that a singularity should exist for very general conditions. Hence, according to Einstein’s field equations, R grew rapidly from an unimaginably hot, dense state that existed immediately following this singularity (when R had a small, finite value); this is the essence of the Big Bang model of the Universe. A common misconception is that the Big Bang model predicts that matter and energy exploded from a single point in space and time; that is false. Rather, space itself was created in the Big Bang and imbued with a fixed amount of energy and matter distributed uniformly throughout; as space expands (i.e., asR(t) increases), the density of that matter and energy decreases. Space has no boundary – that is empirically more certain than any external observation. However, that does not imply that space is infinite… (translated, original German) Bernhard Riemann (Habilitationsvortrag, 1854) Third, the curvature index k determines the sign of the mean spatial curvature of spacetime averaged over length scales greater than a billion light years. If k=1, the curvature is positive and the Universe has a finite volume. Such universes are often visualized as a three-dimensional sphere S3embedded in a four-dimensional space. Conversely, if k is zero or negative, the Universe may have infinite volume, depending on its overalltopology. It may seem counter-intuitive that an infinite and yet infinitely dense Universe could be created in a single instant at the Big Bang whenR=0, but exactly that is predicted mathematically when k does not equal 1. For comparison, an infinite plane has zero curvature but infinite area, whereas an infinite cylinder is finite in one direction and a torus is finite in both. A toroidal Universe could behave like a normal Universe withperiodic boundary conditions, as seen in “wrap-around” video games such as Asteroids; a traveler crossing an outer “boundary” of space going outwards would reappear instantly at another point on the boundary moving inwards. Illustration of the Big Bang theory, the prevailing model of the origin and expansion of spacetime and all that it contains. In this diagram time increases from left to right, and one dimension of space is suppressed, so at any given time the Universe is represented by a disk-shaped “slice” of the diagram. The ultimate fate of the Universe is still unknown, because it depends critically on the curvature index k and the cosmological constant Λ. If the Universe is sufficiently dense, k equals +1, meaning that its average curvature throughout is positive and the Universe will eventually recollapse in a Big Crunch, possibly starting a new Universe in a Big Bounce. Conversely, if the Universe is insufficiently dense, kequals 0 or −1 and the Universe will expand forever, cooling off and eventually becoming inhospitable for all life, as the stars die and all matter coalesces into black holes (the Big Freeze and the heat death of the Universe). As noted above, recent data suggests that the expansion speed of the Universe is not decreasing as originally expected, but increasing; if this continues indefinitely, the Universe will eventually rip itself to shreds (the Big Rip). Experimentally, the Universe has an overall density that is very close to the critical value between recollapse and eternal expansion; more careful astronomical observations are needed to resolve the question. Big Bang model[edit] Main articles: Big Bang, Timeline of the Big Bang, Nucleosynthesis, and Lambda-CDM model The prevailing Big Bang model accounts for many of the experimental observations described above, such as the correlation of distance and redshift of galaxies, the universal ratio of hydrogen:helium atoms, and the ubiquitous, isotropic microwave radiation background. As noted above, the redshift arises from the metric expansion of space; as the space itself expands, the wavelength of a photon traveling through space likewise increases, decreasing its energy. The longer a photon has been traveling, the more expansion it has undergone; hence, older photons from more distant galaxies are the most red-shifted. Determining the correlation between distance and redshift is an important problem in experimental physical cosmology. Chief nuclear reactions responsible for the relative abundances of light atomic nuclei observed throughout the Universe. Other experimental observations can be explained by combining the overall expansion of space with nuclear and atomic physics. As the Universe expands, the energy density of the electromagnetic radiation decreases more quickly than does that of matter, because the energy of a photon decreases with its wavelength. Thus, although the energy density of the Universe is now dominated by matter, it was once dominated by radiation; poetically speaking, all was light. As the Universe expanded, its energy density decreased and it became cooler; as it did so, the elementary particles of matter could associate stably into ever larger combinations. Thus, in the early part of the matter-dominated era, stable protons and neutrons formed, which then associated into atomic nuclei. At this stage, the matter in the Universe was mainly a hot, dense plasma of negative electrons, neutral neutrinos and positive nuclei. Nuclear reactionsamong the nuclei led to the present abundances of the lighter nuclei, particularly hydrogen, deuterium, and helium. Eventually, the electrons and nuclei combined to form stable atoms, which are transparent to most wavelengths of radiation; at this point, the radiation decoupled from the matter, forming the ubiquitous, isotropic background of microwave radiation observed today. Other observations are not answered definitively by known physics. According to the prevailing theory, a slight imbalance of matter overantimatter was present in the Universe’s creation, or developed very shortly thereafter, possibly due to the CP violation that has been observed by particle physicists. Although the matter and antimatter mostly annihilated one another, producing photons, a small residue of matter survived, giving the present matter-dominated Universe. Several lines of evidence also suggest that a rapid cosmic inflation of the Universe occurred very early in its history (roughly 10−35 seconds after its creation). Recent observations also suggest that the cosmological constant (Λ) is not zero and that the net mass-energy content of the Universe is dominated by a dark energy and dark matter that have not been characterized scientifically. They differ in their gravitational effects. Dark matter gravitates as ordinary matter does, and thus slows the expansion of the Universe; by contrast, dark energy serves to accelerate the Universe’s expansion. Multiverse theory[edit] Main articles: Multiverse, Many-worlds interpretation, Bubble universe theory, and Parallel universe (fiction) Depiction of a multiverse of seven”bubble” universes, which are separatespacetime continua, each having differentphysical laws, physical constants, and perhaps even different numbers ofdimensions or topologies. Some speculative theories have proposed that this Universe is but one of a set of disconnected universes, collectively denoted as the multiverse, challenging or enhancing more limited definitions of the Universe.[34][87] Scientific multiverse theories are distinct from concepts such as alternate planes of consciousness andsimulated reality, although the idea of a larger Universe is not new; for example, Bishop Étienne Tempier of Paris ruled in 1277 that God could create as many universes as he saw fit, a question that was being hotly debated by the French theologians.[88] Max Tegmark developed a four-part classification scheme for the different types of multiverses that scientists have suggested in various problem domains. An example of such a theory is the chaotic inflation model of the early Universe.[89] Another is the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. Parallel worlds are generated in a manner similar to quantum superposition and decoherence, with all states of the wave function being realized in separate worlds. Effectively, the multiverse evolves as a universal wavefunction. If the big bang that created our multiverse created an ensemble of multiverses, the wave function of the ensemble would be entangled in this sense. The least controversial category of multiverse in Tegmark’s scheme is Level I, which describes distant space-time events “in our own Universe”. If space is infinite, or sufficiently large and uniform, identical instances of the history of Earth’s entire Hubble volume occur every so often, simply by chance. Tegmark calculated our nearest so-called doppelgänger, is 1010115 meters away from us (a double exponential function larger than a googolplex).[90][91] In principle, it would be impossible to scientifically verify an identical Hubble volume. However, it does follow as a fairly straightforward consequence from otherwise unrelated scientific observations and theories. Tegmark suggests that statistical analysis exploiting the anthropic principle provides an opportunity to test multiverse theories in some cases. Generally, science would consider a multiverse theory that posits neither a common point of causation, nor the possibility of interaction between universes, to be an idle speculation. Shape of the Universe[edit] Main article: Shape of the Universe The shape or geometry of the Universe includes both local geometry in the observable Universe and global geometry, which we may or may not be able to measure. Shape can refer to curvature and topology. More formally, the subject in practice investigates which 3-manifold corresponds to the spatial section in comoving coordinates of the four-dimensional space-time of the Universe. Cosmologists normally work with a given space-like slice of spacetime called the comoving coordinates. In terms of observation, the section of spacetime that can be observed is the backward light cone (points within the cosmic light horizon, given time to reach a given observer). If the observable Universe is smaller than the entire Universe (in some models it is many orders of magnitude smaller), one cannot determine the global structure by observation: one is limited to a small patch. Among the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) models, the presently most popular shape of the Universe found to fit observational data according to cosmologists is the infinite flat model,[92] while other FLRW models include the Poincaré dodecahedral space[93][94] and the Picard horn.[95] The data fit by these FLRW models of space especially include the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) and Planck maps of cosmic background radiation. NASA released the first WMAP cosmic background radiation data in February 2003, while a higher resolution map regarding Planck data was released by ESA in March 2013. Both probes have found almost perfect agreement with inflationary models and the standard model of cosmology, describing a flat, homogenous universe dominated by dark matter and dark energy.[9][96] See also[edit] Astronomy portal Space portal • Religious cosmology • Cosmic latte • Cosmology • Hindu cosmology • Dyson’s eternal intelligence • Esoteric cosmology • False vacuum • Final anthropic principle • Fine-tuned Universe • Hindu cycle of the universe • Jain cosmology • Kardashev scale • The Mysterious Universe (book) • Nucleocosmochronology • Non-standard cosmology • Observable universe • Omega Point • Rare Earth hypothesis • Vacuum genesis • World view • Zero-energy Universe Notes and references[edit] 1. Jump up^ “Universe”. Webster’s New World College Dictionary, Wiley Publishing, Inc. 2010. 2. Jump up^ “Universe”. 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Edward (2005). “First Determination of the Distance and Fundamental Properties of an Eclipsing Binary in the Andromeda Galaxy”.Astrophysical Journal 635 (1): L37–L40. arXiv:astro-ph/0511045. Bibcode:2005ApJ…635L..37R.doi:10.1086/499161. McConnachie, A. W.; Irwin, M. J.; Ferguson, A. M. N.; Ibata, R. A.; Lewis, G. F.; Tanvir, N. (2005). “Distances and metallicities for 17 Local Group galaxies”. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 356 (4): 979–997. arXiv:astro-ph/0410489. Bibcode:2005MNRAS.356..979M.doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2004.08514.x. 39. Jump up^ Mackie, Glen (February 1, 2002). “To see the Universe in a Grain of Taranaki Sand”. Swinburne University. Retrieved 2006-12-20. 40. Jump up^ “Unveiling the Secret of a Virgo Dwarf Galaxy”. ESO. 2000-05-03. Retrieved 2007-01-03. 41. Jump up^ “Hubble’s Largest Galaxy Portrait Offers a New High-Definition View”. NASA. 2006-02-28. Retrieved 2007-01-03. 42. Jump up^ Vergano, Dan (1 December 2010). “Universe holds billions more stars than previously thought”.USA Today. Retrieved 2010-12-14. 43. Jump up^ Mandolesi, N.; Calzolari, P.; Cortiglioni, S.; Delpino, F.; Sironi, G.; Inzani, P.; Deamici, G.; Solheim, J. -E.; Berger, L.; Partridge, R. B.; Martenis, P. L.; Sangree, C. H.; Harvey, R. C. (1986). “Large-scale homogeneity of the Universe measured by the microwave background”. Nature 319 (6056): 751.doi:10.1038/319751a0. edit 44. Jump up^ Hinshaw, Gary (November 29, 2006). “New Three Year Results on the Oldest Light in the Universe”. NASA WMAP. Retrieved 2006-08-10. 45. Jump up^ Hinshaw, Gary (December 15, 2005). “Tests of the Big Bang: The CMB”. NASA WMAP. Retrieved 2007-01-09. 46. Jump up^ Rindler, p. 202. 47. Jump up^ Hinshaw, Gary (February 10, 2006). “What is the Universe Made Of?”. NASA WMAP. Retrieved 2007-01-04. 48. Jump up^ Wright, Edward L. (September 12, 2004). “Big Bang Nucleosynthesis”. UCLA. Retrieved 2007-01-05. M. Harwit, M. Spaans (2003). “Chemical Composition of the Early Universe”. The Astrophysical Journal589 (1): 53–57. arXiv:astro-ph/0302259. Bibcode:2003ApJ…589…53H. doi:10.1086/374415. C. Kobulnicky, E. D. Skillman; Skillman (1997). “Chemical Composition of the Early Universe”. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society 29: 1329. Bibcode:1997AAS…191.7603K. 49. Jump up^ “Antimatter”. Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council. October 28, 2003. Retrieved 2006-08-10. 50. Jump up^ Landau and Lifshitz, p. 361. 51. Jump up^ WMAP Mission: Results – Age of the Universe. Map.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 2011-11-28. 52. Jump up^ Luminet, Jean-Pierre; Boudewijn F. Roukema (1999). “Topology of the Universe: Theory and Observations”. Proceedings of Cosmology School held at Cargese, Corsica, August 1998. arXiv:astro-ph/9901364. Luminet, Jean-Pierre; J. Weeks, A. Riazuelo, R. Lehoucq, J.-P. Uzan (2003). “Dodecahedral space topology as an explanation for weak wide-angle temperature correlations in the cosmic microwave background”. Nature 425 (6958): 593–595. arXiv:astro-ph/0310253. Bibcode:2003Natur.425..593L.doi:10.1038/nature01944. PMID 14534579. 53. Jump up^ Strobel, Nick (May 23, 2001). “The Composition of Stars”. Astronomy Notes. Retrieved 2007-01-04. “Have physical constants changed with time?”. Astrophysics (Astronomy Frequently Asked Questions). Retrieved 2007-01-04. 54. Jump up^ Rees, Martin (1999). Just Six Numbers. HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-465-03672-4. 55. Jump up^ Adams, F.C. (2008). “Stars in other universes: stellar structure with different fundamental constants”.Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics 2008 (8): 010. arXiv:0807.3697.Bibcode:2008JCAP…08..010A. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2008/08/010. 56. Jump up^ Harnik, R.; Kribs, G.D. and Perez, G. (2006). “A Universe without weak interactions”. Physical Review D 74 (3): 035006. arXiv:hep-ph/0604027. Bibcode:2006PhRvD..74c5006H.doi:10.1103/PhysRevD.74.035006. 57. Jump up^ (Henry Gravrand, “La civilisation Sereer -Pangool”) [in] Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frobenius-Institut, Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kulturmorphologie, Frobenius Gesellschaft, “Paideuma: Mitteilungen zur Kulturkunde, Volumes 43–44”, F. Steiner (1997), pp. 144–5, ISBN 3515028420 58. Jump up^ Will Durant, Our Oriental Heritage: “Two systems of Hindu thought propound physical theories suggestively similar to those of Greece. Kanada, founder of the Vaisheshika philosophy, held that the world was composed of atoms as many in kind as the various elements. The Jains more nearly approximated to Democritus by teaching that all atoms were of the same kind, producing different effects by diverse modes of combinations. Kanada believed light and heat to be varieties of the same substance; Udayana taught that all heat comes from the sun; andVachaspati, like Newton, interpreted light as composed of minute particles emitted by substances and striking the eye.” 59. Jump up^ Stcherbatsky, F. Th. (1930, 1962), Buddhist Logic, Volume 1, p. 19, Dover, New York: “The Buddhists denied the existence of substantial matter altogether. Movement consists for them of moments, it is a staccato movement, momentary flashes of a stream of energy… “Everything is evanescent“,… says the Buddhist, because there is no stuff… Both systems [Sānkhya, and later Indian Buddhism] share in common a tendency to push the analysis of existence up to its minutest, last elements which are imagined as absolute qualities, or things possessing only one unique quality. They are called “qualities” (guna-dharma) in both systems in the sense of absolute qualities, a kind of atomic, or intra-atomic, energies of which the empirical things are composed. Both systems, therefore, agree in denying the objective reality of the categories of Substance and Quality,… and of the relation of Inference uniting them. There is in Sānkhya philosophy no separate existence of qualities. What we call quality is but a particular manifestation of a subtle entity. To every new unit of quality corresponds a subtle quantum of matter which is called guna “quality”, but represents a subtle substantive entity. The same applies to early Buddhism where all qualities are substantive… or, more precisely, dynamic entities, although they are also called dharmas (‘qualities’).” 60. ^ Jump up to:a b c Craig, William Lane (June 1979). “Whitrow and Popper on the Impossibility of an Infinite Past”.The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 30 (2): 165–170 (165–6). doi:10.1093/bjps/30.2.165. 61. Jump up^ Boyer, C. (1968) A History of Mathematics. Wiley, p. 54. 62. Jump up^ Neugebauer, Otto E. (1945). “The History of Ancient Astronomy Problems and Methods”. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 4 (1): 1–38. doi:10.1086/370729. JSTOR 595168. “the Chaldaean Seleucus from Seleucia” 63. Jump up^ Sarton, George (1955). “Chaldaean Astronomy of the Last Three Centuries B. C”. Journal of the American Oriental Society 75 (3): 166–173 (169). doi:10.2307/595168. JSTOR 595168. “the heliocentrical astronomy invented by Aristarchos of Samos and still defended a century later by Seleucos the Babylonian” 64. Jump up^ William P. D. Wightman (1951, 1953), The Growth of Scientific Ideas, Yale University Press p. 38, where Wightman calls him Seleukos the Chaldean. 65. Jump up^ Lucio Russo, Flussi e riflussi, Feltrinelli, Milano, 2003, ISBN 88-07-10349-4. 66. Jump up^ Bartel, p. 527 67. Jump up^ Bartel, pp. 527–9 68. Jump up^ Bartel, pp. 529–34 69. Jump up^ Bartel, pp. 534–7 70. Jump up^ Nasr, Seyyed H. (1st edition in 1964, 2nd edition in 1993). An Introduction to Islamic Cosmological Doctrines (2nd ed.). 1st edition by Harvard University Press, 2nd edition by State University of New York Press. pp. 135–6. ISBN 0-7914-1515-5. 71. Jump up^ Misner, Thorne and Wheeler, p. 754. 72. ^ Jump up to:a b Misner, Thorne and Wheeler, p. 755–756. 73. ^ Jump up to:a b Misner, Thorne and Wheeler, p. 756. 74. Jump up^ de Cheseaux JPL (1744). Traité de la Comète. Lausanne. pp. 223ff.. Reprinted as Appendix II inDickson FP (1969). The Bowl of Night: The Physical Universe and Scientific Thought. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press. ISBN 978-0-262-54003-2. 75. Jump up^ Olbers HWM (1826). “Unknown title”. Bode’s Jahrbuch 111.. Reprinted as Appendix I in Dickson FP (1969). The Bowl of Night: The Physical Universe and Scientific Thought. Cambridge, MA: M.I.T. Press.ISBN 978-0-262-54003-2. 76. Jump up^ Jeans, J. H. (1902). “The Stability of a Spherical Nebula” (PDF). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 199 (312–320): 1–53. Bibcode:1902RSPTA.199….1J. doi:10.1098/rsta.1902.0012.JSTOR 90845. Retrieved 2011-03-17. 77. Jump up^ Misner, Thorne and Wheeler, p. 757. 78. ^ Jump up to:a b Einstein, A (1917). “Kosmologische Betrachtungen zur allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie”.Preussische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Sitzungsberichte. 1917. (part 1): 142–152. 79. Jump up^ Rindler, pp. 226–229. 80. Jump up^ Landau and Lifshitz, pp. 358–359. 81. Jump up^ Einstein, A (1931). “Zum kosmologischen Problem der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie”.Sitzungsberichte der Preussischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Physikalisch-mathematische Klasse1931: 235–237. Einstein A., de Sitter W. (1932). “On the relation between the expansion and the mean density of the Universe”. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 18 (3): 213–214.Bibcode:1932PNAS…18..213E. doi:10.1073/pnas.18.3.213. PMC 1076193. PMID 16587663. 82. Jump up^ Hubble Telescope news release. Hubblesite.org (2004-02-20). Retrieved 2011-11-28. 83. Jump up^ “Mysterious force’s long presence”. BBC News. 2006-11-16. 84. Jump up^ Zel’dovich YB (1967). “Cosmological constant and elementary particles”. JETP Letters 6: 316–317.Bibcode:1967JETPL…6..316Z. 85. Jump up^ Friedmann A. (1922). “Über die Krümmung des Raumes”. Zeitschrift für Physik 10 (1): 377–386.Bibcode:1922ZPhy…10..377F. doi:10.1007/BF01332580. 86. Jump up^ “Cosmic Detectives”. The European Space Agency (ESA). 2013-04-02. Retrieved 2013-04-15. 87. Jump up^ Munitz MK (1959). “One Universe or Many?”. Journal of the History of Ideas 12 (2): 231–255.doi:10.2307/2707516. JSTOR 2707516. 88. Jump up^ Misner, Thorne and Wheeler, p. 753. 89. Jump up^ Linde A. (1986). “Eternal chaotic inflation”. Mod. Phys. Lett. A1 (2): 81–85.Bibcode:1986MPLA….1…81L. doi:10.1142/S0217732386000129. Linde A. (1986). “Eternally existing self-reproducing chaotic inflationary Universe” (PDF). Phys. Lett.B175 (4): 395–400. Bibcode:1986PhLB..175..395L. doi:10.1016/0370-2693(86)90611-8. Retrieved 2011-03-17. 90. Jump up^ Tegmark M. (2003). “Parallel universes. Not just a staple of science fiction, other universes are a direct implication of cosmological observations”. Scientific American 288 (5): 40–51.doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0503-40. PMID 12701329. 91. Jump up^ Tegmark, Max (2003). “Parallel Universes”. In “Science and Ultimate Reality: from Quantum to Cosmos”, honoring John Wheeler’s 90th birthday. J. D. Barrow, P.C.W. Davies, & C.L. Harper eds. Cambridge University Press (2003): 2131. arXiv:astro-ph/0302131. Bibcode:2003astro.ph..2131T. 92. Jump up^ Will the Universe expand forever?, WMAP website at NASA. 93. Jump up^ Luminet, Jean-Pierre; Jeff Weeks, Alain Riazuelo, Roland Lehoucq, Jean-Phillipe Uzan (2003-10-09). “Dodecahedral space topology as an explanation for weak wide-angle temperature correlations in the cosmic microwave background”. Nature 425 (6958): 593–5. arXiv:astro-ph/0310253.Bibcode:2003Natur.425..593L. doi:10.1038/nature01944. PMID 14534579. 94. Jump up^ Roukema, Boudewijn; Zbigniew Buliński, Agnieszka Szaniewska, Nicolas E. Gaudin (2008). “A test of the Poincare dodecahedral space topology hypothesis with the WMAP CMB data”. Astronomy and Astrophysics 482 (3): 747. arXiv:0801.0006. Bibcode:2008A&A…482..747L. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20078777. 95. Jump up^ Aurich, Ralf; Lustig, S., Steiner, F., Then, H. (2004). “Hyperbolic Universes with a Horned Topology and the CMB Anisotropy”. Classical and Quantum Gravity 21 (21): 4901–4926. arXiv:astro-ph/0403597. Bibcode:2004CQGra..21.4901A. doi:10.1088/0264-9381/21/21/010. 96. Jump up^ “Planck reveals ‘almost perfect’ universe”. Michael Banks. Physics World. 2013-03-21. Retrieved 2013-03-21. Bibliography[edit] • Bartel (1987). “The Heliocentric System in Greek, Persian and Hindu Astronomy”. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 500 (1): 525–545. Bibcode:1987NYASA.500..525V. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1987.tb37224.x. • Landau, Lev, Lifshitz, E.M. (1975). The Classical Theory of Fields (Course of Theoretical Physics, Vol. 2) (revised 4th English ed.). New York: Pergamon Press. pp. 358–397. ISBN 978-0-08-018176-9. • Liddell, H. G. and Scott, R. A Greek-English Lexicon. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-864214-8. • Misner, C.W., Thorne, Kip, Wheeler, J.A. (1973). Gravitation. San Francisco: W. H. Freeman. pp. 703–816. ISBN 978-0-7167-0344-0. • Rindler, W. (1977). Essential Relativity: Special, General, and Cosmological. New York: Springer Verlag. pp. 193–244. ISBN 0-387-10090-3. Further reading[edit] • Weinberg, S. (1993). The First Three Minutes: A Modern View of the Origin of the Universe (2nd updated ed.). New York: Basic Books. ISBN 978-0-465-02437-7. OCLC 28746057. For lay readers. • Nussbaumer, Harry; Bieri, Lydia; Sandage, Allan (2009). Discovering the Expanding Universe. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-51484-2. External links[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Universe. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Universe • Is there a hole in the Universe? at HowStuffWorks • Stephen Hawking’s Universe – Why is the Universe the way it is? • Cosmology FAQ • Cosmos – An “illustrated dimensional journey from microcosmos to macrocosmos” • Illustration comparing the sizes of the planets, the sun, and other stars • My So-Called Universe – Arguments for and against an infinite and parallel universes • The Dark Side and the Bright Side of the Universe Princeton University, Shirley Ho • Richard Powell: An Atlas of the Universe – Images at various scales, with explanations • Multiple Big Bangs • Universe – Space Information Centre Listen to this article (4 parts) · (info) Part 1 • Part 2 • Part 3 • Part 4 This audio file was created from a revision of the “Universe” article dated 2012-06-13, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help) More spoken articles Videos[edit] • Cosmography of the Local Universe at irfu.cea.fr (17:35) (arXiv) • The Known Universe created by the American Museum of Natural History • Understand The Size Of The Universe – by Powers of Ten • 3-D Video (01:46) – Over a Million Galaxies of Billions of Stars each – BerkeleyLab/animated • The Future of the Universe – NASAHome/News [show] • V • T • E Earth’s location in the universe [show] • V • T • E Elements of nature Categories: • Environments • Physical cosmology • Places • Universe Our Body Human body From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2013) Human body Human body features displayed on bodies on which body hair and male facial hair has been removed The human body is the entire structure of a human organism and comprises a head, neck, torso, two arms and two legs. By the time the human reaches adulthood, the body consists of close to 100 trillion cells,[1] the basic unit of life.[2] These cells are organised biologically to eventually form the whole body. Contents [hide] • 1 Structure o 1.1 Size o 1.2 Human anatomy • 1.2.1 Anatomical variations o 1.3 Human physiology o 1.4 Systems o 1.5 Homeostasis • 2 Society and culture o 2.1 Depiction o 2.2 Appearance o 2.3 History of anatomy o 2.4 History of physiology • 3 See also • 4 Further reading o 4.1 References • 5 External links Structure[edit] Further information: Anatomy, Body proportion, and Anatomical terminology Constituents of the human body In a normal man weighing 60 kg Constituent Weight[3] Percent of atoms[3] Hydrogen 6.0 kg 63% Oxygen 38.8 kg 25.5% Carbon 10.9 kg 9.5% Nitrogen 1.9 kg 1.4% Calcium 1.2 kg 2.0% Phosphorus 0.6 kg 0.2% Potassium 0.2 kg 0.07% Size[edit] The average height of an adult male human (in developed countries) is about 1.7–1.8 m (5’7″ to 5’11”) tall and the adult female is about 1.6–1.7 m (5’2″ to 5’7″) tall.[4] Height is largely determined by genes and diet. Body type and composition are influenced by factors such as genetics, diet, and exercise. Human anatomy[edit] Further information: Body shape and Female body shape Anatomical study by Leonardo da Vinci Human anatomy (gr. ἀνατομία, “dissection”, from ἀνά, “up”, and τέμνειν, “cut”) is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the human body.[5] Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy.[5] Gross anatomy (also called topographical anatomy, regional anatomy, or anthropotomy) is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by the naked eye.[5] Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopes, which includes histology (the study of the organization of tissues),[5] and cytology (the study of cells). Anatomy, human physiology (the study of function), and biochemistry (the study of the chemistry of living structures) are complementary basic medical sciences that are generally together (or in tandem) to students studying medical sciences. In some of its facets human anatomy is closely related to embryology, comparative anatomy and comparative embryology,[5] through common roots in evolution; for example, much of the human body maintains the ancient segmental pattern that is present in all vertebrates with basic units being repeated, which is particularly obvious in the vertebral column and in the ribcage, and can be traced from very early embryos. Generally, physicians, dentists, physiotherapists, nurses, paramedics, radiographers, and students of certain biological sciences, learn gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy from anatomical models, skeletons, textbooks, diagrams, photographs, lectures, and tutorials. The study of microscopic anatomy (or histology) can be aided by practical experience examining histological preparations (or slides) under a microscope; and in addition, medical and dental students generally also learn anatomy with practical experience of dissection and inspection of cadavers (dead human bodies). A thorough working knowledge of anatomy is required for all medical doctors, especially surgeons, and doctors working in some diagnostic specialities, such as histopathology and radiology. Human anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry are basic medical sciences, which are generally taught to medical students in their first year at medical school. Human anatomy can be taught regionally or systemically;[5] that is, respectively, studying anatomy by bodily regions such as the head and chest, or studying by specific systems, such as the nervous or respiratory systems. The major anatomy textbook, Gray’s Anatomy, has recently been reorganized from a systems format to a regional format, in line with modern teaching.[6][7] Anatomical variations[edit] Further information: List of anatomical variations This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2012) In human anatomy, the term anatomical variation refers to a non-pathologic anatomic structure that is different from what is observed in most people. The possible anatomic variations in each organ and its arterial and venous supply must be known by physicians, such as surgeons or radiologists, in order to correctly identify those structures. Unlike congenital anomalies, anatomic variations are considered normal and do not constitute a disorder. Human physiology[edit] Main article: Physiology Human physiology is the science of the mechanical, physical, bioelectrical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, their organs, and the cells of which they are composed. Physiology focuses principally at the level of organs and systems. Most aspects of human physiology are closely homologous to corresponding aspects of animal physiology, and animal experimentation has provided much of the foundation of physiological knowledge. Anatomy and physiology are closely related fields of study: anatomy, the study of form, and physiology, the study of function, are intrinsically related and are studied in tandem as part of a medical curriculum. Systems[edit] • • Traditionally, the academic discipline of physiology views the body as a collection of interacting systems, each with its own combination of functions and purposes. Each body system contributes to the homeostasis of other systems and of the entire organism. No system of the body works in isolation, and the well-being of the person depends upon the well-being of all the interacting body systems. System Clinical study Physiology, etc. The nervous system consists of the central nervous system (which is the brain and spinal cord) and peripheral nervous system. The brain is the organ of thought, emotion, memory, and sensory processing, and serves many aspects of communication and control of various other systems and functions. The special senses consist of vision, hearing, taste, andsmell. The eyes, ears, tongue, and nose gather information about the body’s environment. neuroscience, neurology(disease), psychiatry(behavioral), ophthalmology(vision), otolaryngology(hearing, taste, smell) neurophysiology The musculoskeletal system consists of the human skeleton (which includes bones, ligaments, tendons, and cartilage) and attached muscles. It gives the body basic structure and the ability for movement. In addition to their structural role, the larger bones in the body contain bone marrow, the site of production of blood cells. Also, all bones are major storage sites forcalcium and phosphate. This system can be split up into the muscular system and the skeletal system. orthopedics (bone and muscle disorders and injuries) cell physiology, musculoskeletal physiology, osteology (skeleton) The circulatory system or cardiovascular system comprises the heart and blood vessels (arteries, veins, capillaries). The heart propels the circulation of the blood, which serves as a “transportation system” to transfer oxygen, fuel, nutrients, waste products, immune cells, and signalling molecules (i.e., hormones) from one part of the body to another. The blood consists of fluid that carries cells in the circulation, including some that move from tissue to blood vessels and back, as well as thespleen and bone marrow. cardiology (heart),hematology (blood) cardiovascular physiology[8][9] The heart itself is divided into three layers called theendocardium, myocardium and epicardium,(liquidation) which vary in thickness and function.[10] The respiratory system consists of the nose, nasopharynx, trachea, and lungs. It brings oxygen from the air and excretescarbon dioxide and water back into the air. pulmonology respiratory physiology The gastrointestinal system consists of the mouth, esophagus, stomach, gut (small and large intestines), and rectum, as well as the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and salivary glands. It converts food into small, nutritional, non-toxic molecules for distribution by the circulation to all tissues of the body, and excretes the unused residue. gastroenterology gastrointestinal physiology The integumentary system consists of the covering of the body (the skin), including hair and nails as well as other functionally important structures such as the sweat glands and sebaceous glands. The skin provides containment, structure, and protection for other organs, but it also serves as a major sensory interface with the outside world. dermatology cell physiology, skin physiology The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. It removes water from the blood to produce urine, which carries a variety of waste molecules and excess ions and water out of the body. nephrology (function),urology (structural disease) renal physiology The reproductive system consists of the gonads and the internal and external sex organs. The reproductive system produces gametes in each sex, a mechanism for their combination, and a nurturing environment for the first 9 months of development of the infant. gynecology (women),andrology (men), sexology(behavioral aspects)embryology (developmental aspects) reproductive physiology The immune system consists of the white blood cells, the thymus, lymph nodes and lymph channels, which are also part of the lymphatic system. The immune system provides a mechanism for the body to distinguish its own cells and tissues from alien cells and substances and to neutralize or destroy the latter by using specialized proteins such as antibodies, cytokines, and toll-like receptors, among many others. immunology immunology The main function of the lymphatic system is to extract, transport and metabolize lymph, the fluid found in between cells. The lymphatic system is very similar to the circulatory system in terms of both its structure and its most basic function (to carry a body fluid). oncology, immunology oncology, immunology The endocrine system consists of the principal endocrine glands: the pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, pancreas, parathyroids, andgonads, but nearly all organs and tissues produce specific endocrine hormones as well. The endocrine hormones serve as signals from one body system to another regarding an enormous array of conditions, and resulting in variety of changes of function. There is also the exocrine system. endocrinology endocrinology Homeostasis[edit] The term “homeostasis” is the property of a system that regulates its internal environment and tends to maintain a stable, relatively constant condition of properties such as temperature or pH. It can be either an open or closed system. In simple terms, it is a process in which the body’s internal environment is kept stable. This is required for the body to function sufficiently. The Homeostatic process is essential for the survival of each cell, tissue, and body system. Maintaining a stable internal environment requires constant monitoring, mostly by the brain and nervous system. The brain receives information from the body and responds appropriately through the release of various substances like neurotransmitters, catecholamines, and hormones. Individual organ physiology furthermore facilitates the maintenance of homeostasis of the whole body e.g. Blood pressure regulation: the release of renin by the kidneys allow blood pressure to be stabilized (Renin, Angiotensinogen, Aldosterone System), though the brain helps regulate blood pressure by the Pituitary releasing Anti-Diuretic Hormone (ADH). Thus, homeostasis is maintained within the body as a whole, dependent upon its parts. The traditional divisions by system are somewhat arbitrary. Many body parts participate in more than one system, and systems might be organized by function, by embryological origin, or other categorizations. In particular, is the “neuroendocrine system”, the complex interactions of the neurological and endocrinological systems which together regulate physiology. Furthermore, many aspects of physiology are not as easily included in the traditional organ system categories. The study of how physiology is altered in disease is pathophysiology. Society and culture[edit] This section requires expansion.(November 2013) Further information: History of anatomy, History of medicine, and History of physiology Depiction[edit] This section requires expansion.(November 2013) Image of two facing pages of text, also including woodcuts of naked “Adam” and “Eve” figures. “Epitome”, fol. 10b and 11a. HMD Collection, WZ 240 V575dhZ 1543. Gross anatomy has become a key part of visual arts. Basic concepts of how muscles and bones function and deform with movement is key to drawing, painting or animating a human figure. Many books such as “Human Anatomy for Artists: The Elements of Form”, are written as a guide to drawing the human body anatomically correctly.[11] Leonardo da Vinci sought to improve his art through a better understanding of human anatomy. In the process he advanced both human anatomy and its representation in art. Because the structure of living organism is complex, anatomy is organized by levels, from the smallest components of cells to the largest organs and their relationship to other organs. Appearance[edit] Main article: Human physical appearance This section requires expansion.(November 2013) History of anatomy[edit] The history of anatomy has been characterized, over a long period of time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body. Methods have also advanced dramatically, advancing from examination of animals through dissection of fresh and preserved cadavers (dead human bodies) to technologically complex techniques developed in the 20th century. History of physiology[edit] Main article: History of physiology The study of human physiology dates back to at least 420 B.C. and the time of Hippocrates, the father of medicine.[12] The critical thinking of Aristotle and his emphasis on the relationship between structure and function marked the beginning of physiology in Ancient Greece, while Claudius Galenus (c. 126-199 A.D.), known as Galen, was the first to use experiments to probe the function of the body. Galen was the founder of experimental physiology.[13] The medical world moved on from Galenism only with the appearance of Andreas Vesalius and William Harvey.[14] During the Middle Ages, the ancient Greek and Indian medical traditions were further developed by Muslim physicians. Notable work in this period was done by Avicenna (980-1037), author of the The Canon of Medicine, and Ibn al-Nafis (1213–1288), among others.[citation needed] Following from the Middle Ages, the Renaissance brought an increase of physiological research in the Western world that triggered the modern study of anatomy and physiology. Andreas Vesalius was an author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica.[15] Vesalius is often referred to as the founder of modern human anatomy.[16] Anatomist William Harvey described thecirculatory system in the 17th century,[17] demonstrating the fruitful combination of close observations and careful experiments to learn about the functions of the body, which was fundamental to the development of experimental physiology. Herman Boerhaave is sometimes referred to as a father of physiology due to his exemplary teaching in Leiden and textbook Institutiones medicae (1708).[citation needed] In the 18th century, important works in this field were by Pierre Cabanis, a French doctor and physiologist.[citation needed] In the 19th century, physiological knowledge began to accumulate at a rapid rate, in particular with the 1838 appearance of the Cell theory of Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann. It radically stated that organisms are made up of units called cells. Claude Bernard’s (1813–1878) further discoveries ultimately led to his concept of milieu interieur (internal environment), which would later be taken up and championed as “homeostasis” by American physiologist Walter Cannon (1871–1945).[clarification needed] In the 20th century, biologists also became interested in how organisms other than human beings function, eventually spawning the fields of comparative physiology and ecophysiology.[18] Major figures in these fields include Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew. Most recently, evolutionary physiology has become a distinct subdiscipline.[19] The biological basis of the study of physiology, integration refers to the overlap of many functions of the systems of the human body, as well as its accompanied form. It is achieved through communication that occurs in a variety of ways, both electrical and chemical. In terms of the human body, the endocrine and nervous systems play major roles in the reception and transmission of signals that integrate function. Homeostasis is a major aspect with regard to the interactions within an organism, humans included. See also[edit] Wikimedia Commons has media related to Human body. • Outline of human anatomy • Body image • Body schema • Human development • Comparative physiology • Comparative anatomy Further reading[edit] • Raincoast Books (2004). Encyclopedic Atlas Human Body. Raincoast Books. ISBN 978-1-55192-747-3. • Daniel D. Chiras (1 June 2012). Human Body Systems: Structure, Function, and Environment. Jones & Bartlett Publishers. ISBN 978-1-4496-4793-3. • Adolf Faller; Michael Schünke; Gabriele Schünke; Ethan Taub, M.D. (2004). The Human Body: An Introduction to Structure and Function. Thieme. ISBN 978-1-58890-122-4. • Richard Walker (30 March 2009). Human Body. Dk Pub. ISBN 978-0-7566-4545-8. • DK Publishing (18 June 2012). Human Body: A Visual Encyclopedia. ISBN 978-1-4654-0143-4. • DK Publishing (30 August 2010). The Complete Human Body: The Definitive Visual Guide. ISBN 978-0-7566-7509-7. • Saddleback (1 January 2008). Human Body. Saddleback Educational Publ. ISBN 978-1-59905-234-2. • Babsky, Evgeni; Boris Khodorov, Grigory Kositsky, Anatoly Zubkov (1989). Evgeni Babsky, ed. Human Physiology, in 2 vols. Translated by Ludmila Aksenova; translation edited by H. C. Creighton (M.A.,Oxon). Moscow: Mir Publishers. ISBN 5-03-000776-8. • Sherwood, Lauralee (2010). Human Physiology from cells to systems (Hardcover) (7 ed.). Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/cole. ISBN 978-0-495-39184-5. References[edit] 1. Jump up^ Page 21 Inside the human body: using scientific and exponential notation. Author: Greg Roza. Edition: Illustrated. Publisher: The Rosen Publishing Group, 2007. ISBN 1-4042-3362-8, ISBN 978-1-4042-3362-1. Length: 32pages 2. Jump up^ Cell Movements and the Shaping of the Vertebrate Body in Chapter 21 of Molecular Biology of the Cell fourth edition, edited by Bruce Alberts (2002) published by Garland Science. The Alberts text discusses how the “cellular building blocks” move to shape developing embryos. It is also common to describe small molecules such as amino acids as “molecular building blocks”. 3. ^ Jump up to:a b Page 3 in Chemical storylines. Author: George Burton. Edition 2, illustrated. Publisher: Heinemann, 2000. ISBN 0-435-63119-5, ISBN 978-0-435-63119-2. Length: 312 pages 4. Jump up^ http://www.human-body.org/ (dead link) 5. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f “Introduction page, “Anatomy of the Human Body”. Henry Gray. 20th edition. 1918″. Retrieved 27 March 2007. 6. Jump up^ “Publisher’s page for Gray’s Anatomy. 39th edition (UK). 2004. ISBN 0-443-07168-3”. Archived from the original on 20 February 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2007. 7. Jump up^ “Publisher’s page for Gray’s Anatomy. 39th edition (US). 2004. ISBN 0-443-07168-3”. Archived from the original on 9 February 2007. Retrieved 27 March 2007. 8. Jump up^ “Cardiovascular System”. U.S. National Cancer Institute. Retrieved 2008-09-16.[dead link] 9. Jump up^ Human Biology and Health. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall. 1993. ISBN 0-13-981176-1. 10. Jump up^ “The Cardiovascular System”. SUNY Downstate Medical Center. 2008-03-08. Retrieved 2008-09-16. 11. Jump up^ Goldfinger, Eliot (1991). Human Anatomy for Artists: The Elements of Form. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-505206-4. 12. Jump up^ “Physiology – History of physiology, Branches of physiology”. http://www.Scienceclarified.com. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 13. Jump up^ Fell, C.; Griffith Pearson, F. (November 2007). “Thoracic Surgery Clinics: Historical Perspectives of Thoracic Anatomy”. Thorac Surg Clin 17 (4): 443–8, v. doi:10.1016/j.thorsurg.2006.12.001. 14. Jump up^ “Galen”. Discoveriesinmedicine.com. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 15. Jump up^ “Page through a virtual copy of Vesalius’s De Humanis Corporis Fabrica”. Archive.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 16. Jump up^ “Andreas Vesalius (1514-1567)”. Ingentaconnect.com. 1999-05-01. Retrieved 2010-08-29. 17. Jump up^ Zimmer, Carl (2004). “Soul Made Flesh: The Discovery of the Brain – and How It Changed the World”. J Clin Invest 114 (5): 604–604. doi:10.1172/JCI22882. 18. Jump up^ Feder, Martin E. (1987). New directions in ecological physiology. New York: Cambridge Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0-521-34938-3. 19. Jump up^ Garland, Jr, Theodore; Carter, P. A. (1994). “Evolutionary physiology”. Annual Review of Physiology 56 (56): 579–621. doi:10.1146/annurev.ph.56.030194.003051. PMID 8010752. External links[edit] Look up body in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Human Physiology • Human Physiology textbook at Wikibooks • (English) (Arabic) The Book of Humans from the early 18th century • Referencing site and detailed pictures showing information on the human body anatomy and structure [show] • V • T • E Human systems and organs [show] • V • T • E Physiology types [show] • V • T • E Medicine Help improve this page What’s this? Did you find what you were looking for? Yes No Categories: • Human physiology • Human body • Human anatomy Navigation menu • Create account • Log in • Article • Talk • Read • Edit • View history • Main page • Contents • Featured content • Current events • Random article • Donate to Wikipedia • Wikimedia Shop Interaction • Help • About Wikipedia • Community portal • Recent changes • Contact page Tools Print/export Languages • Ænglisc • العربية • অসমীয়া • Български • Català • Čeština • Cymraeg • Dansk • Deutsch • Español • Esperanto • Français • Gaeilge • Galego • 贛語 • 한국어 • हिन्दी • Bahasa Indonesia • Iñupiak • Íslenska • Italiano • עברית • ಕನ್ನಡ • Kinyarwanda • Kirundi • Kiswahili • Magyar • मराठी • Мокшень • नेपाली • 日本語 • پنجابی • Polski • Português • Русский • Gagana Samoa • සිංහල • Simple English • Slovenčina • کوردی • Tagalog • தமிழ் • Taqbaylit • తెలుగు • Türkçe • Українська • اردو • Vepsän kel’ • Tiếng Việt • ייִדיש • Zazaki • 中文 • Edit links Our Mind Mind From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). A phrenological mapping[1] of thebrain. Phrenology was among the first attempts to correlate mental functions with specific parts of the brain. René Descartes’ illustration ofmind/body dualism. Descartes believed inputs are passed on by the sensory organs to the epiphysis in the brain and from there to the immaterial spirit.[2] A mind /ˈmaɪnd/ is the set of cognitive faculties that enables consciousness, perception, thinking, judgement, and memory—a characteristic of humans, but which also may apply to other life forms.[3][4] A lengthy tradition of inquiries in philosophy, religion, psychology and cognitive science has sought to develop an understanding of what mind is and what are its distinguishing properties. The main questions regarding the nature of mind is its relation to the physical brain and nervous system – a question which is often framed as the Mind-body problem, which considers whether mind is somehow separate from physical existence (dualism and idealism[5]), deriving from and reducible to physical phenomena such as neurological processes (physicalism), or whether the mind is identical with the brain or some activity of the brain.[6] Another question concerns which types of beings are capable of having minds, for example whether mind is exclusive to humans, possessed also by some or all animals, by all living things, or whether mind can also be a property of some types of man-made machines. Whatever its relation to the physical body it is generally agreed that mind is that which enables a being to have subjective awareness and intentionality towards their environment, to perceive and respond to stimuli with some kind of agency, and to have consciousness, including thinking and feeling.[3][7] Important philosophers of mind include Plato, Descartes, Leibniz, Kant, Martin Heidegger, John Searle, Daniel Dennett and many others. The description and definition is also a part of psychology where psychologists such as Sigmund Freud and William James have developed influential theories about the nature of the human mind. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries the field of cognitive science emerged and developed many varied approaches to the description of mind and its related phenomena. The possibility of non-human minds is also explored in the field of artificial intelligence, which works closely in relation with cybernetics and information theory to understand the ways in which human mental phenomena can be replicated by machines. The concept of mind is understood in many different ways by many different cultural and religious traditions. Some see mind as a property exclusive to humans whereas others ascribe properties of mind to non-living entities (e.g. panpsychism and animism), to animals and to deities. Some of the earliest recorded speculations linked mind (sometimes described as identical with soul or spirit) to theories concerning both life after death, and cosmological and natural order, for example in the doctrines ofZoroaster, the Buddha, Plato, Aristotle, and other ancient Greek, Indian and, later, Islamic and medieval European philosophers. Contents [hide] • 1 Etymology • 2 Definitions • 3 Mental faculties • 4 Mental content o 4.1 Memetics • 5 Relation to the brain • 6 Evolutionary history of the human mind • 7 Philosophy of mind o 7.1 Mind/body perspectives • 8 Scientific study o 8.1 Neuroscience o 8.2 Cognitive Science o 8.3 Psychology • 9 Mental health • 10 Non-human minds o 10.1 Animal intelligence o 10.2 Artificial intelligence • 11 In religion o 11.1 Buddhism o 11.2 Mortality of the mind • 12 In pseudoscience o 12.1 Parapsychology • 13 See also • 14 References • 15 External links Etymology[edit] The original meaning of Old English gemynd was the faculty of memory, not of thought in general. Hence call to mind, come to mind, keep in mind, to have mind of, etc. Old English had other words to express “mind”, such as hyge “mind, spirit”. The meaning of “memory” is shared with Old Norse, which has munr. The word is originally from a PIE verbal root *men-, meaning “to think, remember”, whence also Latin mens “mind”, Sanskrit manas “mind” and Greek μένος “mind, courage, anger”. The generalization of mind to include all mental faculties, thought, volition, feeling and memory, gradually develops over the 14th and 15th centuries.[8] Definitions[edit] This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2012) Which attributes make up the mind is much debated. Some psychologists argue that only the “higher” intellectual functions constitute mind, particularly reason and memory. In this view the emotions—love,hate, fear, joy—are more primitive or subjective in nature and should be seen as different from the mind as such. Others argue that various rational and emotional states cannot be so separated, that they are of the same nature and origin, and should therefore be considered all part of what we call the mind. In popular usage mind is frequently synonymous with thought: the private conversation with ourselves that we carry on “inside our heads.” Thus we “make up our minds,” “change our minds” or are “of two minds” about something. One of the key attributes of the mind in this sense is that it is a private sphere to which no one but the owner has access. No one else can “know our mind.” They can only interpret what we consciously or unconsciously communicate. Mental faculties[edit] See also: Nous, Reason, Modularity of mind, and Mental process Broadly speaking, mental faculties are the various functions of the mind, or things the mind can “do”. Thought is a mental act that allows humans to make sense of things in the world, and to represent and interpret them in ways that are significant, or which accord with their needs, attachments, goals, commitments, plans, ends, desires, etc. Thinking involves the symbolic or semiotic mediation of ideas or data, as when we form concepts, engage in problem solving, reasoning and making decisions. Words that refer to similar concepts and processes include deliberation, cognition, ideation, discourse and imagination. Thinking is sometimes described as a “higher” cognitive function and the analysis of thinking processes is a part of cognitive psychology. It is also deeply connected with our capacity to make and use tools; to understand cause and effect; to recognize patterns of significance; to comprehend and disclose unique contexts of experience or activity; and to respond to the world in a meaningful way. Memory is the ability to preserve, retain, and subsequently recall, knowledge, information or experience. Although memory has traditionally been a persistent theme in philosophy, the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries also saw the study of memory emerge as a subject of inquiry within the paradigms of cognitive psychology. In recent decades, it has become one of the pillars of a new branch of science called cognitive neuroscience, a marriage between cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Imagination is the activity of generating or evoking novel situations, images, ideas or other qualia in the mind. It is a characteristically subjective activity, rather than a direct or passive experience. The term is technically used in psychology for the process of reviving in the mind percepts of objects formerly given in sense perception. Since this use of the term conflicts with that of ordinary language, some psychologists have preferred to describe this process as “imaging” or “imagery” or to speak of it as “reproductive” as opposed to “productive” or “constructive” imagination. Things that are imagined are said to be seen in the “mind’s eye”. Among the many practical functions of imagination are the ability to project possible futures (or histories), to “see” things from another’s perspective, and to change the way something is perceived, including to make decisions to respond to, or enact, what is imagined. Consciousness in mammals (this includes humans) is an aspect of the mind generally thought to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, sentience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneselfand one’s environment. It is a subject of much research in philosophy of mind, psychology, neuroscience, and cognitive science. Some philosophers divide consciousness into phenomenal consciousness, which is subjective experience itself, and access consciousness, which refers to the global availability of information to processing systems in the brain.[9] Phenomenal consciousness has many different experienced qualities, often referred to as qualia. Phenomenal consciousness is usually consciousness of something or about something, a property known as intentionality in philosophy of mind. Mental content[edit] This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2013) Mental contents are those items that are thought of as being “in” the mind, and capable of being formed and manipulated by mental processes and faculties. Examples include thoughts, concepts, memories,emotions, percepts and intentions. Philosophical theories of mental content include internalism, externalism, representationalism and intentionality. Memetics[edit] Memetics is a theory of mental content based on an analogy with Darwinian evolution, which was originated by Richard Dawkins and Douglas Hofstadter in the 1980s. It is an evolutionary model of culturalinformation transfer. A meme, analogous to a gene, is an idea, belief, pattern of behaviour (etc.) which is “hosted” in one or more individual minds, and which can reproduce itself from mind to mind. Thus what would otherwise be regarded as one individual influencing another to adopt a belief is seen memetically as a meme reproducing itself. As with genetics, particularly under Dawkins’s interpretation, a meme’s success may be due its contribution to the effectiveness of its host (i.e., the meme is a useful, beneficial idea), or may be “selfish”, in which case it could be considered a “virus of the mind”. Relation to the brain[edit] See also: Cognitive science In animals, the brain, or encephalon (Greek for “in the head”), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for thought. In most animals, the brain is located in the head, protected by the skulland close to the primary sensory apparatus of vision, hearing, equilibrioception, taste and olfaction. While all vertebrates have a brain, most invertebrates have either a centralized brain or collections of individual ganglia. Primitive animals such as sponges do not have a brain at all. Brains can be extremely complex. For example, the human brain contains more than 100 billion neurons, each linked to as many as 10,000 others.[10][11] Understanding the relationship between the brain and the mind – mind-body problem is one of the central issues in the history of philosophy – is a challenging problem both philosophically and scientifically.[12]There are three major philosophical schools of thought concerning the answer: dualism, materialism, and idealism. Dualism holds that the mind exists independently of the brain;[13] materialism holds that mental phenomena are identical to neuronal phenomena;[14] and idealism holds that only mental phenomena exist.[14] Through most of history many philosophers found it inconceivable that cognition could be implemented by a physical substance such as brain tissue (that is neurons and synapses).[15] Descartes, who thought extensively about mind-brain relationships, found it possible to explain reflexes and other simple behaviors in mechanistic terms, although he did not believe that complex thought, and language in particular, could be explained by reference to the physical brain alone.[16] The most straightforward scientific evidence that there is a strong relationship between the physical brain matter and the mind is the impact physical alterations to the brain have on the mind, such as withtraumatic brain injury and psychoactive drug use.[17] Philosopher Patricia Churchland notes that this drug-mind interaction indicates an intimate connection between the brain and the mind.[18] In addition to the philosophical questions, the relationship between mind and brain involves a number of scientific questions, including understanding the relationship between mental activity and brain activity, the exact mechanisms by which drugs influence cognition, and the neural correlates of consciousness. Evolutionary history of the human mind[edit] The evolution of human intelligence refers to a set of theories that attempt to explain how human intelligence has evolved. The question is closely tied to the evolution of the human brain, and to the emergence of human language. The timeline of human evolution spans some 7 million years, from the separation of the Pan genus until the emergence of behavioral modernity by 50,000 years ago. Of this timeline, the first 3 million years concern Sahelanthropus, the following 2 million concern Australopithecus, while the final 2 million span the history of actual human species (the Paleolithic). Many traits of human intelligence, such as empathy, theory of mind, mourning, ritual, and the use of symbols and tools, are already apparent in great apes although in lesser sophistication than in humans. There is a debate between supporters of the idea of a sudden emergence of intelligence, or “Great leap forward” and those of a gradual or continuum hypothesis. Theories of the evolution of intelligence include: • Robin Dunbar’s social brain hypothesis[19] • Geoffrey Miller’s sexual selection hypothesis[20] • The ecological dominance-social competition (EDSC)[21] explained by Mark V. Flinn, David C. Geary and Carol V. Ward based mainly on work by Richard D. Alexander. • The idea of intelligence as a signal of good health and resistance to disease. • The Group selection theory contends that organism characteristics that provide benefits to a group (clan, tribe, or larger population) can evolve despite individual disadvantages such as those cited above. • The idea that intelligence is connected with nutrition, and thereby with status[22] A higher IQ could be a signal that an individual comes from and lives in a physical and social environment where nutrition levels are high, and vice versa. Philosophy of mind[edit] Main article: Philosophy of mind Philosophy of mind is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature of the mind, mental events, mental functions, mental properties, consciousness and their relationship to the physical body. The mind-body problem, i.e. the relationship of the mind to the body, is commonly seen as the central issue in philosophy of mind, although there are other issues concerning the nature of the mind that do not involve its relation to the physical body.[23] José Manuel Rodriguez Delgado writes, “In present popular usage, soul and mind are not clearly differentiated and some people, more or less consciously, still feel that the soul, and perhaps the mind, may enter or leave the body as independent entities.”[24] Dualism and monism are the two major schools of thought that attempt to resolve the mind-body problem. Dualism is the position that mind and body are in some way separate from each other. It can be traced back to Plato,[25] Aristotle[26][27][28] and the Samkhya and Yoga schools of Hindu philosophy,[29] but it was most precisely formulated by René Descartes in the 17th century.[30] Substance dualists argue that the mind is an independently existing substance, whereas Property dualists maintain that the mind is a group of independent properties that emerge from and cannot be reduced to the brain, but that it is not a distinct substance.[31] The 20th century philosopher Martin Heidegger suggested that subjective experience and activity (i.e. the “mind”) cannot be made sense of in terms of Cartesian “substances” that bear “properties” at all (whether the mind itself is thought of as a distinct, separate kind of substance or not). This is because the nature of subjective, qualitative experience is incoherent in terms of – or semanticallyincommensurable with the concept of – substances that bear properties. This is a fundamentally ontological argument.[32] The philosopher of cognitive science Daniel Dennett, for example, argues that there is no such thing as a narrative center called the “mind”, but that instead there is simply a collection of sensory inputs and outputs: different kinds of “software” running in parallel.[33] Psychologist B.F. Skinner argued that the mind is an explanatory fiction that diverts attention from environmental causes of behavior;[34] he considered the mind a “black box” and thought that mental processes may be better conceived of as forms of covert verbal behavior.[35][36] Mind/body perspectives[edit] Monism is the position that mind and body are not physiologically and ontologically distinct kinds of entities. This view was first advocated in Western Philosophy by Parmenides in the 5th Century BC and was later espoused by the 17th Century rationalist Baruch Spinoza.[37] According to Spinoza’s dual-aspect theory, mind and body are two aspects of an underlying reality which he variously described as “Nature” or “God”. • Physicalists argue that only the entities postulated by physical theory exist, and that the mind will eventually be explained in terms of these entities as physical theory continues to evolve. • Idealists maintain that the mind is all that exists and that the external world is either mental itself, or an illusion created by the mind. • Neutral monists adhere to the position that perceived things in the world can be regarded as either physical or mental depending on whether one is interested in their relationship to other things in the world or their relationship to the perceiver. For example, a red spot on a wall is physical in its dependence on the wall and the pigment of which it is made, but it is mental in so far as its perceived redness depends on the workings of the visual system. Unlike dual-aspect theory, neutral monism does not posit a more fundamental substance of which mind and body are aspects. The most common monisms in the 20th and 21st centuries have all been variations of physicalism; these positions include behaviorism, the type identity theory, anomalous monism and functionalism.[38] Many modern philosophers of mind adopt either a reductive or non-reductive physicalist position, maintaining in their different ways that the mind is not something separate from the body.[38] These approaches have been particularly influential in the sciences, e.g. in the fields of sociobiology, computer science, evolutionary psychology and the various neurosciences.[39][40][41][42] Other philosophers, however, adopt a non-physicalist position which challenges the notion that the mind is a purely physical construct. • Reductive physicalists assert that all mental states and properties will eventually be explained by scientific accounts of physiological processes and states.[43][44][45] • Non-reductive physicalists argue that although the brain is all there is to the mind, the predicates and vocabulary used in mental descriptions and explanations are indispensable, and cannot be reduced to the language and lower-level explanations of physical science.[46][47] Continued progress in neuroscience has helped to clarify many of these issues, and its findings strongly support physicalists’ assertions.[48][49] Nevertheless our knowledge is incomplete, and modern philosophers of mind continue to discuss how subjective qualia and the intentional mental states can be naturally explained.[50][51] Scientific study[edit] Simplified diagram of Spaun, a 2.5-million-neuron computational model of the brain. (A) The corresponding physical regions and connections of the human brain. (B)The mental architecture of Spaun.[52] Neuroscience[edit] See also: Cognitive neuroscience and Thought identification Neuroscience studies the nervous system, the physical basis of the mind. At the systems level, neuroscientists investigate how biological neural networks form and physiologically interact to produce mental functions and content such as reflexes, multisensory integration, motor coordination,circadian rhythms, emotional responses, learning, and memory. At a larger scale, efforts in computational neuroscience have developed large-scale models that simulate simple, functioning brains.[52] As of 2012, such models include the thalamus, basal ganglia, prefrontal cortex, motor cortex, andoccipital cortex, and consequentially simulated brains can learn, respond to visual stimuli, coordinate motor responses, form short-term memories, and learn to respond to patterns. Currently, researchers aim to program the hippocampus and limbic system, hypothetically imbuing the simulated mind withlong-term memory and crude emotions.[53] By contrast, affective neuroscience studies the neural mechanisms of personality, emotion, and mood primarily through experimental tasks. Cognitive Science[edit] See also: Cognitive Science This section requires expansion. (May 2013) Cognitive science examines the mental functions that give rise to information processing, termed cognition. These include attention, memory, producing and understanding language, learning, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making. Cognitive science seeks to understand thinking “in terms of representational structures in the mind and computational procedures that operate on those structures”.[54] Psychology[edit] See also: Neuropsychology and Unconscious mind Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior, mental functioning, and experience. As both an academic and applied discipline, Psychology involves the scientific study of mental processes such asperception, cognition, emotion, personality, as well as environmental influences, such as social and cultural influences, and interpersonal relationships, in order to devise theories of human behavior. Psychology also refers to the application of such knowledge to various spheres of human activity, including problems of individuals’ daily lives and the treatment of mental health problems. Psychology differs from the other social sciences (e.g., anthropology, economics, political science, and sociology) due to its focus on experimentation at the scale of the individual, or individuals in small groups as opposed to large groups, institutions or societies. Historically, psychology differed from biology and neuroscience in that it was primarily concerned with mind rather than brain. Modern psychological science incorporates physiological and neurological processes into its conceptions of perception, cognition, behaviour, and mental disorders. Mental health[edit] Main article: Mental health By analogy with the health of the body, one can speak metaphorically of a state of health of the mind, or mental health. Merriam-Webster defines mental health as “A state of emotional and psychological well-being in which an individual is able to use his or her cognitive and emotional capabilities, function in society, and meet the ordinary demands of everyday life.” According to the World Health Organization(WHO), there is no one “official” definition of mental health. Cultural differences, subjective assessments, and competing professional theories all affect how “mental health” is defined. In general, most experts agree that “mental health” and “mental illness” are not opposites. In other words, the absence of a recognized mental disorder is not necessarily an indicator of mental health. One way to think about mental health is by looking at how effectively and successfully a person functions. Feeling capable and competent; being able to handle normal levels of stress, maintaining satisfying relationships, and leading an independent life; and being able to “bounce back,” or recover from difficult situations, are all signs of mental health. Psychotherapy is an interpersonal, relational intervention used by trained psychotherapists to aid clients in problems of living. This usually includes increasing individual sense of well-being and reducing subjective discomforting experience. Psychotherapists employ a range of techniques based on experiential relationship building, dialogue, communication and behavior change and that are designed to improve the mental health of a client or patient, or to improve group relationships (such as in a family). Most forms of psychotherapy use only spoken conversation, though some also use various other forms of communication such as the written word, art, drama, narrative story, or therapeutic touch. Psychotherapy occurs within a structured encounter between a trained therapist and client(s). Purposeful, theoretically based psychotherapy began in the 19th century with psychoanalysis; since then, scores of other approaches have been developed and continue to be created. Non-human minds[edit] Animal intelligence[edit] Animal cognition, or cognitive ethology, is the title given to a modern approach to the mental capacities of animals. It has developed out of comparative psychology, but has also been strongly influenced by the approach of ethology, behavioral ecology, and evolutionary psychology. Much of what used to be considered under the title of “animal intelligence” is now thought of under this heading. Animal language acquisition, attempting to discern or understand the degree to which animal cognition can be revealed by linguistics-related study, has been controversial among cognitive linguists. Artificial intelligence[edit] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (September 2007) Main article: Philosophy of artificial intelligence Computer simulation of the branching architecture of the dendrites of pyramidal neurons.[55] In 1950 Alan M. Turing published “Computing machinery and intelligence” in Mind, in which he proposed that machines could be tested for intelligence using questions and answers. This process is now named the Turing Test. The term Artificial Intelligence (AI) was first used by John McCarthy who considered it to mean “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines”.[56] It can also refer to intelligence as exhibited by an artificial (man-made, non-natural, manufactured) entity. AI is studied in overlapping fields of computer science, psychology, neuroscience and engineering, dealing with intelligent behavior, learning and adaptation and usually developed using customized machines or computers. Research in AI is concerned with producing machines to automate tasks requiring intelligent behavior. Examples include control, planning and scheduling, the ability to answer diagnostic and consumer questions, handwriting, natural language, speech and facial recognition. As such, the study of AI has also become an engineering discipline, focused on providing solutions to real life problems, knowledge mining, software applications, strategy games like computer chess and other video games. One of the biggest limitations of AI is in the domain of actual machine comprehension. Consequentially natural language understanding and connectionism (where behavior of neural networks is investigated) are areas of active research and development. The debate about the nature of the mind is relevant to the development of artificial intelligence. If the mind is indeed a thing separate from or higher than the functioning of the brain, then hypothetically it would be much more difficult to recreate within a machine, if it were possible at all. If, on the other hand, the mind is no more than the aggregated functions of the brain, then it will be possible to create a machine with a recognisable mind (though possibly only with computers much different from today’s), by simple virtue of the fact that such a machine already exists in the form of the human brain. In religion[edit] Many religions associate spiritual qualities to the human mind. These are often tightly connected to their mythology and afterlife. The Indian philosopher-sage Sri Aurobindo attempted to unite the Eastern and Western psychological traditions with his integral psychology, as have many philosophers and New religious movements. Judaismteaches that “moach shalit al halev”, the mind rules the heart. Humans can approach the Divine intellectually, through learning and behaving according to the Divine Will as enclothed in the Torah, and use that deep logical understanding to elicit and guide emotional arousal during prayer. Christianity has tended to see the mind as distinct from the soul (Greek nous) and sometimes further distinguished from the spirit.Western esoteric traditions sometimes refer to a mental body that exists on a plane other than the physical. Hinduism’s various philosophical schools have debated whether the human soul (Sanskrit atman) is distinct from, or identical to, Brahman, the divine reality. Taoism sees the human being as contiguous with natural forces, and the mind as not separate from the body. Confucianism sees the mind, like the body, as inherently perfectible. Buddhism[edit] See also: Buddhism and psychology According to Buddhist philosopher Dharmakirti, the mind has two fundamental qualities: “clarity and knowing”. If something is not those two qualities, it cannot validly be called mind. “Clarity” refers to the fact that mind has no color, shape, size, location, weight, or any other physical characteristic, and that it gives rise to the contents of experience. “Knowing” refers to the fact that mind is aware of the contents of experience, and that, in order to exist, mind must be cognizing an object. You cannot have a mind – whose function is to cognize an object – existing without cognizing an object. For this reason, mind is often described in Buddhism as “that which has contents”.[57] Mind, in Buddhism, is also described as being “space-like” and “illusion-like”. Mind is space-like in the sense that it is not physically obstructive. It has no qualities which would prevent it from existing. Mind is illusion-like in the sense that it is empty of inherent existence. This does not mean it does not exist, it means that it exists in a manner that is counter to our ordinary way of misperceiving how phenomena exist, according to Buddhism. When the mind is itself cognized properly, without misperceiving its mode of existence, it appears to exist like an illusion. There is a big difference however between being “space and illusion” and being “space-like” and “illusion-like”. Mind is not composed of space, it just shares some descriptive similarities to space. Mind is not an illusion, it just shares some descriptive qualities with illusions. Buddhism posits that there is no inherent, unchanging identity (Inherent I, Inherent Me) or phenomena (Ultimate self, inherent self, Atman, Soul, Self-essence, Jiva, Ishvara, humanness essence, etc.) which is the experiencer of our experiences and the agent of our actions. In other words, human beings consist of merely a body and a mind, and nothing extra. Within the body there is no part or set of parts which is – by itself or themselves – the person. Similarly, within the mind there is no part or set of parts which are themselves “the person”. A human being merely consists of five aggregates, or skandhas and nothing else (please see Valid Designation). In the same way, “mind” is what can be validly conceptually labelled onto our mere experience of clarity and knowing. There is not something separate and apart from clarity and knowing which is “mind”, in Buddhism. “Mind” is that part of experience which can be validly referred to as mind by the concept-term “mind”. There is also not “objects out there, mind in here, and experience somewhere in-between”. There is not a third thing called “experience” which exists between the contents of mind and what mind cognizes. There is only the clarity (arising of mere experience: shapes, colors, the components of smell, components of taste, components of sound, components of touch) and nothing else; this means, expressly, that there is not a third thing called “experience” and not a third thing called “experiencer who has the experience”. This is deeply related to “no-self”. Clearly, the experience arises and is known by mind, but there is not a third thing which sits apart from that which is the “real experiencer of the experience”. This is the claim of Buddhism, with regards to mind and the ultimate nature of minds (and persons). Mortality of the mind[edit] Due to the mind-body problem, much interest and debate surround the question of what happens to one’s conscious mind as one’s body dies.[citation needed] According to neuropsychology, all brain function halts permanently upon brain death, and the mind fails to survive brain death and ceases to exist. This permanent loss of consciousness after death is often called “eternal oblivion”. The belief that some spiritual orimmaterial component exists and is preserved after death is described by the term “afterlife”.[citation needed] In pseudoscience[edit] Parapsychology[edit] Parapsychology is the scientific study of certain types of paranormal phenomena, or of phenomena which appear to be paranormal,[58] for instance precognition, telekinesis and telepathy. The term is based on the Greek para (beside/beyond), psyche (soul/mind), and logos (account/explanation) and was coined by psychologist Max Dessoir in or before 1889.[59] J. B. Rhine later popularized “parapsychology” as a replacement for the earlier term “psychical research”, during a shift in methodologies which brought experimental methods to the study of psychic phenomena.[59] Parapsychology is controversial, with many scientists believing that psychic abilities have not been demonstrated to exist.[60][61][62][63][64] The status of parapsychology as a science has also been disputed,[65] with many scientists regarding the discipline as pseudoscience.[66][67][68] See also[edit] • Cognitive sciences • Conscience • Consciousness • Explanatory gap • Hard problem of consciousness • Mental energy • Mind-body problem • Mind at Large • Neural Darwinism • Philosophical zombie • Philosophy of mind • Problem of other minds • Sentience • Skandha • Subjective character of experience • Theory of mind References[edit] 1. Jump up^ Oliver Elbs, Neuro-Esthetics: Mapological foundations and applications (Map 2003), (Munich 2005) 2. Jump up^ Descartes, R. (1641) Meditations on First Philosophy, in The Philosophical Writings of René Descartes, trans. by J. Cottingham, R. Stoothoff and D. Murdoch, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984, vol. 2, pp. 1-62. 3. ^ Jump up to:a b Dictionary.com, “mind”: “1. (in a human or other conscious being) the element, part, substance, or process that reasons, thinks, feels, wills, perceives, judges, etc.: the processes of the human mind. 2. Psychology. the totality of conscious and unconscious mental processes and activities. 3. intellect or understanding, as distinguished from the faculties of feeling and willing; intelligence.” 4. Jump up^ Google definition, “mind”: “The element of a person that enables them to be aware of the world and their experiences, to think, and to feel; the faculty of consciousness..” [1] 5. Jump up^ Redding, Paul, “Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel”, The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer 2012 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), forthcoming. [2][dead link]. 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(1996) “Dualism”, in Samuel Guttenplan (org) A Companion to the Philosophy of Mind, Blackwell, Oxford, 265–7. 32. Jump up^ Hubert Dreyfus, “Critique of Descartes I” (recorded lecture), University of California at Berkeley, September 18, 2007. 33. Jump up^ Dennett, Daniel (1991). Consciousness Explained. Boston, Massachusetts: Little Brown. ISBN 0-316-18065-3. 34. Jump up^ Skinner, B.F. About Behaviorism 1974, page 74–75 35. Jump up^ Skinner, B.F. About Behaviorism, Chapter 7: Thinking 36. Jump up^ A thesis against which Noam Chomsky advanced a considerable polemic. 37. Jump up^ Spinoza, Baruch (1670) Tractatus Theologico-Politicus (A Theologico-Political Treatise). 38. ^ Jump up to:a b Kim, J., “Mind-Body Problem”, Oxford Companion to Philosophy. Ted Honderich (ed.). Oxford:Oxford University Press. 1995. 39. Jump up^ Pinel, J. Psychobiology, (1990) Prentice Hall, Inc. ISBN 88-15-07174-1 40. Jump up^ LeDoux, J. 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California State Board of Education. 1990. 61. Jump up^ Wheeler, J. A. (1979). “Point of View: Drive the Pseudos Out…”.Skeptical Inquirer 3: 12–13. 62. Jump up^ Kurtz, P. (1978). “Is Parapsychology a Science?”. Skeptical Inquirer 3: 14–32. 63. Jump up^ Druckman, D. and Swets, J. A. eds. (1988). Enhancing Human Performance: Issues, Theories and Techniques. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. p. 22. ISBN 0-309-07465-7. 64. Jump up^ Reuters (5 September 2003). “Telepathy gets academic in Sweden”. CNN. Retrieved 9 March 2009. “Despite decades of experimental research … there is still no proof that gifts such as telepathy and the ability to see the future exist, mainstream scientists say.” 65. Jump up^ Flew, Antony (1982). “Parapsychology: Science or Pseudoscience?”. In Grim, Patrick. Philosophy of Science and the Occult. 66. Jump up^ Cordón, Luis A. (2005). Popular psychology: an encyclopedia. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press. p. 182. ISBN 0-313-32457-3. “The essential problem is that a large portion of the scientific community, including most research psychologists, regards parapsychology as a pseudoscience, due largely to its failure to move beyond null results in the way science usually does. Ordinarily, when experimental evidence fails repeatedly to support a hypothesis, that hypothesis is abandoned. Within parapsychology, however, more than a century of experimentation has failed even to conclusively demonstrate the mere existence of paranormal phenomenon, yet parapsychologists continue to pursue that elusive goal.” 67. Jump up^ Bunge, Mario (1991). “A skeptic’s beliefs and disbeliefs”. New Ideas in Psychology 9 (2): 131–149. doi:10.1016/0732-118X(91)90017-G. 68. Jump up^ Blitz, David (1991). “The line of demarcation between science and nonscience: The case of psychoanalysis and parapsychology”. New Ideas in Psychology 9 (2): 163–170.doi:10.1016/0732-118X(91)90020-M. External links[edit] Find more about Mind at Wikipedia’s sister projects Definitions and translations from Wiktionary Media from Commons Learning resources from Wikiversity Quotations from Wikiquote Source texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Wikibooks has a book on the topic of: Consciousness studies • C. D. Broad, The Mind and Its Place in Nature, 1925. • ThinkQuest: Think.com, Oracle Education Foundation, Projects | Competition | Library, History of Artificial Intelligence. • Loebner.net, Description by Turing of testing machines for intelligence. • Philosophy portal • Mind and brain portal • Neuroscience portal Spirit Spirit From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia For other uses, see Spirit (disambiguation). This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2009) Theodor von Holst, Bertalda, Assailed by Spirits, c.1830 The English word spirit (from Latin spiritus “breath”) has many differing meanings and connotations, most of them relating to a non-corporeal substance contrasted with the material body. The word spirit is often used metaphysically to refer to the consciousness or personality. The notions of a person’s spirit and soul often also overlap, as both contrast with body and both are understood as surviving the bodily death in religion and occultism,[1] and “spirit” can also have the sense of “ghost”, i.e. a manifestation of the spirit of a deceased person. The term may also refer to any incorporeal or immaterial being, such as demons or deities, in Christianity specifically the Holy Spirit (though with a capital “S”) experienced by the disciples at Pentecost. Contents [hide] • 1 Etymology • 2 Metaphysical and metaphorical uses o 2.1 Metaphysical contexts o 2.2 Metaphorical usage • 3 Related concepts in other languages • 4 See also • 5 References • 6 Further reading Etymology[edit] The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning “breath”, but also “spirit, soul, courage, vigor”, ultimately from a Proto-Indo-European *(s)peis. It is distinguished from Latin anima, “soul” (which nonetheless also derives from an Indo-European root meaning “to breathe”, earliest form *h2enh1- [2]). In Greek, this distinction exists between pneuma (πνευμα), “breath, motile air, spirit,” and psykhē (ψυχη), “soul”[3] (even though the latter term, ψῡχή = psykhē/psūkhē, is also from an Indo-European root meaning “to breathe”: *bhes-, zero grade *bhs- devoicing in proto-Greek to *phs-, resulting in historical-period Greek ps- in psūkhein, “to breathe”, whence psūkhē, “spirit”, “soul”[4]). The word “spirit” came into Middle English via Old French. The distinction between soul and spirit also developed in the Abrahamic religions: Arabic nafs (نفس) opposite rúħ (روح); Hebrew neshama (נְשָׁמָהnəšâmâh) or nephesh (in Hebrew neshama comes from the root NŠM or “breath”) opposite ruach (רוּחַ rûaħ). (Note, however, that in Semitic just as in Indo-European, this dichotomy has not always been as neat historically as it has come to be taken over a long period of development: Both נֶ֫פֶשׁ (root נפשׁ) and רוּחַ (root רוח), as well as cognate words in various Semitic languages, including Arabic, also preserve meanings involving misc. air phenomena: “breath”, “wind”, and even “odour”.[5][6][7]) Metaphysical and metaphorical uses[edit] English-speakers use the word “spirit” in two related contexts, one metaphysical and the other metaphorical. Metaphysical contexts[edit] In metaphysical terms, “spirit” has acquired a number of meanings: • An incorporeal but ubiquitous, non-quantifiable substance or energy present individually in all living things. Unlike the concept of souls (often regarded as eternal and sometimes believed to pre-exist the body) a spirit develops and grows as an integral aspect of a living being.[8] This concept of the individual spirit occurs commonly in animism. Note the distinction between this concept of spirit and that of the pre-existing or eternal soul: belief in souls occurs specifically and far less commonly, particularly in traditional societies. One might more properly term this type/aspect of spirit “life” (bios in Greek) or “aether” rather than “spirit” (pneuma in Greek). • A daemon sprite, or especially a ghost. People usually conceive of a ghost as a wandering spirit from a being no longer living, having survived the death of the body yet maintaining at least vestiges of mindand of consciousness. • In religion and spirituality, the respiration of a human has for obvious reasons become seen as strongly linked with the very occurrence of life. A similar significance has become attached to human blood. Spirit, in this sense, means the thing that separates a living body from a corpse—and usually implies intelligence, consciousness, and sentience. • Latter-day Saint prophet Joseph Smith Jr. taught that the concept of spirit as incorporeal or without substance was incorrect: “There is no such thing as immaterial matter. All spirit is matter, but it is more fine or pure, and can only be discerned by purer eyes.”[9] • In some Native American spiritual traditions the Great Spirit or Wakan Tanka is a term for the Supreme Being. • Various forms of animism, such as Japan’s Shinto and African traditional religion, focus on invisible beings that represent or connect with plants, animals (sometimes called “Animal Fathers)”, or landforms(kami)[citation needed]: translators usually employ the English word “spirit” when trying to express the idea of such entities. • Individual spirits envisaged as interconnected with all other spirits and with “The Spirit” (singular and capitalized). This concept relates to theories of a unified spirituality, to universal consciousness and to some concepts of Deity. In this scenario all separate “spirits”, when connected, form a greater unity, the Spirit, which has an identity separate from its elements plus a consciousness and intellect greater than its elements; an ultimate, unified, non-dual awareness or force of life combining or transcending all individual units of consciousness. The experience of such a connection can become a primary basis for spiritual belief. The term spirit occurs in this sense in (to name but a few) Anthroposophy, Aurobindo, A Course In Miracles, Hegel, Ken Wilber, and Meher Baba (though in his teachings, “spirits” are onlyapparently separate from each other and from “The Spirit.”)[10] In this use, the term seems conceptually identical to Plotinus’s “The One” and Friedrich Schelling’s “Absolute”. Similarly, according to thepanentheistic/pantheistic view, Spirit equates to essence that can manifest itself as mind/soul through any level in pantheistic hierarchy/holarchy, such as through a mind/soul of a single cell (with very primitive, elemental consciousness), or through a human or animal mind/soul (with consciousness on a level of organic synergy of an individual human/animal), or through a (superior) mind/soul with synergetically extremely complex/sophisticated consciousness of whole galaxies involving all sub-levels, all emanating (since the superior mind/soul operates non-dimensionally, or trans-dimensionally) from the one Spirit. • Christian theology can use the term “Spirit” to describe God, or aspects of God — as in the “Holy Spirit”, referring to a Triune God (Trinity)(cf Gospel of Matthew 28:19). • “Spirit” forms a central concept in pneumatology (note that pneumatology studies “pneuma” (Greek for “spirit”) not “psyche” (Greek for “soul”) — as studied in psychology). • Christian Science uses “Spirit” as one of the seven synonyms for God, as in: “Principle; Mind; Soul; Spirit; Life; Truth; Love”[11] • Harmonism reserves the term “spirit” for those that collectively control and influence an individual from the realm of the mind. Metaphorical usage[edit] The metaphorical use of the term likewise groups several related meanings: • The loyalty and feeling of inclusion in the social history or collective essence of an institution or group, such as in school spirit or esprit de corps. • A closely related meaning refers to the worldview of a person, place, or time, as in “The Declaration of Independence was written in the spirit of John Locke and his notions of liberty”, or the term zeitgeist, meaning “spirit of the age”. • As a synonym for “vivacity” as in “She performed the piece with spirit” or “She put up a spirited defense”. • The underlying intention of a text as distinguished from its literal meaning, especially in law; see Letter and spirit of the law • As a term for alcoholic beverages. • In mysticism: existence in unity with Godhead. Soul may also equate with spirit, but the soul involves certain individual human consciousness, while spirit comes from beyond that. Compare the psychological teaching of Al-Ghazali. See soul and ghost and spiritual for related discussions. Related concepts in other languages[edit] Similar concepts in other languages include Greek pneuma and Sanskrit akasha/atman[3] (see also prana). Some languages use a word for “spirit” often closely related (if not synonymous) to “mind”. Examples include the German Geist (related to the English word “ghost”) or the French ‘l’esprit’. English versions of the Bible most commonly translate the Hebrew word “ruach” (רוח; “wind”) as “the spirit”, whose essence is divine[12] (see Holy Spirit and ruach hakodesh). Alternatively, Hebrew texts commonly use the word nephesh. Kabbalists regard nephesh as one of the five parts of the Jewish soul, where nephesh (animal) refers to the physical being and its animal instincts. Similarly, Scandinavian languages, Baltic languages, Slavic languages and the Chinese language (qi) use the words for “breath” to express concepts similar to “the spirit”.[3] See also[edit] Spirituality portal Look up spirit in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Spirit • Angel • Astral Projection • Ba (Egyptian soul) • Brahman • Daemon (mythology) • Deva • Ekam • Ka • Jinn • Monster • Non-physical entity • Soul dualism • Spiritism • Spirit world References[edit] 1. Jump up^ OED “spirit 2.a.: The soul of a person, as commended to God, or passing out of the body, in the moment of death.” 2. Jump up^ anə1-. Watkins, Calvert, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, second edition. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Co., 2000, p. 4. Also available online athttp://web.archive.org/web/20071208010420/http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE17.html. [Note that ə1, ə2, ə3 as used by Watkins are fully equivalent notational variants for h1, h2, h3, respectively, which are more widely used for the same Proto-Indo-European laryngeal segments.] 3. ^ Jump up to:a b c François 2008, p.187-197. 4. Jump up^ bhes-2. Watkins, Calvert, The American Heritage® Dictionary of Indo-European Roots, second edition. Boston: Houghton-Mifflin Co., 2000, p. 11. Also available online athttp://web.archive.org/web/20071208011042/http://www.bartleby.com/61/roots/IE60.html 5. Jump up^ Koehler, L., Baumgartner, W., Richardson, M. E. J., & Stamm, J. J. (1999). The Hebrew and Aramaic lexicon of the Old Testament (electronic ed.) (711). Leiden; New York: E.J. Brill. 6. Jump up^ Brown, F., Driver, S. R., & Briggs, C. A. (2000). Enhanced Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (electronic ed.) (659). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems. (N.B. Corresponds closely to printed editions.) 7. Jump up^ Brown, F., Driver, S. R., & Briggs, C. A. (2000). Enhanced Brown-Driver-Briggs Hebrew and English Lexicon (electronic ed.) (924ff.). Oak Harbor, WA: Logos Research Systems. (N.B. Corresponds closely to printed editions.) 8. Jump up^ http://www.patheos.com/Library/Mormonism/Beliefs/Human-Nature-and-the-Purpose-of-Existence.html 9. Jump up^ Doctrine and Covenants 131:7 10. Jump up^ Kalchuri, Bhau: Meher Prabhu: Lord Meher, Volume Eighteen, Manifestation, Inc., 1986, p. 5937. 11. Jump up^ Eddy, Mary Baker (1875). “Glossary” (TXT). Science and Health With Key to the Scriptures. p. 587. Retrieved 2009-03-11. “GOD. The great I AM; the all-knowing, all-seeing, all-acting, all-wise, all-loving, and eternal; Principle; Mind; Soul; Spirit; Life; Truth; Love; all substance; intelligence.” — “Glossary” entry for “GOD”. 12. Jump up^ RUACH: Spirit or Wind or ??? at Biblical Heritage Center Further reading[edit] • François, Alexandre (2008), “Semantic maps and the typology of colexification: Intertwining polysemous networks across languages”, in Vanhove, Martine, From Polysemy to Semantic change: Towards a Typology of Lexical Semantic Associations, Studies in Language Companion Series 106, Amsterdam, New York: Benjamins, pp. 163–215 • Baba, Meher (1967). Discourses. San Francisco: Sufism Reoriented. ISBN 1-880619-09-1. Categories: • Deities, spirits, and mythic beings • Ghosts • Religious philosophical concepts • Spirituality • Vitalism Navigation menu • Create account • Log in • Article • Talk • Read • Edit • View history • Main page • Contents • Featured content • Current events • Random article • Donate to Wikipedia • Wikimedia Shop Interaction • Help • About Wikipedia • Community portal • Recent changes • Contact page Tools Print/export Languages • العربية • Azərbaycanca • Български • Català • Čeština • ChiShona • Dansk • Deutsch • Eesti • Español • Euskara • Français • Furlan • Gàidhlig • 한국어 • हिन्दी • Hrvatski • Ido • Italiano • Kiswahili • Lietuvių • नेपाल भाषा • 日本語 • Norsk bokmål • Norsk nynorsk • Polski • Português • Română • Русский • Shqip • Sicilianu • Simple English • Slovenčina • Словѣ́ньскъ / ⰔⰎⰑⰂⰡⰐⰠⰔⰍⰟ • Српски / srpski • Suomi • Svenska • ไทย • Türkçe • Українська • 粵語 • 中文 • Edit links Definition of Divinity Divinity: The Synergy of our body, mind and Spirit in Diversity. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia “Divine” redirects here. For other uses, see Divine (disambiguation) or Divinity (disambiguation) Elizabeth I and the three Goddesses Juno,Minerva & Venus. In religious terms, divinity is the state of things that come from a supernatural power or deity, such as a god, or spirit beings, and are therefore regarded assacred and holy.[1][2][3] Such things are regarded as “divine” due to their transcendental origins, and/or because their attributes or qualities are superior or supreme relative to things of the Earth.[1] Divine things are regarded as eternal and based in truth,[1] while material things are regarded as ephemeral and based inillusion. Such things that may qualify as “divine” are apparitions, visions, prophecies, miracles, and in some views also the soul, or more general things like resurrection, immortality, grace, and salvation. Otherwise what is or is not divine may be loosely defined, as it is used by different belief systems. The root of the word “divine” is literally “godlike” (from the Latin deus, cf. Dyaus, closely related to Greek zeus, div in Persian and deva in Sanskrit), but the use varies significantly depending on which deity is being discussed. This article outlines the major distinctions in the conventional use of the terms. For specific related academic terms, see Divinity (academic discipline), or Divine (Anglican). Contents [hide] • 1 Usages o 1.1 Entity o 1.2 Divine force or power o 1.3 Mortals • 1.3.1 Latter-Day Saints o 1.4 Christianity and New Testament references • 2 See also • 3 Notes and references Usages[edit] Divinity as a quality has two distinct usages: • Divine force or power – powers or forces that are universal, or transcend human capacities • Divinity applied to mortals – qualities of individuals who are considered to have some special access or relationship to the divine. Overlap occurs between these usages because deities or godlike entities are often identical with and/or identified by the powers and forces that are credited to them — in many cases a deity is merely a power or force personified — and these powers and forces may then be extended or granted to mortal individuals. For instance, Jehovah is closely associated with storms and thunder throughout much of the Old Testament. He is said to speak in thunder, and thunder is seen as a token of his anger. This power was then extended to prophets like Moses and Samuel, who caused thunderous storms to rain down on their enemies. (See Exodus 9:23 and 1 Samuel 12:18.) Divinity always carries connotations of goodness, beauty, beneficence, justice, and other positive, pro-social attributes. In monotheistic faiths there is an equivalent cohort of malefic supranormal beings and powers, such as demons, devils, afreet, etc., which are not conventionally referred to as divine; demonic is often used instead. Pantheistic and polytheistic faiths make no such distinction; gods and other beings of transcendent power often have complex, ignoble, or even irrational motivations for their acts. Note that while the terms demon and demonic are used in monotheistic faiths as antonyms to divine, they are in fact derived from the Greek word daimón (δαίμων), which itself translates as divinity. There are three distinct usages of divinity and divine in religious discourse: Entity[edit] Main article: Deity In monotheistic faiths, the word divinity is often used to refer to the singular God central to that faith. Often the word takes the definite article and is capitalized — “the Divinity” — as though it were a proper name or definitive honorific. Divine — capitalized — may be used as an adjective to refer to the manifestations of such a Divinity or its powers: e.g. “basking in the Divine presence…” The terms divinity and divine — uncapitalized, and lacking the definite article — are sometimes used as to denote ‘god(s)[4] or certain other beings and entities which fall short of godhood but lie outside the human realm. These include (by no means an exhaustive list): Divine force or power[edit] As previously noted, divinities are closely related to the transcendent force(s) or power(s) credited to them,[5] so much so that in some cases the powers or forces may themselves be invoked independently. This leads to the second usage of the word divine (and a less common usage of divinity): to refer to the operation of transcendent power in the world. In its most direct form, the operation of transcendent power implies some form of divine intervention. For pan- and polytheistic faiths this usually implies the direct action of one god or another on the course of human events. In Greek legend, for instance, it was Poseidon (god of the sea) who raised the storms which blew Odysseus’ craft off course on his return journey, and Japanese tradition holds that a god-sent wind saved them from Mongol invasion. Prayers or propitiations are often offered to specific gods of pantheisms to garner favorable interventions in particular enterprises: e.g. safe journeys, success in war, or a season of bountiful crops. Many faiths around the world — from Japanese Shinto and Chinese traditional religion, to certain African practices and the faiths derived from those in the Caribbean, to Native American beliefs — hold that ancestral or household spirits offer daily protection and blessings. In monotheistic religions, divine intervention may take very direct forms: miracles, visions, or intercessions by blessed figures. Transcendent force or power may also operate through more subtle and indirect paths. Monotheistic faiths generally support some version of divine providence, which acknowledges that the divinity of the faith has a profound but unknowable plan always unfolding in the world. Unforeseeable, overwhelming, or seemingly unjust events are often thrown on ‘the will of the Divine’, in deferences like the Muslim inshallah(‘as God wills it’) and Christian ‘God works in mysterious ways’. Often such faiths hold out the possibility of divine retribution as well, where the divinity will unexpectedly bring evil-doers to justice through the conventional workings of the world; from the subtle redressing of minor personal wrongs, to such large-scale havoc as the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah or the biblical Great Flood. Other faiths are even more subtle: the doctrine of karma shared by Buddhism and Hinduism is a divine law similar to divine retribution but without the connotation of punishment: our acts, good or bad, intentional or unintentional, reflect back on us as part of the natural working of the universe. Philosophical Taoism also proposes a transcendent operant principle — transliterated in English as tao or dao, meaning ‘the way’ — which is neither an entity or a being per se, but reflects the natural ongoing process of the world. Modern western mysticism and new age philosophy often use the term ‘the Divine’ as a noun in this latter sense: a non-specific principle and/or being that gives rise to the world, and acts as the source or wellspring of life. In these latter cases the faiths do not promote deference, as happens in monotheisms; rather each suggests a path of action that will bring the practitioner into conformance with the divine law: ahimsa — ‘no harm’ — for Buddhist and Hindu faiths; de or te — ‘virtuous action’ — in daoism; and any of numerous practices of peace and love in new age thinking. Mortals[edit] Main article: apotheosis In the third usage, extensions of divinity and divine power are credited to living, mortal individuals. Political leaders are known to have claimed actual divinity in certain early societies — the ancient Egyptian Pharaohs being the premier case — taking a role as objects of worship and being credited with superhuman status and powers. More commonly, and more pertinent to recent history, leaders merely claim some form of divine mandate, suggesting that their rule is in accordance with the will of God. The doctrine of the divine right of kings was introduced as late as the 17th century, proposing that kings rule by divine decree; Japanese Emperors ruled by divine mandate until the inception of the Japanese constitution after World War II Less politically, most faiths have any number of people that are believed to have been touched by divine forces: saints, prophets, heroes, oracles, martyrs, and enlightened beings, among others. Saint Francis of Assisi, in Catholicism, is said to have received instruction directly from God and it is believed that he grants plenary indulgence to all who confess their sins and visit his chapel on the appropriate day. In Greek mythology, Achilles’ mother bathed him in the river Styx to give him immortality, and Hercules — as the son of Zeus — inherited near-godlike powers. In religious Taoism, Lao Tsu is venerated as a saint with his own powers. Various individuals in the Buddhist faith, beginning with Siddhartha, are considered to be enlightened, and in religious forms of Buddhism they are credited with divine powers. Muhammadand Christ, in their respective traditions, are each said to have performed divine miracles. In general, mortals with divine qualities are carefully distinguished from the deity or deities in their religion’s main pantheon.[6] Even the Christian faith, which generally holds Christ to be identical to God, distinguishes between God the Father and Christ the begotten Son.[7] There are, however, certain esoteric and mystical schools of thought, present in many faiths — Sufis in Islam, Gnostics in Christianity, Advaitan Hindus, Zen Buddhists, as well as several non-specific perspectives developed in new age philosophy — which hold that all humans are in essence divine, or unified with the Divine in a non-trivial way. Such divinity, in these faiths, would express itself naturally if it were not obscured by the social and physical worlds we live in; it needs to be brought to the fore through appropriate spiritual practices.[8] Latter-Day Saints[edit] Main article: God in Mormonism According to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, such spiritual practices are, in and of themselves, inspired by promptings from the light of Christ or the Holy Spirit that are communications with an individual’s divine essence or spirit that is linked directly to God through pre-existence as his offspring. Belief in a divine potential of humankind is taught by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS). The LDS teaches that there is a pre-mortal stage of human existence, known as pre-existence, during which pre-mortal human spirits, called spirit children, are able to make choices that influence their upcoming fully mortal existence as a direct result of the individual spirit’s choices regarding truth, love and faith. Spirit children come into existence out of “intelligences”. “Intelligences” are eternal forms of energy or matter existing in a less progressed form than God. (See Joseph Smith’s King Follett discourse.) According to the LDS church, Christ’s unwavering ability to obey truth, perceive light, and act in perfect love and faith, distinguishes his pre-mortal existence from the pre-mortal existence of the other spirit beings who were in the presence of the “Eternal Father”. Christ’s behaviour during his “spirit child” phase serves to explain why he is considered to be God-like. The God-like quality ascribed to Jesus explains why he had a greater capacity to suffer more than mortal man could suffer; thus he could endure the anguish and incomprehensible pain of the atonement. The LDS belief is that Christ’s divinity qualified him to return to the presence of God after his death and resurrection. By means of the atonement and his offering of divine grace to humankind, Christ provided access to divinity for humankind. A divine being is filled with perfect love, and desires to share these qualities because of the joy they bring to each individual soul. Christianity and New Testament references[edit] In traditional Christian theology, the concept and nature of divinity always has its source ultimately from God himself. It’s the state or quality of being divine, in Hebrew, the terms would usually be “el”, “elohim”, and in Greek usually “theos”, or “theias”. The divinity in the Bible is considered the Godhead itself, or God in general. Or it may have reference to a deity.[9] Even angels in the Psalms are considered divine orelohim, as spirit beings, in God’s form. Redeemed Christians, when taken to heaven as immortalized born-again believers, according to Biblical verses, are said to partake of the “divine nature”. (Psalm 8:5; Hebrews 2:9; 2 Peter 1:4) And the term can denote Godlike nature or character. In the Christian Greek Scriptures of the Bible, the Greek word θεῖον (theion) in the Douay Version, is translated as “divinity”. Examples are below: • Acts 17:29 “Being therefore the offspring of God, we must not suppose the divinity to be like unto gold, or silver, or stone, the graving of art, and device of man.” • Romans 1:20 “For the invisible things of him, from the creation of the world, are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made; his eternal power also, and divinity: so that they are inexcusable.” • Revelation 5:12 “Saying with a loud voice: The Lamb that was slain is worthy to receive power, and divinity, and wisdom, and strength, and honour, and glory, and benediction.” The word translated as either “deity”, “Godhead”, or “divinity” in the Greek New Testament is also the Greek word θεότητος (theotētos), and the one Verse that contains it is this: Colossians 2:9 “Quia in ipso inhabitat omnis plenitudo divinitatis [divinity] corporaliter.” (Vulgate) “For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily.” (KJV) “Because it is in him that all the fullness of the divine quality dwells bodily.” (NWT) “For in him all the fullness of deity lives in bodily form.” (NET) “For the full content of divine nature lives in Christ.” (TEV) The word “divine” in the New Testament is the Greek word θείας (theias), and is the adjective form of “divinity”. Biblical examples from the King James Bible are below: • 2 Peter 1:3 “According as his divine power hath given unto us all things that pertain unto life and godliness, through the knowledge of him that hath called us to glory and virtue.” • 2 Peter 1:4 “Whereby are given unto us exceeding great and precious promises: that by these ye might be partakers of the divine nature, having escaped the corruption that is in the world through lust.” See also[edit] • Catholic Concept of the Divine • Christology • Deity • Ho’oponopono (Morrnah section) • List of deities • Theosis Notes and references[edit] 1. ^ Jump up to:a b c Wiktionary: “divine (comparative more divine, superlative most divine) 1) of or pertaining to a god 2) eternal, holy, or otherwise supernatural 3) of superhuman or surpassing excellence 4) beautiful, heavenly 2. Jump up^ http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/divine 3. Jump up^ Merriam Webster: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/divine 4. Jump up^ See, for example “The Great Stag: A Sumerian Divinity” by Bobula Ida (Yearbook of Ancient and Medieval History 1953) 5. Jump up^ note Augustine’s argument that divinity is not a quality of God, but that “God is […] Divinity itself” (Nature and Grace, part I, question 3, article 3) “Whether God is the Same as His Essence or Nature” 6. Jump up^ This is sometimes a controversial issue, however; see [1], for example, for a discussion of the status of the Japanese emperor. 7. Jump up^ See, for example, “The Divinity of Alpha’s Jesus” by Peterson & McDonald (Media Spotlight 25:4, 2002) 8. Jump up^ See, for example, “Twelve Signs of Your Awakening Divinity” by Geoffrey Hoppe and Tobias 9. Jump up^ divinity – The Free Dictionary. [show] • v • t • e Theism [show] • v • t • e Theological thought [show] • v • t • e Theology Categories: • Theology • Religious belief and doctrine • Philosophy of religion • Gods Our Body The Acid-Base Balance of our body Acid–base homeostasis is the part of human homeostasis concerning the proper balance between acids and bases, also called body pH. The body is very sensitive to its pH level, so strong mechanisms exist to maintain it. Outside the acceptable range of pH, proteins are denatured and digested, enzymes lose their ability to function, and death may occur. Contents [hide] • 1 Mechanism • 2 Imbalance • 3 References • 4 External links Mechanism[edit] The body’s acid–base balance is normally tightly regulated, keeping the arterial blood pH between 7.38 and 7.42.[1] Several buffering agents that reversibly bind hydrogen ions and impede any change in pH exist. Extracellular buffers include bicarbonate and ammonia, whereas proteins and phosphate act as intracellular buffers. The bicarbonate buffering system is especially key, as carbon dioxide (CO2) can be shifted through carbonic acid (H2CO3) to hydrogen ions and bicarbonate (HCO−3) as shown below.[2] Acid–base imbalances that overcome the buffer system can be compensated in the short term by changing the rate of ventilation. This alters the concentration of carbon dioxide in the blood, shifting the above reaction according to Le Chatelier’s principle, which in turn alters the pH. For instance, if the blood pH drops too low (acidemia), the body will compensate by increasing breathing[3] thereby expelling CO2, and shifting the above reaction to the left such that fewer hydrogen ions are free; thus the pH will rise back to normal. For alkalemia, the opposite occurs. The kidneys are slower to compensate, but renal physiology has several powerful mechanisms to control pH by the excretion of excess acid or base. In response to acidosis, tubular cells reabsorb more bicarbonate from the tubular fluid, collecting duct cells secrete more hydrogen and generate more bicarbonate, and ammoniagenesis leads to increased formation of the NH3 buffer. In responses to alkalosis, the kidney may excrete more bicarbonate by decreasing hydrogen ion secretion from the tubular epithelial cells, and lowering rates of glutamine metabolism and ammonium excretion. Imbalance[edit] Acid–base imbalance occurs when a significant insult causes the blood pH to shift out of the normal range (7.35 to 7.45). In the fetus, the normal range differs based on which umbilical vessel is sampled (umbilical vein pH is normally 7.25 to 7.45; umbilical artery pH is normally 7.18 to 7.38).[4] An excess of acid in the blood is called acidemia and an excess of base is called alkalemia. The process that causes the imbalance is classified based on the etiology of the disturbance (respiratory or metabolic) and the direction of change in pH (acidosis or alkalosis). There are four basic processes: metabolic acidosis, respiratory acidosis, metabolic alkalosis, and respiratory alkalosis. One or a combination may occur at any given time. References[edit] 1. Jump up^ MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Blood gases 2. Jump up^ Garrett, Reginald H.; Grisham, Charles M (2010). Biochemistry. Cengage Learning. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-495-10935-8. 3. Jump up^ MedlinePlus Encyclopedia Metabolic acidosis 4. Jump up^ Yeomans, ER; Hauth, JC; Gilstrap, LC III; Strickland DM (1985). “Umbilical cord pH, PCO2, and bicarbonate following uncomplicated term vaginal deliveries (146 infants)”. Am J Obstet Gynecol 151: 798–800.PMID 3919587. External links[edit] • Stewart’s original text at acidbase.org • On-line text at AnaesthesiaMCQ.com • Overview at kumc.edu • Tutorial at acid-base.com • Online acid–base physiology text • Diagnoses at lakesidepress.com • Interpretation at nda.ox.ac.uk The Ancient Egyptian/Ethioipan Religion Ancient Egyptian religion From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Part of a series on Ancient Egyptian religion Beliefs[show] Practices[show] Deities[show] Texts[show] Related religions[show] ________________________________________ Ancient Egypt portal ________________________________________ • V • T • E Ancient Egyptian religion was a complex system of polytheistic beliefs and rituals which were an integral part of ancient Egyptian society. It centered on the Egyptians’ interaction with many deities who were believed to be present in, and in control of, the forces and elements of nature. The practices of Egyptian religion were efforts to provide for the gods and gain their favor. Formal religious practice centered on thepharaoh, the king of Egypt. Although a human, the Pharaoh was believed to be descended from the gods. He acted as the intermediary between his people and the gods, and was obligated to sustain the gods through rituals and offerings so that they could maintain order in the universe. The state dedicated enormous resources to Egyptian rituals and to the construction of the temples. Individuals could interact with the gods for their own purposes, appealing for their help through prayer or compelling them to act through magic. These practices were distinct from, but closely linked with, the formal rituals and institutions. The popular religious tradition grew more prominent in the course of Egyptian history as the status of the Pharaoh declined. Another important aspect was the belief in the afterlife andfunerary practices. The Egyptians made great efforts to ensure the survival of their souls after death, providing tombs, grave goods, and offerings to preserve the bodies and spirits of the deceased. The religion had its roots in Egypt’s prehistory and lasted for more than 3,000 years. The details of religious belief changed over time as the importance of particular gods rose and declined, and their intricate relationships shifted. At various times, certain gods became preeminent over the others, including the sun god Ra, the creator god Amun, and the mother goddess Isis. For a brief period, in the aberrant theologypromulgated by the Pharaoh Akhenaten, a single god, the Aten, replaced the traditional pantheon. Ancient Egyptian religion and mythology left behind many writings and monuments, along with significant influences on ancient and modern cultures. Contents [hide] • 1 Theology o 1.1 Deities o 1.2 Associations between deities o 1.3 Unifying tendencies o 1.4 Atenism • 2 Other important concepts o 2.1 Cosmology o 2.2 Divine pharaoh o 2.3 Afterlife • 3 Writings o 3.1 Mythology o 3.2 Ritual and magical texts o 3.3 Hymns and prayers o 3.4 Funerary texts • 4 Practices o 4.1 Temples o 4.2 Official rituals and festivals o 4.3 Animal cults o 4.4 Oracles o 4.5 Popular religion o 4.6 Magic o 4.7 Funerary practices • 5 History o 5.1 Predynastic and Early Dynastic periods o 5.2 Old and Middle Kingdoms o 5.3 New Kingdom o 5.4 Later periods o 5.5 Legacy • 6 See also • 7 References • 8 Bibliography • 9 Further reading • 10 External links Theology[edit] The beliefs and rituals now referred to as “Ancient Egyptian religion” existed within every aspect of Egyptian culture. Their language possessed no single term corresponding to the modern European concept of religion. Ancient Egyptian religion was not a monolithic institution, but consisted of a vast and varying set of beliefs and practices, linked by their common focus on the interaction between the world of humans and the world of the divine. The characteristics of the gods who populated the divine realm were inextricably linked to the Egyptians’ understanding of the properties of the world in which they lived.[1] Deities[edit] Main article: Ancient Egyptian deities The gods Osiris, Anubis, and Horus, in order from left to right The Egyptians believed that the phenomena of nature were divine forces in and of themselves.[2] These deified forces included the elements, animal characteristics, or abstract forces. The Egyptians believed in a pantheon of gods, which were involved in all aspects of nature and human society. Their religious practices were efforts to sustain and placate these phenomena and turn them to human advantage.[3] This polytheisticsystem was very complex, as some deities were believed to exist in many different manifestations, and some had multiple mythological roles. Conversely, many natural forces, such as the sun, were associated with multiple deities. The diverse pantheon ranged from gods with vital roles in the universe to minor deities or “demons” with very limited or localized functions.[4] It could include gods adopted from foreign cultures, and sometimes even humans: deceased Pharaohs were believed to be divine, and occasionally, distinguished commoners such as Imhotep also became deified.[5] The depictions of the gods in art were not meant as literal representations of how the gods might appear if they were visible, as the gods’ true natures were believed to be mysterious. Instead, these depictions gave recognizable forms to the abstract deities by using symbolic imagery to indicate each god’s role in nature.[6] Thus, for example, the funerary god Anubis was portrayed as a jackal, a creature whose scavenging habits threatened the preservation of the body, in an effort to counter this threat and employ it for protection. His black skin was symbolic of the color ofmummified flesh and the fertile black soil that Egyptians saw as a symbol of resurrection. However, this iconography was not fixed, and many of the gods could be depicted in more than one form.[7] Many gods were associated with particular regions in Egypt where their cults were most important. However, these associations changed over time, and they did not necessarily mean that the god associated with a place had originated there. For instance, the god Monthu was the original patron of the city of Thebes. Over the course of the Middle Kingdom, however, he was displaced in that role by Amun, who may have arisen elsewhere. The national popularity and importance of individual gods fluctuated in a similar way.[8] Amun-Ra kamutef, wearing the plumed headdress of Amun and the sun disk representing Ra Associations between deities[edit] The Egyptian gods had complex interrelationships, which partly reflected the interaction of the forces they represented. The Egyptians often grouped gods together to reflect these relationships. Some groups of deities were of indeterminate size, and were linked by their similar functions. These often consisted of minor deities with little individual identity. Other combinations linked independent deities based on the symbolic meaning of numbers in Egyptian mythology; for instance, pairs of deities usually represent the duality of opposite phenomena. One of the more common combinations was a family triad consisting of a father, mother, and child, who were worshipped together. Some groups had wide-ranging importance. One such group, the Ennead, assembled nine deities into a theological system that was involved in the mythological areas of creation, kingship, and the afterlife.[9] The relationships between deities could also be expressed in the process of syncretism, in which two or more different gods were linked to form a composite deity. This process was a recognition of the presence of one god “in” another when the second god took on a role belonging to the first. These links between deities were fluid, and did not represent the permanent merging of two gods into one; therefore, some gods could develop multiple syncretic connections.[10]Sometimes syncretism combined deities with very similar characteristics. At other times it joined gods with very different natures, as when Amun, the god of hidden power, was linked with Ra, the god of the sun. The resulting god, Amun-Ra, thus united the power that lay behind all things with the greatest and most visible force in nature.[11] Unifying tendencies[edit] Many deities could be given epithets that seem to indicate that they were greater than any other god, suggesting some kind of unity beyond the multitude of natural forces. In particular, this is true of a few gods who, at various times in history, rose to supreme importance in Egyptian religion. These included the royal patron Horus, the sun god Ra, and the mother goddess Isis.[12] During the New Kingdom (c. 1550–1070 BC), Amun held this position. The theology of the period described in particular detail Amun’s presence in and rule over all things, so that he, more than any other deity, embodied the all-encompassing power of the divine.[13] Because of theological statements like this, many past Egyptologists, such as Siegfried Morenz, believed that beneath the polytheistic traditions of Egyptian religion there was an increasing belief in a unity of the divine, moving toward monotheism. Instances in Egyptian literature where “god” is mentioned without reference to any specific deity would seem to give this view added weight. However, in 1971 Erik Hornung pointed out that the traits of an apparently supreme being could be attributed to many different gods, even in periods when other gods were preeminent, and further argued that references to an unspecified “god” are meant to refer flexibly to any deity. He therefore argued that, while some individuals may have henotheisticallychosen one god to worship, Egyptian religion as a whole had no notion of a divine being beyond the immediate multitude of deities. Yet the debate did not end there; Jan Assmann andJames P. Allen have since asserted that the Egyptians did to some degree recognize a single divine force. In Allen’s view, the notion of an underlying unity of the divine coexisted inclusively with the polytheistic tradition. It is possible that only the Egyptian theologians fully recognized this underlying unity, but it is also possible that ordinary Egyptians identified the single divine force with a single god in particular situations.[14][15] Atenism[edit] Main article: Atenism The Egyptians did have an aberrant period of some form of monotheism during the New Kingdom, in which the pharaoh Akhenaten abolished the official worship of other gods in favor of the sun-disk Aten. This is often seen as the first instance of true monotheism in history, although the details of Atenist theology are still unclear. The exclusion of all but one god was a radical departure from Egyptian tradition and some see Akhenaten as a practitioner of monolatry rather than monotheism,[16][17] as he did not actively deny the existence of other gods; he simply refrained from worshipping any but the Aten. Under Akhenaten’s successors Egypt reverted to its traditional religion, and Akhenaten himself came to be reviled as a heretic.[18][19] Other important concepts[edit] Cosmology[edit] The air god Shu, assisted by other gods, holds up Nut, the sky, as Geb, the earth, lies beneath. The Egyptian conception of the universe centered on Ma’at, a word that encompasses several concepts in English, including “truth,” “justice,” and “order.” It was the fixed, eternal order of the universe, both in the cosmos and in human society. It had existed since the creation of the world, and without it the world would lose its cohesion. In Egyptian belief, Ma’at was constantly under threat from the forces of disorder, so all of society was required to maintain it. On the human level this meant that all members of society should cooperate and coexist; on the cosmic level it meant that all of the forces of nature—the gods—should continue to function in balance.[20] This latter goal was central to Egyptian religion. The Egyptians sought to maintain Ma’at in the cosmos by sustaining the gods through offerings and by performing rituals which staved off disorder and perpetuated the cycles of nature.[21][22] The most important part of the Egyptian view of the cosmos was the conception of time, which was greatly concerned with the maintenance of Ma’at. Throughout the linear passage of time, a cyclical pattern recurred, in which Ma’at was renewed by periodic events which echoed the original creation. Among these events were the annual Nile flood and the succession from one king to another, but the most important was the daily journey of the sun god Ra.[23][24] When envisioning the shape of the cosmos, the Egyptians saw the earth as a flat expanse of land, personified by the god Geb, over which arched the sky goddess Nut. The two were separated by Shu, the god of air. Beneath the earth lay a parallel underworld and undersky, and beyond the skies lay the infinite expanse of Nu, the chaos that had existed before creation.[25][26] The Egyptians also believed in a place called the Duat, a mysterious region associated with death and rebirth, that may have lain in the underworld or in the sky. Each day, Ra traveled over the earth across the underside of the sky, and at night he passed through the Duat to be reborn at dawn.[27] In Egyptian belief, this cosmos was inhabited by three types of sentient beings. One was the gods; another was the spirits of deceased humans, who existed in the divine realm and possessed many of the gods’ abilities. Living humans were the third category, and the most important among them was the pharaoh, who bridged the human and divine realms.[28] Colossal statue of the Pharaoh Ramesses II Divine pharaoh[edit] See also: Pharaoh Egyptologists have long debated the degree to which the Pharaoh was considered a god. It seems most likely that the Egyptians viewed royal authority itself as a divine force. Therefore, although the Egyptians recognized that the Pharaoh was human and subject to human weakness, they simultaneously viewed him as a god, because the divine power of kingship was incarnated in him. He therefore acted as intermediary between Egypt’s people and the gods.[29] He was key to upholding Ma’at, both by maintaining justice and harmony in human society and by sustaining the gods with temples and offerings. For these reasons, he oversaw all state religious activity.[30] However, the Pharaoh’s real-life influence and prestige could differ from that depicted in official writings and depictions, and beginning in the late New Kingdom his religious importance declined drastically.[31][32] The king was also associated with many specific deities. He was identified directly with Horus, who represented kingship itself, and he was seen as the son of Ra, who ruled and regulated nature as the Pharaoh ruled and regulated society. By the New Kingdom he was also associated with Amun, the supreme force in the cosmos.[33] Upon his death, the king became fully deified. In this state, he was directly identified with Ra, and was also associated with Osiris, god of death and rebirth and the mythological father of Horus.[34] Many mortuary temples were dedicated to the worship of deceased pharaohs as gods.[22] Afterlife[edit] The Egyptians had elaborate beliefs about death and the afterlife. They believed that humans possessed a ka, or life-force, which left the body at the point of death. In life, the ka received its sustenance from food and drink, so it was believed that, to endure after death, the ka must continue to receive offerings of food, whose spiritual essence it could still consume. Each person also had a ba, the set of spiritual characteristics unique to each individual.[35] Unlike the ka, the ba remained attached to the body after death. Egyptian funeral rituals were intended to release the ba from the body so that it could move freely, and to rejoin it with the ka so that it could live on as an akh. However, it was also important that the body of the deceased be preserved, as the Egyptians believed that the ba returned to its body each night to receive new life, before emerging in the morning as an akh.[36] Originally, however, the Egyptians believed that only the pharaoh had a ba,[37] and only he could become one with the gods; dead commoners passed into a dark, bleak realm that represented the opposite of life.[38] The nobles received tombs and the resources for their upkeep as gifts from the king, and their ability to enter the afterlife was believed to be dependent on these royal favors.[39] In early times the deceased pharaoh was believed to ascend to the sky and dwell among the stars.[40] Over the course of the Old Kingdom (c. 2686–2181 BC), however, he came to be more closely associated with the daily rebirth of the sun god Ra and with the underworld ruler Osiris as those deities grew more important.[41] During the late Old Kingdom and the First Intermediate Period (c. 2181–2055 BC), the Egyptians gradually came to believe that possession of a ba and the possibility of a paradisiacal afterlife extended to everyone.[37][42] In the fully developed afterlife beliefs of the New Kingdom, the soul had to avoid a variety of supernatural dangers in the Duat, before undergoing a final judgment known as the “Weighing of the Heart”. In this judgment, the gods compared the actions of the deceased while alive (symbolized by the heart) to Ma’at, to determine whether he or she had behaved in accordance with Ma’at. If the deceased was judged worthy, his or her ka and ba were united into an akh.[43] Several beliefs coexisted about the akh’s destination. Often the dead were said to dwell in the realm of Osiris, a lush and pleasant land in the underworld.[44] The solar vision of the afterlife, in which the deceased soul traveled with Ra on his daily journey, was still primarily associated with royalty, but could extend to other people as well. Over the course of the Middle and New Kingdoms, the notion that the akh could also travel in the world of the living, and to some degree magically affect events there, became increasingly prevalent.[45] Writings[edit] See also: Ancient Egyptian literature While the Egyptians had no unified religious scripture, they produced many religious writings of various types. Together the disparate texts provide a very extensive, but still incomplete, understanding of Egyptian religious practices and beliefs.[46] Mythology[edit] Main article: Egyptian mythology Ra (at center) travels through the underworld in his barque, accompanied by other gods[47] Egyptian myths were metaphorical stories intended to illustrate and explain the gods’ actions and roles in nature. The details of the events they recounted could change to convey different symbolic perspectives on the mysterious divine events they described, so many myths exist in different and conflicting versions.[48] Mythical narratives were rarely written in full, and more often texts only contain episodes from or allusions to a larger myth.[49] Knowledge of Egyptian mythology, therefore, is derived mostly from hymns that detail the roles of specific deities, from ritual and magical texts which describe actions related to mythic events, and from funerary texts which mention the roles of many deities in the afterlife. Some information is also provided by allusions in secular texts.[46] Finally, Greeks and Romans such as Plutarch recorded some of the extant myths late in Egyptian history.[50] Among the significant Egyptian myths were the creation myths. According to these stories, the world emerged as a dry space in the primordial ocean of chaos. Because the sun is essential to life on earth, the first rising of Ra marked the moment of this emergence. Different forms of the myth describe the process of creation in various ways: a transformation of the primordial god Atum into the elements that form the world, as the creative speech of the intellectual god Ptah, and as an act of the hidden power of Amun.[51]Regardless of these variations, the act of creation represented the initial establishment of maat and the pattern for the subsequent cycles of time.[22] The most important of all Egyptian myths was the myth of Osiris and Isis.[52] It tells of the divine ruler Osiris, who was murdered by his jealous brother Set, a god often associated with chaos.[53] Osiris’ sister and wife Isis resurrected him so that he could conceive an heir, Horus. Osiris then entered the underworld and became the ruler of the dead. Once grown, Horus fought and defeated Set to become king himself.[54] Set’s association with chaos, and the identification of Osiris and Horus as the rightful rulers, provided a rationale for Pharaonic succession and portrayed the Pharaohs as the upholders of order. At the same time, Osiris’ death and rebirth were related to the Egyptian agricultural cycle, in which crops grew in the wake of the Nile inundation, and provided a template for the resurrection of human souls after death.[55] Another important mythic motif was the journey of Ra through the Duat each night. In the course of this journey, Ra met with Osiris, who again acted as an agent of regeneration, so that his life was renewed. He also fought each night with Apep, a serpentine god representing chaos. The defeat of Apep and the meeting with Osiris ensured the rising of the sun the next morning, an event that represented rebirth and the victory of order over chaos.[56] Ritual and magical texts[edit] The procedures for religious rituals were frequently written on papyri, which were used as instructions for those performing the ritual. These ritual texts were kept mainly in the temple libraries. Temples themselves are also inscribed with such texts, often accompanied by illustrations. Unlike the ritual papyri, these inscriptions were not intended as instructions, but were meant to symbolically perpetuate the rituals even if, in reality, people ceased to perform them.[57] Magical texts likewise describe rituals, although these rituals were part of the spells used for specific goals in everyday life. Despite their mundane purpose, many of these texts also originated in temple libraries and later became disseminated among the general populace.[58] Hymns and prayers[edit] The Egyptians produced numerous prayers and hymns, written in the form of poetry. Hymns and prayers follow a similar structure and are distinguished mainly by the purposes they serve. Hymns were written to praise particular deities.[59] Like ritual texts, they were written on papyri and on temple walls, and they were probably recited as part of the rituals they accompany in temple inscriptions.[60] Most are structured according to a set literary formula, designed to expound on the nature, aspects, and mythological functions of a given deity.[59] They tend to speak more explicitly about fundamental theology than other Egyptian religious writings, and became particularly important in the New Kingdom, a period of particularly active theological discourse.[61] Prayers follow the same general pattern as hymns, but address the relevant god in a more personal way, asking for blessings, help, or forgiveness for wrongdoing. Such prayers are rare before the New Kingdom, indicating that in earlier periods such direct personal interaction with a deity was not believed possible, or at least was less likely to be expressed in writing. They are known mainly from inscriptions on statues and stelae left in sacred sites as votive offerings.[62] Funerary texts[edit] Main article: Ancient Egyptian funerary texts Section of the Book of the Dead for the scribeHunefer, depicting the Weighing of the Heart. Among the most significant and extensively preserved Egyptian writings are funerary texts designed to ensure that deceased souls reached a pleasant afterlife.[63] The earliest of these are the Pyramid Texts. They are a loose collection of hundreds of spells inscribed on the walls of royal pyramids during the Old Kingdom, intended to magically provide the king with the means to join the company of the gods in the afterlife.[64] The spells appear in differing arrangements and combinations, and few of them appear in all of the pyramids.[65] At the end of the Old Kingdom a new body of funerary spells, which included material from the Pyramid Texts, began appearing in tombs, inscribed primarily on coffins. This collection of writings is known as the Coffin Texts, and was not reserved for royalty, but appeared in the tombs of non-royal officials.[66] In the New Kingdom, several new funerary texts emerged, of which the best-known is the Book of the Dead. Unlike the earlier books, it often contains extensive illustrations, or vignettes.[67] The book was copied on papyrus and sold to commoners to be placed in their tombs.[68] The Coffin Texts included sections with detailed descriptions of the underworld and instructions on how to overcome its hazards. In the New Kingdom, this material gave rise to several “books of the netherworld”, including the Book of Gates, the Book of Caverns, and theAmduat.[69] Unlike the loose collections of spells, these netherworld books are structured depictions of Ra’s passage through the Duat, and by analogy, the journey of the deceased person’s soul through the realm of the dead. They were originally restricted to pharaonic tombs, but in the Third Intermediate Period they came to be used more widely.[70] Practices[edit] First pylon and colonnade of the Temple of Isis atPhilae. Temples[edit] Main article: Egyptian temple Temples existed from the beginning of Egyptian history, and at the height of the civilization they were present in most of its towns. They included both mortuary temples to serve the spirits of deceased pharaohs and temples dedicated to patron gods, although the distinction was blurred because divinity and kingship were so closely intertwined.[22] The temples were not primarily intended as places for worship by the general populace, and the common people had a complex set of religious practices of their own. Instead, the state-run temples served as houses for the gods, in which physical images which served as their intermediaries were cared for and provided with offerings. This service was believed to be necessary to sustain the gods, so that they could in turn maintain the universe itself.[71] Thus, temples were central to Egyptian society, and vast resources were devoted to their upkeep, including both donations from the monarchy and large estates of their own. Pharaohs often expanded them as part of their obligation to honor the gods, so that many temples grew to enormous size.[72] However, not all gods had temples dedicated to them, as many gods who were important in official theology received only minimal worship, and many household gods were the focus of popular veneration rather than temple ritual.[73] The earliest Egyptian temples were small, impermanent structures, but through the Old and Middle Kingdoms their designs grew more elaborate, and they were increasingly built out of stone. In the New Kingdom, a basic temple layout emerged, which had evolved from common elements in Old and Middle Kingdom temples. With variations, this plan was used for most of the temples built from then on, and most of those that survive today adhere to it. In this standard plan, the temple was built along a central processional way that led through a series of courts and halls to the sanctuary, which held a statue of the temple’s god. Access to this most sacred part of the temple was restricted to the pharaoh and the highest-ranking priests. The journey from the temple entrance to the sanctuary was seen as a journey from the human world to the divine realm, a point emphasized by the complex mythological symbolism present in temple architecture.[74] Well beyond the temple building proper was the outermost wall. In the space between the two lay many subsidiary buildings, including workshops and storage areas to supply the temple’s needs, and the library where the temple’s sacred writings and mundane records were kept, and which also served as a center of learning on a multitude of subjects.[75] Theoretically it was the duty of the pharaoh to carry out temple rituals, as he was Egypt’s official representative to the gods. In reality, ritual duties were almost always carried out by priests. During the Old and Middle Kingdoms, there was no separate class of priests; instead, many government officials served in this capacity for several months out of the year before returning to their secular duties. Only in the New Kingdom did professional priesthood become widespread, although most lower-ranking priests were still part-time. All were still employed by the state, and the pharaoh had final say in their appointments.[76] However, as the wealth of the temples grew, the influence of their priesthoods increased, until it rivaled that of the pharaoh. In the political fragmentation of the Third Intermediate Period (c. 1070–664 BC), the high priests of Amun at Karnak even became the effective rulers of Upper Egypt.[77] The temple staff also included many people other than priests, such as musicians and chanters in temple ceremonies. Outside the temple were artisans and other laborers who helped supply the temple’s needs, as well as farmers who worked on temple estates. All were paid with portions of the temple’s income. Large temples were therefore very important centers of economic activity, sometimes employing thousands of people.[78] Official rituals and festivals[edit] State religious practice included both temple rituals involved in the cult of a deity, and ceremonies related to divine kingship. Among the latter were coronation ceremonies and the sed festival, a ritual renewal of the pharaoh’s strength that took place periodically during his reign.[79] There were numerous temple rituals, including rites that took place across the country and rites limited to single temples or to the temples of a single god. Some were performed daily, while others took place annually or on rarer occasions.[80] The most common temple ritual was the morning offering ceremony, performed daily in temples across Egypt. In it, a high-ranking priest, or occasionally the pharaoh, washed, anointed, and elaborately dressed the god’s statue before presenting it with offerings. Afterward, when the god had consumed the spiritual essence of the offerings, the items themselves were taken to be distributed among the priests.[79] The less frequent temple rituals, or festivals, were still numerous, with dozens occurring every year. These festivals often entailed actions beyond simple offerings to the gods, such as reenactments of particular myths or the symbolic destruction of the forces of disorder.[81] Most of these events were probably celebrated only by the priests and took place only inside the temple.[80] However, the most important temple festivals, like the Opet Festival celebrated at Karnak, usually involved a procession carrying the god’s image out of the sanctuary in a model barque to visit other significant sites, such as the temple of a related deity. Commoners gathered to watch the procession and sometimes received portions of the unusually large offerings given to the gods on these occasions.[82] Animal cults[edit] The Apis bull At many sacred sites, the Egyptians worshipped individual animals which they believed to be manifestations of particular deities. These animals were selected based on specific sacred markings which were believed to indicate their fitness for the role. Some of these cult animals retained their positions for the rest of their lives, as with the Apis bull worshipped in Memphis as a manifestation of Ptah. Other animals were selected for much shorter periods. These cults grew more popular in later times, and many temples began raising stocks of such animals from which to choose a new divine manifestation.[83] A separate practice developed in the Twenty-sixth Dynasty, when people began mummifying any member of a particular animal species as an offering to the god whom the species represented. Millions of mummified cats, birds, and other creatures were buried at temples honoring Egyptian deities.[84][85] Worshippers paid the priests of a particular deity to obtain and mummify an animal associated with that deity, and the mummy was placed in a cemetery near the god’s cult center. Oracles[edit] The Egyptians used oracles to ask the gods for knowledge or guidance. Egyptian oracles are known mainly from the New Kingdom and afterward, though they probably appeared much earlier. People of all classes, including the king, asked questions of oracles, and, especially in the late New Kingdom their answers could be used to settle legal disputes or inform royal decisions.[86] The most common means of consulting an oracle was to pose a question to the divine image while it was being carried in a festival procession, and interpret an answer from the barque’s movements. Other methods included interpreting the behavior of cult animals, drawing lots, or consulting statues through which a priest apparently spoke. The means of discerning the god’s will gave great influence to the priests who spoke and interpreted the god’s message.[87] Popular religion[edit] While the state cults were meant to preserve the stability of the Egyptian world, lay individuals had their own religious practices that related more directly to daily life.[88] This popular religion left less evidence than the official cults, and because this evidence was mostly produced by the wealthiest portion of the Egyptian population, it is uncertain to what degree it reflects the practices of the populace as a whole.[89] Popular religious practice included ceremonies marking important transitions in life. These included birth, because of the danger involved in the process, and naming, because the name was held to be a crucial part of a person’s identity. The most important of these ceremonies were those surrounding death (see “Funerary practices” below), because they ensured the soul’s survival beyond it.[90] Other religious practices sought to discern the gods’ will or seek their knowledge. These included the interpretation of dreams, which could be seen as messages from the divine realm, and the consultation of oracles. People also sought to affect the gods’ behavior to their own benefit through magical rituals (see “Magic” below).[91] Individual Egyptians also prayed to gods and gave them private offerings. Evidence of this type of personal piety is sparse before the New Kingdom. This is probably due to cultural restrictions on depiction of nonroyal religious activity, which relaxed during the Middle and New Kingdoms. Personal piety became still more prominent in the late New Kingdom, when it was believed that the gods intervened directly in individual lives, punishing wrongdoers and saving the pious from disaster.[62] Official temples were important venues for private prayer and offering, even though their central activities were closed to laypeople. Egyptians frequently donated goods to be offered to the temple deity and objects inscribed with prayers to be placed in temple courts. Often they prayed in person before temple statues or in shrines set aside for their use.[89] Yet in addition to temples, the populace also used separate local chapels, smaller but more accessible than the formal temples. These chapels were very numerous, and probably staffed by members of the community.[92] Households, too, often had their own small shrines for offering to gods or deceased relatives.[93] The deities invoked in these situations differed somewhat from those at the center of state cults. Many of the important popular deities, such as the fertility goddess Taweret and the household protector Bes, had no temples of their own. However, many other gods, including Amun and Osiris, were very important in both popular and official religion.[94] Some individuals might be particularly devoted to a single god. Often they favored deities affiliated with their own region, or with their role in life. The god Ptah, for instance, was particularly important in his cult center of Memphis, but as the patron of craftsmen he received the nationwide veneration of many in that occupation.[95] Magic Main article: Heka The word “magic” is used to translate the Egyptian term heka, which meant, as James P. Allen puts it, “the ability to make things happen by indirect means”.[96] Heka was believed to be a natural phenomenon, the force which was used to create the universe and which the gods employed to work their will. Humans could also use it, however, and magical practices were closely intertwined with religion. In fact, even the regular rituals performed in temples were counted as magic.[97] Individuals also frequently employed magical techniques for personal purposes. Although these ends could be harmful to other people, no form of magic was considered inimical in itself. Instead, magic was seen primarily as a way for humans to prevent or overcome negative events.[98] Amulet in the shape of theEye of Horus, a common magical symbol Magic was closely associated with the priesthood. Because temple libraries contained numerous magical texts, great magical knowledge was ascribed to the lector priests who studied these texts. These priests often worked outside their temples, hiring out their magical services to laymen. Other professions also commonly employed magic as part of their work, including doctors, scorpion-charmers, and makers of magical amulets. It is also likely that the peasantry used simple magic for their own purposes, but because this magical knowledge would have been passed down orally, there is limited evidence of it.[99] Language was closely linked with heka, to such a degree that Thoth, the god of writing, was sometimes said to be the inventor of heka.[100] Therefore, magic frequently involved written or spoken incantations, although these were usually accompanied by ritual actions. Often these rituals invoked the power of an appropriate deity to perform the desired action, using the power of heka to compel it to act. Sometimes this entailed casting the practitioner or subject of a ritual in the role of a character in mythology, thus inducing the god to act toward that person as it had in the myth. Rituals also employedsympathetic magic, using objects believed to have a magically significant resemblance to the subject of the rite. The Egyptians also commonly used objects believed to be imbued with heka of their own, such as the magically protective amulets worn in great numbers by ordinary Egyptians.[101] Funerary practices Main article: Ancient Egyptian burial customs Because it was considered necessary for the survival of the soul, preservation of the body was a central part of Egyptian funerary practices. Originally the Egyptians buried their dead in the desert, where the arid conditions mummified the body naturally. In the Early Dynastic Period, however, they began using tombs for greater protection, and the body was insulated from thedesiccating effect of the sand and was subject to natural decay. Thus the Egyptians developed their elaborate embalming practices, in which the corpse was artificially desiccated and wrapped to be placed in its coffin.[102] The quality of the process varied according to cost, however, and those who could not afford it were still buried in desert graves.[103] The Opening of the Mouth ceremony being performed before the tomb Once the mummification process was complete, the mummy was carried from the deceased person’s house to the tomb in a funeral procession that included his or her friends and relatives, along with a variety of priests. Before the burial, these priests performed several rituals, including the Opening of the mouth ceremony intended to restore the dead person’s senses and give him or her the ability to receive offerings. Then the mummy was buried and the tomb sealed.[104] Afterward, relatives or hired priests gave food offerings to the deceased in a nearby mortuary chapel at regular intervals. Over time, families inevitably neglected offerings to long-dead relatives, so most mortuary cults only lasted one or two generations.[105] However, while the cult lasted, the living sometimes wrote letters asking deceased relatives for help, in the belief that the dead could affect the world of the living as the gods did.[106] The first Egyptian tombs were mastabas, rectangular brick structures where kings and nobles were entombed. Each of them contained a subterranean burial chamber and a separate, aboveground chapel for mortuary rituals. In the Old Kingdom the mastaba developed into thepyramid, which symbolized the primeval mound of Egyptian myth. Pyramids were reserved for royalty, and were accompanied by large mortuary temples sitting at their base. Middle Kingdom pharaohs continued to build pyramids, but the popularity of mastabas waned. Increasingly, commoners with sufficient means were buried in rock-cut tombs with separate mortuary chapels nearby, an approach which was less vulnerable to tomb robbery. By the beginning of the New Kingdom even the pharaohs were buried in such tombs, and they continued to be used until the decline of the religion itself.[107] Tombs could contain a great variety of other items, including statues of the deceased to serve as substitutes for the body in case it was damaged.[108] Because it was believed that the deceased would have to do work in the afterlife, just as in life, burials often included small models of humans to do work in place of the deceased.[109] The tombs of wealthier individuals could also contain furniture, clothing, and other everyday objects intended for use in the afterlife, along with amulets and other items intended to provide magical protection against the hazards of the spirit world.[110] Further protection was provided by funerary texts included in the burial. The tomb walls also bore artwork, including images of the deceased eating food which were believed to allow him or her to magically receive sustenance even after the mortuary offerings had ceased.[111] History Predynastic and Early Dynastic periods[edit] Narmer, a Predynastic ruler, accompanied by men carrying the standards of various local gods The beginnings of Egyptian religion extend into prehistory, and evidence for them comes only from the sparse and ambiguous archaeological record. Careful burials during the Predynastic period imply that the people of this time believed in some form of an afterlife. At the same time, animals were ritually buried, a practice which may reflect the development of zoomorphic deities like those found in the later religion.[112] The evidence is less clear for gods in human form, and this type of deity may have emerged more slowly than those in animal shape. Each region of Egypt originally had its own patron deity, but it is likely that as these small communities conquered or absorbed each other, the god of the defeated area was either incorporated into the other god’s mythology or entirely subsumed by it. This resulted in a complex pantheon in which some deities remained only locally important while others developed more universal significance.[113][114] As the time changed and the shifting of the empires changed like the middle kingdom, new kingdom, and old kingdom, usually the religion followed stayed within the border of that territory. The Early Dynastic period began with the unification of Egypt around 3000 BC. This event transformed Egyptian religion, as some deities rose to national importance and the cult of the divine pharaoh became the central focus of religious activity.[115] Horus was identified with the king, and his cult center in the Upper Egyptian city of Nekhen was among the most important religious sites of the period. Another important center wasAbydos, where the early rulers built large funerary complexes.[116] Old and Middle Kingdoms During the Old Kingdom, the priesthoods of the major deities attempted to organize the complicated national pantheon into groups linked by their mythology and worshipped in a single cult center, such as the Ennead of Heliopolis which linked important deities such as Atum, Ra, Osiris, and Set in a single creation myth.[117] Meanwhile, pyramids, accompanied by large mortuary temple complexes, replaced mastabas as the tombs of pharaohs. In contrast with the great size of the pyramid complexes, temples to gods remained comparatively small, suggesting that official religion in this period emphasized the cult of the divine king more than the direct worship of deities. The funerary rituals and architecture of this time greatly influenced the more elaborate temples and rituals used in worshipping the gods in later periods.[118] The pyramid complex of Djedkare Isesi Early in the Old Kingdom, Ra grew in influence, and his cult center at Heliopolis became the nation’s most important religious site.[119] By the Fifth Dynasty, Ra was the most prominent god in Egypt, and had developed the close links with kingship and the afterlife that he retained for the rest of Egyptian history.[120] Around the same time, Osiris became an important afterlife deity. The Pyramid Texts, first written at this time, reflect the prominence of the solar and Osirian concepts of the afterlife, although they also contain remnants of much older traditions.[121] Therefore the texts are an extremely important source for understanding early Egyptian theology.[122] In the 22nd century BC, the Old Kingdom collapsed into the disorder of the First Intermediate Period, with important consequences for Egyptian religion. Old Kingdom officials had already begun to adopt the funerary rites originally reserved for royalty,[42] but now, less rigid barriers between social classes meant that these practices and the accompanying beliefs gradually extended to all Egyptians, a process called the “democratization of the afterlife”.[123] The Osirian view of the afterlife had the greatest appeal to commoners, and thus Osiris became one of the most important gods.[124] Eventually rulers from Thebes reunified the Egyptian nation in the Middle Kingdom (c. 2055–1650 BC). These Theban pharaohs initially promoted their patron god Monthu to national importance, but during the Middle Kingdom he was eclipsed by the rising popularity of Amun.[125] In this new Egyptian state, personal piety grew more important and was expressed more freely in writing, a trend which continued in the New Kingdom.[37] New Kingdom The Middle Kingdom crumbled in the Second Intermediate Period (c. 1650–1550 BC), but the country was again reunited by Theban rulers, who became the first pharaohs of the New Kingdom. Under the new regime, Amun became the supreme state god. He was syncretized with Ra, the long-established patron of kingship, and his temple at Karnak in Thebes became Egypt’s most important religious center. Amun’s elevation was partly due to the great importance of Thebes, but it was also due to the increasingly professional priesthood. Their sophisticated theological discussion produced detailed descriptions of Amun’s universal power.[126][127] Increased contact with outside peoples in this period led to the adoption of many Near Eastern deities into the pantheon. At the same time, the subjugated Nubians absorbed Egyptian religious beliefs, and in particular, adopted Amun as their own.[128] Akhenaten and his family worshipping the Aten The New Kingdom religious order was disrupted when Akhenaten acceded, and replaced Amun with the Aten as the state god. Eventually he eliminated the official worship of most other gods, and moved Egypt’s capital to a new city at Amarna, for which this part of Egyptian history, theAmarna period, is named. In doing so Akhenaten claimed unprecedented status for himself: only he could worship the Aten, and the populace directed their worship toward him. The Atenist system lacked well-developed mythology and afterlife beliefs, and the Aten itself seemed distant and impersonal, so the new order did not appeal to ordinary Egyptians.[129] Thus, many of them probably continued to worship the traditional gods in private. Nevertheless, the withdrawal of state support for the other deities severely disrupted Egyptian society.[130] Akhenaten’s successors therefore restored the traditional religious system, and eventually they dismantled all Atenist monuments.[131] Before the Amarna period, popular religion had trended toward more personal relationships between the gods and their worshippers. Akhenaten’s changes had reversed this trend, but once the traditional religion was restored, there was a backlash. The populace began to believe that the gods were much more directly involved in daily life. Amun, the supreme god, was increasingly seen as the final arbiter of human destiny, the true ruler of Egypt. The pharaoh was correspondingly more human and less divine. The importance of oracles as a means of decision-making grew, as did the wealth and influence of the oracles’ interpreters, the priesthood. These trends undermined the traditional structure of society and contributed to the breakdown of the New Kingdom.[132][133] Later periods In the 1st millennium BC, Egypt was significantly weaker than in earlier times, and in several periods foreigners seized the country and assumed the position of pharaoh. The importance of the pharaoh continued to decline, and the emphasis on popular piety continued to increase. Animal cults, a characteristically Egyptian form of worship, became increasingly popular in this period, possibly as a response to the uncertainty and foreign influence of the time.[134] Isis grew more popular as a goddess of protection, magic, and personal salvation, and became the most important goddess in Egypt.[135] Serapis In the 4th century BC, Egypt became a Hellenistic kingdom under the Ptolemaic dynasty (305–30 BC), which assumed the pharaonic role, maintaining the traditional religion and building or rebuilding many temples. The kingdom’s Greek ruling class identified the Egyptian deities with their own.[136] From this cross-cultural syncretism emerged Serapis, a god who combined Osiris and Apis with characteristics of Greek deities, and who became very popular among the Greek population. Nevertheless, for the most part the two belief systems remained separate, and the Egyptian deities remained Egyptian.[137] Ptolemaic-era beliefs changed little after Egypt became a province of the Roman Empire in 30 BC, with the Ptolemaic kings replaced by distant emperors.[136] The cult of Isis appealed even to Greeks and Romans outside Egypt, and in Hellenized form it spread across the empire.[138] In Egypt itself, as the empire weakened, official temples fell into decay, and without their centralizing influence religious practice became fragmented and localized. Meanwhile, Christianity spread across Egypt, and in the third and fourth centuries AD, edicts by Christian emperors and iconoclasm by local Christians eroded traditional beliefs. While it persisted among the populace for some time, Egyptian religion slowly faded away.[139] Legacy Altar to Thoth of a Kemetic follower. Egyptian religion produced the temples and tombs which are ancient Egypt’s most enduring monuments, but it also left many influences on other cultures. In pharaonic times many of its symbols, such as the sphinx and winged solar disk, spread widely across the Mediterranean and Near East, as did some of its deities, such as Bes. Some of these connections are difficult to trace. The Greek concept of Elysiummay have derived from the Egyptian vision of the afterlife.[140] In late antiquity, the Christian conception of Hell was most likely influenced by some of the imagery of the Duat, and the iconography of Mary may have been influenced by that of Isis. Egyptian beliefs also influenced or gave rise to several esoteric belief systems developed by Greeks and Romans who saw Egypt as a source of mystic wisdom. Hermeticism, for instance, derived from the tradition of secret magical knowledge associated with Thoth.[141] Traces of ancient beliefs remained in Egyptian folk traditions into modern times, but its impact on modern societies greatly increased with the French Campaign in Egypt and Syria in 1798. As a result of it, Westerners began to study Egyptian beliefs firsthand, and Egyptian religious motifs were adopted into Western art.[142][143] Egyptian religion has since had a significant impact on popular culture. Due to continued interest in Egyptian belief, in the late 20th century several new religious groups formed based on different reconstructions of ancient Egyptian religion.[144] See also • List of Egyptian mythology topics • Egyptian pantheon • Kemetism • Prehistoric religion • Religions of the Ancient Near East • Traditional African religion References 1. Jump up^ Assmann 2001, pp. 1–5, 80. 2. Jump up^ Assmann 2001, pp. 63–64, 82. 3. Jump up^ Allen 2000, pp. 43–44. 4. 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Jump up^ David 2002, pp. 215–18, 238. 130. Jump up^ Van Dijk 2000, pp. 287, 311. 131. Jump up^ David 2002, pp. 238–39. 132. Jump up^ Van Dijk 2000, pp. 289, 310–12. 133. Jump up^ Assmann, State and Religion in the New Kingdom, in Simpson 1989, pp. 72–79. 134. Jump up^ David 2002, pp. 312–17. 135. Jump up^ Wilkinson 2003, pp. 51, 146–49. 136. ^ Jump up to:a b Peacock 2000, pp. 437–38. 137. Jump up^ David 2002, pp. 325–28. 138. Jump up^ David 2002, p. 326. 139. Jump up^ Frankfurter 1998, pp. 23–30. 140. Jump up^ Assmann 2001, p. 392. 141. Jump up^ Hornung 2001, pp. 1, 9–11, 73–75. 142. Jump up^ Hornung 2001, p. 75. 143. Jump up^ Fleming & Lothian 1997, pp. 133–36. 144. Jump up^ Melton 2009, pp. 841, 847, 851, 855. Bibliography • Allen, James P (2000). Middle Egyptian: An Introduction to the Language and Culture of Hieroglyphs. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-77483-7. • Assmann, Jan (2001) [1984]. The Search for God in Ancient Egypt. Lorton, David transl. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-8729-3. • ——— (2005) [2001]. Death and Salvation in Ancient Egypt. Lorton, David transl. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-4241-9. • David, Rosalie (2002). Religion and Magic in Ancient Egypt. Penguin. ISBN 0-14-026252-0. • Dunand, Françoise; Zivie-Coche, Christiane (2005). Gods and Men in Egypt: 3000 BCE to 395 CE. Lorton, David transl. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-8853-2. • Fleming, Fergus; Lothian, Alan (1997). The Way to Eternity: Egyptian Myth. Amsterdam: Duncan Baird. ISBN 0-7054-3503-2. • Foster, John L (2001), Lyric in Redford 2001, vol. II, pp. 312–17. • Frankfurter, David (1998). Religion in Roman Egypt: Assimilation and Resistance. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07054-7. • Hornung, Erik (1999). The Ancient Egyptian Books of the Afterlife. Lorton, David transl. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-8515-0. • ——— (2001). The Secret Lore of Egypt: Its Impact on the West. Lorton, David transl. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-3847-0. • Lesko, Leonard H (1991), Ancient Egyptian Cosmogonies and Cosmology in Shafer & 1991 pp. 117–21. • Malek, Jaromir (2000), The Old Kingdom, in Shaw 2000, pp. 92–93, 108–9. • Melton, J. Gordon (2009). Encyclopedia of American Religions (8th ed.). Gale Cengage Learning. ISBN 0-7876-9696-X. • Peacock, David (2000), The Roman Period, in Shaw 2000, pp. 437–38. • Pinch, Geraldine (1995). Magic in Ancient Egypt. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-76559-2. • Quirke, Stephen; Spencer, Jeffrey (1992). The British Museum Book of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-27902-0. • Redford, Donald B, ed. (2001). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-510234-7. • Sadek, Ashraf Iskander (1988). Popular Religion in Egypt during the New Kingdom. Hildesheim. ISBN 3-8067-8107-9. • Shafer, Byron E, ed. (1991). Religion in Ancient Egypt: Gods, Myths, and Personal Practice. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-9786-8. • Shafer, Byron E, ed. (1997). Temples of Ancient Egypt. IB Tauris. ISBN 1-85043-945-1. • Shaw, Ian, ed. (2000). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-815034-2. • Silverman, David P (1991), Divinity and Deities in Ancient Egypt in Shafer 1991, pp. 55–58. • Simpson, William Kelly, ed. (1989). Religion and Philosophy in Ancient Egypt. Yale Egyptological Seminar. ISBN 0-912532-18-1. • Taylor, John (2001). Death and the Afterlife in Ancient Egypt. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-79164-5. • Teeter, Emily (2001), Cults: Divine Cults in Redford 2001, vol. I, pp. 340–44. • Tobin, Vincent Arieh, Myths: An Overview, in Redford 2001, vol. II, pp. 464–68. • Traunecker, Claude (2001) [1992]. The Gods of Egypt. Lorton, David transl. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-3834-9. • Van Dijk, Jacobus (2000), The Amarna Period and the Later New Kingdom in Shaw 2000, pp. 311–12. • Wilkinson, Richard H (2000). The Complete Temples of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05100-3. • ——— (2003). The Complete Gods and Goddesses of Ancient Egypt. Thames & Hudson. ISBN 0-500-05120-8. Further reading • Budge, EA Wallis (August 1, 1991), Egyptian Religion: Egyptian Ideas of the Future Life, Library of the Mystic Arts, Citadel, ISBN 0-8065-1229-6. • Clarysse, Willy; Schoors, Antoon; Willems, Harco; Quaegebeur, Jan (1998), Egyptian Religion: The Last Thousand Years: Studies Dedicated to the Memory of Jan Quaegebeur, Peeters, ISBN 90-429-0669-3. • Harris, Geraldine; Sibbick, John; O’Connor, David (1992), Gods and Pharaohs from Egyptian Mythology, Bedrick, ISBN 0-87226-907-8. • Hart, George (1997), Egyptian Myths, Legendary Past, University of Texas Press, ISBN 0-292-72076-9. • Bilolo, Mubabinge (2004) [Kinshasa-Munich 1987], Les cosmo-théologies philosophiques d’Héliopolis et d’Hermopolis. Essai de thématisation et de systématisation, Academy of African Thought (in French) 2, Munich-Paris, sec I. • ——— (2003) [Kinshasa-Munich, 1986], Les cosmo-théologies philosophiques de l’Égypte Antique. Problématique, prémisses herméneutiques et problèmes majeurs, Academy of African Thought (in French) 1, Munich-Paris, sec I. • ——— (2003) [Kinshasa-Munich 1995], Métaphysique Pharaonique IIIème millénaire av. J.-C., Academy of African Thought (in French) 4, Munich-Paris: C.A. Diop-Center for Egyptological Studies-INADEP, sec I. • ——— (2004) [Kinshasa-Munich 1988], Le Créateur et la Création dans la pensée memphite et amarnienne. Approche synoptique du Document Philosophique de Memphis et du Grand Hymne Théologique d’Echnaton, Academy of African Thought (in French) 2, Munich-Paris, sec I. • Pinch, Geraldine (2004), Egyptian Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Goddesses, and Traditions of ancient Egypt, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-517024-5. • Schulz, R; Seidel, M (1998), Egypt: The World of the Pharaohs, Cologne: Könemann, ISBN 3-89508-913-3. External links • Budge, EA Wallis, Legends of the Gods: readable HTML book with images and footnotes • Egyptian Gods. • “Ideology and Belief in Ancient Egypt”, Digital Egypt, UK: UCL. • “Ancient Egypt”, The Internet Sacred Text Archive. • Religion in the Lives of the Ancient Egyptians, U Chicago. ________________________________________ [show] • V • T • E Ancient Egypt topics [show] • V • T • E Ancient Egyptian religion [show] • V • T • E Religion [show] • V • T • E Paganism (Historical polytheism and Modern paganism) Categories: • Ancient Egyptian religion Navigation menu • Create account • Log in • Article • Talk • Read • Edit • View history • Main page • Contents • Featured content • Current events • Random article • Donate to Wikipedia • Wikimedia Shop Interaction • Help • About Wikipedia • Community portal • Recent changes • Contact page Tools Print/export Languages • Alemannisch • العربية • বাংলা • Български • Català • Чӑвашла • Čeština • Dansk • Deutsch • Eesti • Español • Esperanto • Français • Gaelg • 한국어 • हिन्दी • Íslenska • Italiano • Latina • Magyar • 日本語 • Polski • Português • Română • Русский • Simple English • Slovenčina • Српски / srpski • Svenska • ไทย • Тоҷикӣ • Українська • اردو • Tiếng Việt • 中文 • Edit links • This page was last modified on 9 December 2013 at 15:40. • Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Wikipedia® is a registered trademark of the Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization. Ethiopia the First and the Last: Historical Legacies Revisited The Ancient Land: All that land commonly known as Africa today, including Palestine/Israel, and parts of Yemem and India (Hindu-Kush) KEYWORDS Judah/Kush (Ethiopia) Kashi/Varanashi/Hindi-Kush (India) KMT/Kemet and Hindu-Kush/Kashi/Varanasi GOD IS FATHER…ETHIOPIA IS MOTHER… WE ARE THEIR CHILDREN Ancient Judah/KUSH was Once the Light of the World; Home of the Gods and Mother of KMT (egypt)…and so it is: the Daughter can never be older than the Mother. Eurocentric archeologists are finally admiting what has been known for ages…that East Africa is the location of the Heart of Africa…the Garden of Eden…the home of first Man…of Gods in Human Form…of the original Black Madonna and Child: the “Original Eve,” …who is Mother of Human Kind. Timeless Judah, Kush, KMT Kashi (Ancient Kushitic City in India) were once known as the Homeland of the Black Gods Who Walked Earth In Human Form. Priest-Kings of ancient Judah-Kush/Kmt established and maintained a mystical way of life, embellished with spiritual rituals and mystical ceremonies and the belief in Eternal Life and Resurrection, which Europeans copied and call Christianity. Philosophy was born out of Europe’s attempt to understand the higher wisdom of ancient Africa. The Two Lands (Kush and KMT/Ethiopia and Egypt/Mother and Daugher) embraced the mystery of what Europeans call “The Monophysite Docterine,” which is the belief that God can manifest in Flesh, or God-in-Flesh. African-centered Christianity and Eurocentric Christianity separated the Nicene Council (451 AD), because Europeans believed Christ to have two natures 1) divine and 2) human… while African-centered Christianitians (The Coptic Egyptian Church) embraced the age old wisdom that when God manifests in flesh, man is rendered a Divine Being/God-in-Flesh. The story of the man they call Jesus is the same as the ancient Kushitic/Kmetian story of a God in Flesh who also died and resurrected and is said will come again. Atum whose Hebrew name is “Adam,” was worsihpped in Ancient Egypt (Amun/AtumAmen/Amen-RA) as the God of Gods, and as the First God to to Manifest in Flesh on Earth and also as the King of Kings and Conquering Lion. In Genesis 5:5, it is written that Adam was a race of men and women, not just one man and one woman… “…male and female created He them, and blessed them and called their name Adam in the day they were created.” Amun Sacred Symbols are those of a man with a lion’s head and another is of a lion walking upright like a man. This was no heathen form of idol worship, but a spiritual way of life based on the Ancient Wisdom and Ancient Mystery Teachings and quantum physics : The belief in things you cannot see. …to be continued… Black Madonna Ancient Egypt… Daughter of Judah-Kush (ethiopia)… Light of Africa……Lighth of the world Chronology Regions Popular Topics Ancient Ethiopia or Kush Etymology The term “Ethiopia” was first used by Ancient Greek writers in reference to the east-central African kingdom that they believed to be not only culturally and ethnically linked to ancient “Egypt” (Kemet), but the source of such civilization as well. Contrary to popular belief, the term was not exclusive to the landlocked modern country of Ethiopia. According to early Greek writers, Ethiopia was an empire originally situated between Ta-Seti in Lower Kemet and the confluence of the White and Blue Niles. Centuries later, however, the name became synonymous with a much larger region that included the present-day countries of South Sudan, Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Central African Republic, Chad, etc. Ethiopia is the English transliteration of the Greek word “Αιθιοπα” (or Aithiopia) which originates from the Greek word “Αιθιοψ” or “aithiops” which literally means “charred or burnt.” “Aithiops” is in fact composed of “αιθιω” (meaning “I burn”) and “ωψ” (meaning face or complexion). Prior to Greek history, Ethiopia was known as “Kush” by the ancient “Egyptians.” The Buhen stela (housed in the Florence Museum), which dates from the reign of Sety I (1294-1279 BC), refers to this region as “Kas” and “Kash.” Kush is also mentioned as “KSH” in other texts dated between 1550 – 1069 BC. History of Early Ethiopia or Kush (13,000-7500 BC) The region known as Kush has been inhabited for several millennia. Royal Ontario Museum and University of Khartoum researchers found a “tool workshop” south of Dongola, Sudan with thousands of paleolithic axes on rows of stones, dating back 70,000 years. As early as 13,000 BC, ceremonial burial practices were taking place at Jebel Sahaba and Wadi Halfa in the northern part of modern-day Sudan (known to archaeologists as the “Qadan” period, 13,000-8,000 BC). At the Toshka site in modern-day “Lower Nubia,” archaeologists have uncovered tombs where domesticated wild cattle were placed above human remains, indicative of the use of cattle in a ceremonial fashion. Circular tomb walls with above-ground mounds are further evidence of the beginnings of ceremonial burials. At other sites nearby, we can see the development of Ethiopian (better known as “Egyptian”) civilization. At the Kadruka cemetery, spouted vessels were found, and the tombs at El Gaba were filled with jewelry, pottery, ostrich feathers, headrests, facial painting, etc.–all of which were present in “dynastic Egypt,” and are still used today amongst different peoples of modern-day Ethiopia. The neolithic Sabu rock paintings even depict dynastic Egyptian-style boats. Just west of the city of Kerma lies the site of Busharia, where shards of pottery dating from 8000 to 9000 BC have been found. A nearby discovery at El-Barga shed light on foundations of round buildings, graves and pottery shards from 7,500 BC. Therefore Kushitic civilization began on the banks of the Nile over 15,000 years ago and was settled at least 55,000 years prior. Furthermore, based on the traditions of the first settlers and the artifacts found in this region, Kushitic civilization gave birth to that of so-called “Egypt” (see also: Nile Valley Civilization). Ethiopia in Hebrew History (1200 – 500 BC) The Torah (Old Testament of the Bible) mentions Ethiopia in its first and oldest book, Genesis (chapter 2, c. 1400 BC), and puts Ethiopia in a geographical context: “And a river went out of Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads…. And the name of the second river is Gihon: the same is it that compasseth the whole land of Ethiopia.” In the Hebrew book of Numbers (chapter 12, verse 1, c. 1200 BC), Moses, who was born and educated in Egypt, married an Ethiopian woman: “And Miriam and Aaron spake against Moses because of the Ethiopian woman whom he had married: for he had married an Ethiopian woman.” By the 740s BC, the Hebrew prophet Nahum said, “Cush and Ethiopia were her [Nineveh’s] boundless strength, and it was infinite; Put and Lubim were thy helpers” (chapter 3, verse 9). Emperor Taharqa, the most famous Kushite leaders who ruled Egypt and beyond (photo courtesy of David Liam Moran) Ethiopia’s King Taharqa, who also ruled Egypt (690-664 BC, 25th dynasty), is mentioned in Hebrew texts as having saved Jerusalem from Assyrian destruction (Isaiah, chapter 37, verse 10-11, c. 687 BC): And when he heard say of Tirha’kah [Taharqa] king of Ethiopia, Behold, he is come out to fight against thee: he sent messengers again unto Hezeki’ah, saying, Thus shall ye speak to Hezeki’ah king of Judah, saying, Let not thy God in whom thou trustest deceive thee, saying, Jerusalem shall not be delivered into the hand of the king of Assyria.” Ethiopia in Greek History (800 BC-200 AD). Few other nations are mentioned in ancient European literature as much as Ethiopia, and even fewer as highly esteemed. Ethiopians are first mentioned in the oldest of Greek texts, Homer’s Iliad (circa 800 BC), as a place frequented by the Greek gods. Homer states, “…twelve for Jupiter’s stay with the Ethiopians, at whose return Thetis prefers her petition” and “Zeus is at Ocean’s river with Ethiopians, feasting, he and all the heaven-dwellers.” In Homer’s Odyssey (c. 800 BC), Poseiden also spends time in Ethiopia: “But Poseidon, the earthquake lord, making his return from Ethiopia where he had visited for a celebration in his honor…” Homer also tells us that an Ethiopian ruled Troy and Arabia: “Tithonus was the son of Laomedon, king of Troy and the Nymph Strymo. He was an extremely handsome youth, and when Eos (Dawn) first saw him, she fell in love with him and brought him to her palace by the stream of Ocean in Ethiopia. They had two children, Memnon and Emathion. Emathion became a king of Arabia…Memnon took a force of Ethiopians to Troy and died while fighting the Greeks” Herodotus (Histories, Book II, c. 440 BC) informs us that Ethiopians also jointly ruled over the Siwa Oasis: “Ammonians [Siwa Owasis], who are a joint colony of Egyptians and Ethiopians, speaking a language between the two…” Pyramids in Meroe, the capital of Ethiopia in Herodotus’ time (photo courtesy of Petr Adam Dohnalek) The so-called “father of (European) history,” Herodotus (490-425 BC), spoke often on the subject of Ethiopia, and places it in geographical context: “Beyond the island [Elephantine] is a great lake, and round its shores live nomadic tribes of Ethiopians. After crossing the lake one comes again to the stream of the Nile, which flows into it… After forty days journey on land along the river, one takes another boat and in twelve days reaches a big city named Meroe, said to be the capital city of the Ethiopians.” and “…Where the south declines towards the setting sun lies the country called Ethiopia, the last inhabited land in that direction. There gold is obtained in great plenty, huge elephants abound, with wild trees of all sorts, and ebony…” Herodotus describes their physical characteristics and provides great detail about the traditions of Ethiopians in his era, stating, “…and the men are taller, handsomer, and longer lived than anywhere else. The Ethiopians were clothed in the skins of leopards and lions, and had long bows made of the stem of the palm-leaf, not less than four cubits in length. On these they laid short arrows made of reed, and armed at the tip, not with iron, but with a piece of stone, sharpened to a point, of the kind used in engraving seals. They carried likewise spears, the head of which was the sharpened horn of an antelope; and in addition they had knotted clubs. When they went into battle they painted their bodies, half with chalk, and half with vermilion… and “The inhabitants worship Zeus and Dionysus alone of the Gods, holding them in great honor…Among these Ethiopians copper is of all metals the most scarce and valuable….Also, last of all, they were allowed to behold the coffins of the Ethiopians, which are made (according to report) of crystal, after the following fashion: When the dead body has been dried, either in the Egyptian, or in some other manner, they cover the whole with gypsum, and adorn it with painting until it is as like the living man as possible. Then they place the body in a crystal pillar which has been hollowed out to receive it, crystal being dug up in great abundance in their country, and of a kind very easy to work. You may see the corpse through the pillar within which it lies; and it neither gives out any unpleasant odor, nor is it in any respect unseemly; yet there is no part that is not as plainly visible as if the body were bare. The next of kin keep the crystal pillar in their houses for a full year from the time of the death, and give it the first fruits continually, and honor it with sacrifice. After the year is out they bear the pillar forth, and set it up near the town…” Herodotus informs us that he is aware of the cultural similarities between the ancient Ethiopians and the ancient Egyptians: “For the people of Colchis are evidently Egyptian, and this I perceived for myself before I heard it from others. So when I had come to consider the matter I asked them both; and the Colchians had remembrance of the Egyptians more than the Egyptians of the Colchians; but the Egyptians said they believed that the Colchians were a portion of the army of Sesostris. That this was so I conjectured myself not only because they have black skins and curly hair (this of itself amounts to nothing, for there are other races which are so), but also still more because the Colchians, Egyptians, and Ethiopians alone of all the races of men have practised circumcision from the first. The Phenicians and the Syrians who dwell in Palestine confess themselves that they have learnt it from the Egyptians, and the Syrians about the river Thermodon and the river Parthenios, and the Macronians, who are their neighbours, say that they have learnt it lately from the Colchians. These are the only races of men who practise circumcision, and these evidently practise it in the same manner as the Egyptians. Diodorus Siculus (60 BC), however, tells us that Ethiopia is the origin of Egyptian traditions and civilization (consistent with modern archaeological discoveries) and that Ethiopians colonized as far as India: “Now the Ethiopians, as historians relate, were the first of all men and the proofs of this statement, they say, are manifest. For they did not come into their land as immigrants from abroad but were natives of it” “We must now speak about the Ethiopian writing which is called hieroglyphic among the Egyptians, in order that we may omit nothing in our discussion of their antiquities…” “They [the Ethiopians] say also that the Egyptians are colonists sent out by the Ethiopians, Osiris [“King of Kings and God of Gods”] having been the leader of the colony . . . they add that the Egyptians have received from them, as from authors and their ancestors, the greater part of their laws.” “Osiris being come to the borders of Ethiopia, raised high banks on either side of the river, lest, in the time of its inundation it should overflow the country more than was convenient make it marish and boggy; and made flood-gates to let in the water by degrees, as far as was necessary. Thence he passed through Arabia, bordering upon the Red sea as far as to India, and the utmost coasts that were inhabited; he built likewise many cities in India, one of which he called Nysa, willing to have a remembrance of that in Egypt where he was brought up…he planted ivy, which grows and remains here only of all other places in India…” Like Herodotus, Siculus described Ethiopians as Black and their empire as vast, from central and East Africa to the Arabian penninsula. However, by Siculus’ time, the capital had moved away from Meroe to the East where Ethiopians mined gold. This was the same time period in which the ancient Aksum leaders thrived: “But there are also a great many other tribes of the Ethiopians, some of them dwelling in the land lying on both banks of the Nile and on the islands in the river, others inhabiting the neighbouring country of Arabia, and still others residing in the interior of Libya [the Greek term for interior Africa west of the Nile]. The majority of them, and especially those who dwell along the river, are black in colour and have flat noses and woolly hair…we feel that it is appropriate first to tell of the working of the gold as it is carried on in these regions…At the extremity of Egypt and in the contiguous territory of both Arabia and Ethiopia there lies a region which contains many large gold mines, where the gold is secured in great quantities.” Strabo (63 – 24 AD) provides even further detail on the extent of the Ethiopian empire, which included not just Arabia, but Europe as well: “However, Sesostris, the Egyptian, he adds, and Tearco [Taharqa] the Aethiopian advanced as far as Europe; and Nabocodrosor, who enjoyed greater repute among the Chaldaeans [in modern day Iraq] than Heracles, led an army even as far as the Pillars [Gibraltar]. Thus far, he says, also Tearco went…” Ethiopia in Roman History (1 – 200 AD) Later the term “Ethiopia” would become synonymous not just with the Kushites, but all Africans. Unlike the earlier Greek writers who distinguished Ethiopians from other Africans, Claudius Ptolemy (90 – 168 AD), a Roman citizen who lived in Alexandria, used “Ethiopia” as a racial term. In his Tetrabiblos: Or Quadripartite, he tried to explain the physical characteristics of people around the world saying, “They are consequently black in complexion, and have thick and curled hair…and they are called by the common name of Aethiopians.” Ethiopia in Byzantine History (c 700 AD) Stephanus of Byzantium (circa 700 AD) wrote, “Ethiopia was the first established country on earth; and the Ethiopians were the first to set up the worship of the gods and to establish laws.” Read more: D’MT and Axum | Medieval Ethiopia | Abyssinia | Nile Valley Civilization Copyright 2011 Ta Neter.org info@taneter.org | Home | About | Site Map | Support Tags: ancient ethiopia, ethiopia in european history, history of ethiopia, ancient quotes about ethiopia, ethiopia etymology, aithios ethiopia, ancient greek gods ethiopia, herodotus quotes on ethiopia, ethiopia mother of egypt, ethiopia in literature, ethiopia in the bible ethiopia truth, ancient ethiopians, ethiopia in ancient history Africa Speaks TrinidadandTobagoNews AmonHotep Trinicenter Homepage Terms of Service | Translator | Nubian School | Channel Africa | Recommended Books Articles Archive: Page 1 – Page 2 – Page 3 – Page 4 – Page 5 – Page 6 [ Post Response ] [ Return to Index ] [ Read Prev Msg ] [ Read Next Msg ] Ethiopia the mother of Nubia and Egypt Ethiopia is older than nubia who is older than egypt Posted By: dnomyaR Date: 5, September 10, at 8:14 p.m. Use of positive color words as the diverse universe and nature presents to us. The Universl Divine life in Diversity puses the term Diversity/Rainbow/Spectrum instead of Black as both White and Black are devoid of real color (The spectrum of Light (VIBGRYO= Violet, Indigo, Brown, Green, Yellow and Organe) that the Universe presents us. Of course Nubia/Ethiopia/Ham is older than Egypt because Ethiopia is where the birth of the world began from the (Rainbow) Black God and (Rainbow) Black Goddess. Alke-bulan is the oldest and the most indigenous name of Afrika meaning ‘Mother of Mankind’ /Person kind to be exact with the diverse set of shades of color , or Garden of Eden.’ This name was used by the (Rainbow) Black Moors, Nubians, Numidians, Khart-Haddans or Carthagenians and the Ethiopians. The current name ‘Africa’ is a misnomer and was given this name by the ancient white Romans. The term Egypt was once used to mean all of Afrika, which was called the ‘Land of Ham’ (Psalm 105). I don’t like it when Blacks and caucasians claim that Khemet (Egypt) was where the original kings and queens resided because they came from Ethiopia. Ethiopia/Nubia/Ham is the Mother of Egypt! and humanity at large. The first kings and queens were birthed from Ethiopia, which were Black /Spectrum of Light Adam [AdHam]and Evette or Eve! At one time Khemet (Egypt) and Ethiopia (Nubia), were considered one in the same and very often in the bible they are synonymous. Nowhere in the bible is the word Europe. The bible states that princes (Black Gods) shall come out of Egypt (Ethiopia);Psalm 68:31:’Princes shall come out of Egypt; Ethiopia shall soon stretch out her hands to God’. Since, Ethiopia/Ham/Nubia and Khemet/Egypt are Black/Spectrum nations; then God and the Black Messiah,[erronously called jesus], his Ethiopian name is Eyesus, Amanuel, were also /Spectrum/Black! Throughout scripture, Israel is described as looking like the sons of Ham [Khawm] …Psalm 105:23,27 calls Egypt the land of Ham [Khawm]. The original Hebrew Israelite were Black and came out of Ethiopia! Ysryl [Israel], was also a Black nation and the home of the first Black Hebrews; they were not called jews! Another misnomer to fit the needs of European liars/scholars. Let us converge with real science and history and move to Universal Divinity in Diversity the true representation of the universe, creation and humanity and the future of us all. [ Post Response ] [ Return to Index ] [ Read Prev Msg ] [ Read Next Msg ] RaceandHistory Forum is maintained by Administrator with RaceandHistory 5.12. Trinicenter Int. | Africa News Links | 9/11 Home | Latest News | Sources | Search | Homepage Converting the historical misunderstanding of Diversity into Appartheid and Racism The Need to Change to the new knowledge, understanding, attitude and practice of the Universal Divine Diversity Living! Lessons of misunderstanding of Diversity by our Ancesstors that we need to change towards the Universal Divine Living in Diversity – a life of Blessing to the universe and human kind on earth NOTE: In accordance with Title 17 U.S.C. section 107 this material is distributed without profit or payment to those who have expressed a prior interest in receiving this information for non-profit research and educational purposes only. For more information go to: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/107.shtml. If you wish to use copyrighted material from this site for purposes of your own that go beyond fair use you must obtain permission from the copyright owner. RaceandHistory.com is a 100% non-profit Website. • HOME • VIDEO • MISSION • NEWS & ARTICLES • HISTORY • ABOUT US • CONTACT US • LINKS Ethiopian Unity Diaspora Forum • Articles • Entertainment • Health • News O Africa O Ethiopia O World • Uncategorized • Subscribe Browse: Home / Articles / Why Egypt Matters—By Dr. Kwame Osei Why Egypt Matters—By Dr. Kwame Osei February 11, 2011 Afrikan History Month Many people would have watched on their TV screens the uprisings in Egypt. Dr. Kwame Osei explains why many if not ALL should not wrongly assume that the light skinned people in today’s Egypt are the original people of Egypt. Many people do not normally associate Egypt with Afrika but instead with the so-called ‘Middle East’ or Arab world. All of the above assumptions are WRONG, as the original people of Egypt are and still are dark in complexion like the average African and secondly, that Egypt has always been on the continent of Afrika and nowhere else. The main reason why many people cannot associate Egypt with Afrika is that there has been a deliberate and systematic attempt by European and Arab historians to falsify the true history of Egypt by implying that Afrikan people did not have the intellectual ability or the intellectual capacity to cultivate the classic high culture or civilization that was Egypt. Furthermore European and Arab historians claim that the people who developed that great civilization were either European people with sun-tanned skin or Arab people with brown skin. These two assertions of course are absolute rubbish! It is important at this juncture for the reader to recognize that the Arab people are not a race of people. The Arab is in FACT a mixed Afrikan whose mother is an Afrikan Ethiopian woman named Hagar. It is also important to note also that the light skinned people who now occupy and rule Egypt ARE NOT the original Egyptians just as the White people who occupy and rule the United States of America ARE NOT the original Americans. The light skinned Arabs who occupy Egypt are the descendants of imperialists who invaded Egypt and are the products generations of inter-mixing and inter-marriage. It is interesting to point out that when the Europeans and Arabs invaded Egypt starting from about 525 BC with the Assyrians, they began replacing the Afrikan names and inscriptions on the buildings, monuments and temples that were ALL built by Afrikans with European and Arab names adding to the confusion and then taking the credit for the achievement. Give credit to where it is due, Ethiopia and Ethiopians. As we can clearly see today, the names Egypt, Luxor, Aswan, Giza etc are all Arab and European names used in order to conceal the deception, but all these places had original Afrikan names. Egypt’s Afrikan name is Kemet, Luxor’s original Afrikan name is Wa’set, Aswan’s original Afrikan name is Esowan and the original name for Giza is Chem. It is important too, to inform the readership that civilization or culture DID NOT begin in Egypt. It has been well established and documented by historians, theologians and anthropologists that civilization began way up the Nile Valley in present day Uganda. Furthermore Ethiopia is often referred to as the mother of Egypt meaning that Ethiopia predated Egypt and had a civilization and a culture at least 2000 years before Egypt that also had a profound influence on ancient Egyptian civilization. In fact the concept of Judaism, Islam and Christianity began in Ethiopia and that Jesus or his REAL name Yeshua Ben Yosef (Yesus ye Yoseph lij) was born in Ethiopia and not Bethlehem as many Ghanaians have been led to believe. The reason why Egypt is an important and integral part of Afrikan history is that it is this classic civilization that was responsible for producing the principles of Mathematics, Religion, Physics, Chemistry, Astrology, Technology, Communication, Writing, Commerce, Architecture and many other elements we take for granted – all these were started in Egypt by Afrikan people. Why Egypt matters Another main reason why Egypt is essential is that people have tried to take Egypt out of Afrika and claim that Egypt has no connection with Afrika whatsoever by trying to ideologically place Egypt somewhere else.This special feature is to inform Ghanaians that the people who were responsible for the great civilization of Egypt including the building of great feats of architecture like the Great Pyramid of King Khufu, The Sphinx, the monuments, temples, libraries etc were FRIKAN people and that THE original people of Egypt are ‘Black’ and that Ancient Egypt WAS a AFRIKAN civilization. The word EGYPT itself means ‘Black’. The ancient Egyptians called themselves Kam or Kam-Au meaning ‘Black’ people or ‘Black’ God People, (‘Black’ symbolizing Godliness) and called their country KEMET meaning the land of the ‘Blacks’. In Afrikan culture names are very significant and have deep spiritual meaning so if the Ancient Egyptians were not ‘Black’, why would they name themselves as ‘Black’ people and their country the land of the ‘Blacks’? The word Egypt is English that was derived from the Greek word Aegyptos which means ‘Black’ or burnt people and when the British invaded Kemet they named it Egypt. Europe’s first historian, the Greek Herodotus said the Egyptians, Colchians and Ethiopians have thick lips and broad nose, wooly hair and they are of burnt skin – signifying their obvious Afrikan features. Even what is referred to as the bible equates Ham (Afrikans) with Egypt. (Psalms 78.51, 105: 23-27, 106:21-22) Therefore there is no doubt that the Egyptians who were responsible for building that great civilization and culture were Afrikan people. To further buttress the point, at a symposium organized by the United Nations cultural section UNESCO in 1978 to establish the racial origins of Ancient Egypt two great Afrikan historians Cheikh Anta Diop and I. Obenga gave in-depth, measured and comprehensive presentations to demonstrate that the people of Ancient Egypt were Afrikans. Diop in particular gave an awesome presentation using anthropology, iconography, melanin dosage tests, osteological measurements, blood groupings, the testimony of classical writers, self-descriptive Egyptian hieroglyphs, divine epithets, Biblical eyewitnesses, linguistics and other cultural data in support of his opinion that the Ancient Egyptians were Afrikan. This symposium proved beyond all doubt that the Ancient Egyptians and their great civilization was an Afrikan one. Now that it has been established that the Ancient Egyptian civilization was Afrikan, what is it about this civilization and culture that is so important and why Egypt matters. This Afrikan civilization is important in our understanding and overstanding of the world we live in today. For what is wrongly referred to as Western civilization is in actual fact stolen Afrikan civilization. Two pointers to this – First is the classic book called Stolen Legacy written by great Afrikan scholar George G. M. James. In it he states, through thorough investigation, that Greek civilization which Western civilization is actually based upon plagiarized Afrikan civilization and that ALL the so-called Greek scholars like Plato, Socrates, Galen, Hippocrates, Aristotle, Pythagoras and so forth all came to Ancient Egypt and studied the principles of Mathematics, Chemistry, Astronomy, Religion, Science, Physics, the rule of law, Democracy, Commerce and the like and were taught by Afrikan scribes and sages such as the great Imhotep. Second when one looks at what is regarded as the most powerful and important country in the Western world- the United States of America, it is important to recognize that the United States of America was built on an Afrikan Egyptian model. These examples explain the Afrikan Egyptian connection with the United States: The ˜founding” fathers of the United States including Thomas Jefferson and George Washington were all Freemasons who held Ancient Egypt in high regard. Freemasonry had its origins in Afrika. The American constitution was written in secret code language only understood by freemasons. This secret code language is a derivative of the Ancient Egyptian medu-neter or hieroglyphs. The United States $1 bill has Afrikan Egyptian symbols on it. For example the 13 stars of King Solomon, the Eagle, the Pyramid and the eye of Heru which symbolizes the all seeing eye, the omnipotent God. The Capital of the United States, Washington DC is modeled after an Ancient Egyptian city and that Washington DC itself was designed by a Black man named Benjamin Banneker. Banneker was commissioned by President George Washington in 1793 to desig Washington DC, again symbolizing the fact that the Afrikan/’Black’ man was the original master builder/planner/architect/designer. Amongst the most famous buildings in Washington DC is the Washington monument which is in actual fact a copy of the Ancient Egyptian Tekhen/Obelisk which is a copy of the obelisk in Axum, Ethiopia. All of the buildings in Washington DC, including Capitol Hill where Barack Obama made his inaugural speech and the White House where he lives were all built by Afrikan labor signifying that fact that the ‘Black’/Afrikan man was THE first builder/mason. The above just highlights to the reader the immense influence Afrikan ancient Ethiopia and Egypt has had on the formation of the United States politically, economically and in the design and construction of some of its most famous buildings. The Ancient Egyptian influence is also evident in many countries in Europe. For example one of the most prominent images from Ancient Egypt that appears throughout Europe is that which represents the resurrection of the Afrikan, God Ausar who the Greeks called Osiris. This powerful symbol was called a Tekhen in Ancient Egypt. However it was re-named by the Greeks who called it an Obelisk. Currently there are obelisks in London, Rome, Paris, Istanbul and many other cities throughout Europe. The very first obelisk to be erected in Europe was in Rome in 10 BC to commemorate Augustus conquest of Egypt. A second obelisk was removed from Egypt and erected in Rome in 357 AD/CE after the establishment of Christianity. There are now a total of 13 tekhens in Rome alone. The most famous obelisk in Italy stands in the centre of St. Peters Square at the Vatican (the Piazza di San Pietro). Very few people realize that on Easter Sunday as the Pope stands on his balcony overlooking the congregation and delivers his sermon praising the resurrection of the son of God, Yeshua Ben Yosef, he faces a 6,000-year-old symbol that represents the original resurrection of the Afrikan Egyptian God Ausar. To buttress the contribution of the Afrikan race in general and the Ancient Egyptian civilization in particular has had on humanity a French aristocrat Count C F Volney made a profound statement in one of his books. This book was called “Ruins of Empire”, a highly controversial book at the time and banned in the United States beucase it exposed the Afrikan origins of civilization and culture – this at a time when America was enslaving Afrikans and when in its constitution considered the Afrikan 3/5 human. This was written after Count Volney made numerous trips to Egypt to study the history, culture and legacy of the Ancient Egyptians. Count C F Volney stated “There a People Now Forgotten Discovered While Others Were Yet Barbarians, The elements of the Arts and Sciences. A Race Of men now rejected in society for their Black Skin and Woolly Hair, founded on the Study of the laws of Nature, those Civil and religious systems which still govern the universe”. Ancient Egypt was a colossal and classic civilization that resulted in the Afrikan creating feats that have never been surpassed by any group of people not even in today’s supposedly high tech world and this is why many European and Arab historians call some of these feats wonders of the world because they have not been able to conceptualize how a people who are called inferior were able to achieve such outstanding and breath taking accomplishments. These great Afrikans were able to accomplish these great feats because they had a high degree of spirituality (not the profane Christian spirituality that we have today) that enabled them to be in tune and perfect harmony with the cosmos, the laws of nature and feed off its vibrations. Other notable achievements of the Ancient Afrikan Egyptians that have had a profound effect on the world we live in include: Mathematics – this is one of the fundamental principles that conceived the structures such as the pyramids that were invented by these great Afrikans. They created more than 80 mathematic principles such as Pythagoras theorem, algebra and logarithms that are taught today in schools across the world. These principles are found in a text called the Rhind mathematical papyrus written by Ahmose in 1900 BC. The Calendar – The invention of the first precise calendar in 10,000 BC of which the modern day Roman calendar is based on. Astronomy – The zodiac and the symbols that relate to it originated out of the Kemetic/Egyptian thought processes in their deep understanding of the solar system and this is the basis for European astronomy that we see today that is in itself totally inaccurate as it lacks the original overstanding and ancient knowledge and wisdom that the Afrikan had. Architecture and masonry – the structures and designs of the pyramids, sphinx and temples were conceived via a high understanding and wisdom of using mathematical, geographical, spiritual and other practices. It is the ancient Egyptian concept of architecture and masonry that is the foundation of Western construction and design. Education: by European scholars) was the highest seat of learning in the world and the lodge of Waset (Luxor) was the largest University in the Ancient world with over 80,000 people studying various principles and enlightenment. All the so-called Greek scholars like Plato, Socrates, Aristotle, Herodotus, Hippocrates and so forth were taught by Afrikans such as Imhotep and other sages and scribes in these universities Medicine – Medicine originated in Afrika but its development was fast tracked in Ancient Egypt. The oldest medical treaty in the world is called the Edwin smith papyri. This treaty was written over 4,000 years ago and every facet of medicine is entreated in this document. From natural cures for ailments like cancer and heart disease through to the genetic code for the human body. Imhotep, document is noted for its accuracy and high scientific standards. Included in this medical treaty is the medical oath which newly qualified doctors swear an allegiance to, to adhere to The standards and ethics of the medical profession. The oath is wrongly called the Hippocratic oath and in actual fact this is Imhotep’s oath and all newly qualified doctors in Ghana who pronounce this oath are actually paying great homage to this Afrikan multi genius who was also the architect of the highest order designing the first step pyramid at Sakkara and was also a Prime minister during the reign of king Zjoser in the 3rd Dynasty of ancient Egyptian rule. The REAL father of medicine is accredited for writing this treaty and this- The ancient Egyptian system of high learning (wrongly called Egyptian mystery The above shows you the reader that the great Afrikan civilization of Ancient Egypt has had a profound influence on modern society and shaped modern concepts in relation to medicine, science, education, architecture and so forth. This is why Egypt matters because it was this Afrikan civilization that is the foundation of the world we live in today and although others want to discredit the Afrikan origins of Egypt and the Afrikan origins of civilization, this special feature clearly shows that the truth will come out and that the origins of Ancient Egypt is Afrikan, that the root of what is defined as Western civilization is Afrikan and that civilization itself began in Afrika. Posted in Articles admin Comments are closed. Recent Articles • Legal Action Roadmap by Victims of Human Rights Abuse in Saudi Arabia–By Derege Demissie • The Brutality of Ethiopian Migrant Workers in Saudi Arabia Is Not New it is continuation of abasement –By Samuel Getachew • No easy way to democratize Ethiopia? 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2 thoughts on “Universal Diving Living in Diversity- The new consciousness

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