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About Global Connect Communications

Global Connect Communications- GCC

  1. Our Purpose  is Promoting Our Universal+Multiversal Divinity in Diversity: Serving others in bio+socio+economic+ecological Diversity to our shared security and prosperity.
  2. Our Mission is Promoting “Divinity in Diversity” towards our shared security and prosperity
  3. Our Goal is to Sustain our Divinity via Divine connection- Connecting to our Universal/Multiversal primate, human and Divine existence for eternity!

GCC a Multimedia channel network broadcasting via ICT/Information Communiction Technology  and SMN/Social Media Network on Good Governance, Progressive Prosperity and Sustainable security.

Our Value is to Promote Divinity in Diversity, that is serving others in biodiversity, socio-economic diversity and ecological diversity.

  • Our passion is to promote SICQUIE/safety, integrity, compliance, quality, innovation and excellence in all we do at all times.
  • Our strategy is to eliminate threat to integrity, reduce risk of non compliance to excellence and convert challenges into opportunities of sustainable development and investment opportunities towards collective security and shared prosperity for all.
  • We protect safety and integrity, prevent abuse, waste, injury and associated short and long-term disabilities and promote excellence and success via (IT)3= Innovation, Integrity, Investment, supported by Talent, Technology and Transparent Trade.

Our Seven (7) steps Strategic Option Solution Models are:

  1. Research Pyramid. We use Research Pyramid Tool based Root Cause analysis by asking what, who, when, where, why and how.
  2. PNDS interaction Model. We analyze the relationship of Price, Need, Demand & Supply Interactions of the market.
  3. CORT Analysis. We undertake CORT Analysis, that is Challenges, Opportunities, Risks and Threats- towards eliminating Threat, reducing Risk and converting Challenges into Opportunities.
  4. Time Option Appraisal. We promote Time Option Appraisals of 9 Potential Options where Best Option, Win-win Option and compromise Options are factored in time, at immediate, short and long-term basis.
  5. SMART Calendar based Work Plan. We operate with a SMART Work Plan that is Specific, Measurable, Appropriate, Realistic and Time Sensitive with productivity reports at daily, weekly, monthly and quarterly
  6. Quality Assurance Compliance Protocol. We utilize qualitative and quantitative tools for monitoring progress towards desired goals by using individual and focus group interviews, surveys and data based statistical productivity reports respectively.

  7. GPA based CAT Communication. We promote out Goal, Progress and Achievement oriented communication  via Complete, Accurate and Timely signed communication-Always!

We promote Global Green Renaissance Strategies.

Global Green Renaissance Strategies that are time sensitive renaissance activities supported with modern technologies that ecological sensitive activities that are responsive to to the changing Universal and Global manmade and natural Ecological Challenges.

We strive to offer CAT=Complete, Accurate and Timely Information/Communication for 3A+3E (Accessible, Affordable, Accountable) Governance 4 (3E=Efficient, Effective and Equitable) distribution of GPS (Goods, Products and Services) across the globe.

Global Connect Communications

Voice of the Patriots Communication  &  Hager- Fikr Radio Broadcast Services
Editorial Policy
Our Vision & Mission.
1.     Global Connect Communications is a multi-media platform for broadcasting global current affairs, that address the critical issues of natural and manmade stories as they unfold in the diverse set of our economic, social, health, ecological and modern technology enterprises.  
2.     We promote good governance, security and prosperity via global responsiveness, transparency and accountability towards sustainable development and investment opportunities for all.
Our values:
1.     Producing and broadcasting High Quality, Original and Challenging Output of the highest creativity, ethical and editorial standards that honors the trust of our audiences across the globe.
2.     Creating an interactive knowledge based dialogue, towards innovative,  productive and  sustainable development, and investment oriented future.
Our Audiences:
1.     Audiences: Our Global Audiences can access our broadcast via web, radio and telephone communications.
2.     (, AM1120, 703.712.432.6620, Saturdays: 14:00-15:00 hrs
       I.     Our Passion and focus.  Our global audiences are at the heart of everything we do.  We promote good governance, responsiveness, transparency and accountability based on respect, patriotism and good will to all our stakeholders.
     II.     Original and challenging output. We are committed to giving our audiences  high-quality, original and at times challenging output.  Creativity, timeliness and fair and balanced communication is the lifeblood of our organization.
   III.     High quality and standard content.  Equally, we must give our audiences content made to the highest editorial and ethical standards.
    IV.     Trust and respect.  Our passion is driven by patriotic desire to promote respect, trust, confidence and overall interest of our audience’s expectation.  We believe their trust depends on it.
      V.     Balancing freedom and responsibilities. We must therefore balance our presumption of freedom of expression with our responsibilities, such as to respect privacy, to be fair, to avoid unjustifiable offence and to offer appropriate protection for our audiences from harm.
    VI.     (Note: The Human Rights Act 1998 recognizes the right to freedom of expression, which includes the audience’s right to receive creative material, information and ideas without interference, subject to restrictions in law.  It also recognizes the right to private and family life and to freedom of thought, conscience and religion.)
  VII.     Upholding editorial values all the time.
We seek to uphold our Editorial Values in all we do.
They embody our freedoms and responsibilities and, like the Editorial Guidelines, apply to all our content, whether it is made by ourselves or by an independent company working for us, and whether it is made for radio, television, online, mobile devices, interactive services or the printed word. What follows are challenging requirements, but they are essential to everything we do.
2.Trust, Accuracy, Independence and Impartiality.
          I.     Trust is the foundation of all the work we do.
        II.     We are independent, impartial and honest.
      III.     We are committed to achieving the highest standards of due accuracy and impartiality and strive to avoid knowingly and materially misleading our audiences.
3. Truth and Accuracy
          I.     We seek to establish  the truth of what has happened and are  committed to achieving due accuracy in all our output.
        II.     Accuracy is not simply a matter of getting facts right; when necessary, we will weigh relevant facts and information to get at the truth.
      III.     Our output, as appropriate to its subject and nature, will be well sourced, based on sound evidence, thoroughly tested and presented in clear, precise language.
       IV.     We will strive to be honest and open about what we don’t know and avoid unfounded speculation.
4. Fairness & Impartiality
          I.     Impartiality lies at the core of the GCC’s commitment to its audiences.  There is no partiality based on age, sex, gender, religion, ethnicity, political and cultural diversity.
        II.     We will apply due impartiality to all our subject matter and will reflect a breadth and diversity of opinion across our output as a whole, over an appropriate period, so that no significant strand of thought is knowingly un reflected or under-represented.  Current affairs, calendar drive our broadcast schedule.
      III.     We will be fair and open-minded when examining evidence and weighing material facts.
5.  Editorial Integrity and Independence
          I.     The GCC is independent of outside interests and arrangements that could undermine our editorial integrity.
        II.     Our audiences should be confident that our decisions are not influenced by outside interests, political or commercial pressures, or any personal interests.
6. No Harm and Offence
          I.     We aim to reflect the world as it is, including all aspects of the human experience and the realities of the natural world.
        II.     But we balance our right to broadcast innovative and challenging content with our responsibility to protect the vulnerable from harm and avoid unjustifiable offence.
      III.     We will be sensitive to, and keep in touch with, generally accepted standards as well as our audiences’ expectations of our content, particularly in relation to the protection of children.
7. Serving the Public Interest
       I.     We seek to report stories of significance to our audiences, as we believe passionately that the public has the right to know information and events unfolding around them.
     II.     We will be rigorous in establishing the truth of the story and well informed when explaining it.
   III.     Our specialist expertise will bring authority and analysis to the complex world in which we live.
    IV.     We will ask searching questions of those who hold public office and others who are accountable, and provide a comprehensive forum for public debate.
8. Fairness & Balance
          I.     Our output will be based on fairness, balance, openness, honesty, integrity and straight dealing.
        II.     Contributors and audiences will be treated with respect and dignity and their confidentiality is always protected unless authorized by them openly.
9.  Privacy and Confidentiality of sources
          I.     We will respect privacy and will not infringe it without good reason, wherever in the world we are operating.
        II.     Private behavior, information, correspondence and conversation will not be brought into the public domain unless there is a public interest that outweighs the expectation of privacy.
10. Children, Minors and Vulnerable communities.
          I.     We will always seek to safeguard the welfare of children and young people who contribute to and feature in our content, wherever in the world we operate.
        II.     We will preserve their right to speak out and participate, while ensuring their dignity and their physical and emotional welfare is protected during the making and broadcast of our output.
      III.     Content which might be unsuitable for children will be scheduled appropriately.
11.  Responsiveness & Transparency
          I.     We will be transparent about the nature and provenance of the content we offer online.
        II.     Where appropriate, we will identify who has created it and will use labeling to help online users make informed decisions about the suitability of content for themselves and their children.
12.  Accountability
          I.     We are accountable to our audiences and will deal fairly and openly with them.
        II.     Their continuing trust in the GCC is a crucial part of our relationship with them.
      III.     We will be open in acknowledging mistakes when they are made and encourage a culture of willingness to learn from them.
13.Editorial values
       I.     The GCC’s Editorial Values, and the Editorial Guidelines, are rooted in the Governing Board Charter and the Agreement.
     II.     The Governing Board Charter guarantees the editorial independence of the GCC and sets out its Public Purposes. These are defined as:
                  a.     Sustaining global citizenship and civil society with a focus on Ethiopia, AU, EU & USA and the larger Diaspora communities across the world.
                  b.     Promoting education and learning, investment and sustainable development
                   c.     Stimulating creativity and cultural excellence and business entrepreneurship
                  d.     Representing the Board, its executives and its membership around the world, nations, regions and communities
                  e.     Bringing the Audience to the world and the world to our audiences.
   III.     Advancing modern communication technologies.  We actively promote modern communication technologies and  its other purposes, helping to deliver to the public the benefit of emerging communications technologies and services and, in addition, taking a leading role in the switchover to digital radio, internet and television broadcasts.
14. The charter specifies that we should do all we can “to ensure that controversial subjects are treated with due accuracy and impartiality” in our news and other output dealing with matters of public policy or political or industrial controversy.
          I.     It also states that our output is forbidden from expressing the opinion of the GCC on current affairs or matters of public policy, other than broadcasting or the provision of online services.
        II.     The Accuracy, Impartiality and Politics, Public Policy and Polls sections of the Editorial Guidelines incorporate the GCC Trust’s code as required under the Agreement, giving guidance as to the rules to be observed in connection with the Agreement.
15. Advertisements and Sponsorship
In addition, the agreement forbids any GCC service funded by the license fee or grant-in-aid from carrying advertising or sponsored programs.  To protect editorial integrity and independence, the GCC has drawn up its own guidelines on standards for advertising and sponsorship for its commercial television and online services.
16. GCC is a US registered and Washington DC based organization and part of Global Connect Network and Global Strategic Enterprises, Inc, that promote sustainable development and creative investments across the globe.

8 thoughts on “About Global Connect Communications

  1. Promoting a Culture of Wellness in the Community

    A Series of Wellness Communication Radio and internet broadcasts
    at,, and

    Topics: Implementing 3777 Protocol of Wellness

    Daily Habits of 3 hours of hygiene and cleanliness

    7 Hours of productive Work (Activity based work)

    7 Hours of Productive leisure (Creativity based leisure)

    7 Hours of restful sleep (rejuvenating sleep)

    Eating healthy

    Active motion for health

    Creative productivity for health, wealth and wisdom


    Belai Habte-Jesus, MD, MPH
    Global Wellness
    73.933.8737; 571.225.5736

    1. Uiversal Divine Connections; Universal Divine Living in Diversity Our knowledge, attitude and practice about the Expanding Universal Divine Living for Others in Diversity is changing day by day, as our ability to understand the latest information on the universe, multiverse, the divine, the human and the primate experience is improving. We are very unique as we live in all all three forms of life that is primate, human and Divine (Arawit, Serawit and Melkot) is synergized in our body, mind and spirit respectively only on planet earth. After death, our body and mind is superceded only by our spiritual or divine life. It is in our interest to start living the Divine life now so that our current life is enriched as well as our future is enhanced. We are at a unique time in history where knowledge is expanding at astronomical pace. Our knowledge, our attitude and practice in life changes with the new knowledge. This Divine Connection web site attempts to connect Ancient history and knowledge with modern developments and expanding innovations, our individual and collective knowledge, experience and practice so as to enrich our primate, human and divine lives and connect us to the Universal Divine eternal existence and blessed living compliant to our most current understanding of the expanding universe, multiverse knowledge. Diversity is the essence of Divinity, at universal and multiversal biological, social, economic and ecologic existence. The Trinity in Universal Divinity in Diversity Trinity in Unity as experessed in our body, mind and spirit: Father, Mother and Child (Boy and Daughter) God, Mary and Jesus Spirit, Body and Mind Primate, Human and Divine Faith, Food and Fitness Universal and Multiversal Divinity with self, family and friends Exploring the synergy of eternal life and legacy of Divinity in all of us Universal Divine Living: Living 4 Others in (Diversity) – bio-diversity, socio-economic diversity and ecological diversity Synergizing nano, micro and macro living in Diversity The Universal Divine Diet Movement: 3F: Faith, food and Fitness Integrating our Body, Mind and Spirit and our Primate, Human and Divine Living The trinity of divine living in Diversity 1 Divinity and Diversity begins within our ecosystem that is our home and community- with self, family and friends. 2 Divine Living demands that you Love yourself first before you love and serve others. 3 Divine Living in Diversity, means respect, dignity and connection to the Universal Divine God, who is just, Omnipotent, Omniscient, Omnipresent, all powerful, all knowing and ternal respectivdly , and loves all his creation, biological, chemical and physical world including all plants, animals and humans equally. Our value in life shoul respect all forms of life from unicellular to multicellular from those we can see and identify to those who we do not appreciate or know their existence. Defining Divine living: • Developing the habit, the option, and will power and the mindset to Be Divine at all times- (Living 4 Others). The trinity of Divine habit Our Divine body, mind and spirit needs balanced nutrition, creative productivity and restful sleep Our Divine resources are our integrated Divine self (body, mind, and spirit) We need to integrate our lives in time, place and person, such that the three dimensions of life on earth and the universe are integrated and synergized. The trinity of Divine time, energy and person Serving others with time and energy of life The 8:8:8 rule (8 hours sleep, 8 hours productivity and 8 hours leisure) The Science of Divine life Balanced food, balanced (isometric and isotonic exercise) and restful sleep, generates the good hormones, boosts our immunity and allows more blood flow to the brain that allows us to make better choice and better decision. Divine Diversity in faith, food, and fitness leads to Diversity in life that is Divine and gives us the Divine resources to serve others in Diversity. Biodiversity in food: Organic and balanced diet that has multiple colors, taste and biodiversity in food value. Divine Nutrition The Rainbow/Vibgyor Diet: Violent Indigo, Brown, Green, Yellow and Orange. The normal light and color spectrum Eating food of diverse colors and value, at least three colors per serving Our Divine Body The body is the holy temple of the Divine. Our BMI (Body Mass Index) is a critical measure of our health (BMI=Weight/height x height). 1 One in three (1:3) Americans are obese: BMI>30, sickness 2 The Dinosaur mind: brain shrinks as body size increases 3 Good habit: It takes 6 weeks to develop a habit (40 days); 40 days to a healthier you The Divine Life is a second to second, minute-to-minute, hour-to-hour, day by day positive experience. Faith, Food and Fitness for Diving Living The Trinity in Divinity and Diversity Father, Mother and Child God, Mary and Jesus Spirit, Body and Mind Primate, Human and Divine Faith, Food and Fitness Divinity with self, family and friends The life and legacy of Divinity in all of us Divine Living: Living 4 Others! The Divine Diet Movement: 3F: Faith, food and Fitness Integrating our Body, Mind and Spirit and our Primate, Human and Divine Living The trinity of divine living 4 Divinity and Diversity begins within our ecosystem that is our home and community- with self, family , friends and community at large. 5 Divine Love yourself first before you love and serve others. 6 Divine love means respect, dignity and connection to the Universal Divine God, who is just, omniscient, omnipresent and loves all his creation and humans equally. Defining Divine living: • Developing the habit, the option, and will power and the mindset to Be Divine at all times- (Living 4 Others). The trinity of Divine habit Our Divine body needs balanced nutrition, productivity and restful sleep Our Divine resources are our integrated Divine self (body, mind, and spirit) We need to integrate our lives in time, place and person, the three dimensions of life on earth and the universe. The trinity of Divine time, energy and matter (Body, Mind and Spirit) Serving others with time and energy of life The 8:8:8 rule (8 hours sleep, 8 hours productivity and 8 hours leisure) The Science of Divine living Divine living is an integrated Balanced food, balanced (isometric and isotonic exercise) and restful sleep, generates the good hormones, boosts our immunity and allows more blood flow to the brain that allows us to make better choice and better decision. Divine Diversity in faith, food, and fitness leads to Diversity in life that is Divine and gives us the Divine resources to serve others Biodiversity in food: Organic and balanced diet that has multiple colors, taste and biodiversity in food value. Divine Nutrition The Rainbow/Vibgryo Diet: Violent Indigo, Brown, Green, Yellow and Orange. The normal light and color spectrum Eating food of diverse colors and value, at least three colors per serving Our Divine Body The body is the holy temple of the Divine. Our BMI (Body Mass Index) is a critical measure of our health (BMI=Weight/height x height). 4 One in three (1:3) Americans are obese: BMI>30, sickness 5 The Dinosaur mind: brain shrinks as body size increases 6 Good habit: It takes 6 weeks to develop a habit (40 days); 40 days to a healthier you The Divine Life is a second to second, minute-to-minute, hour-to-hour, day by day positive experience. Faith, Food and Fitness for Diving Living The Trinity in Divinity and Diversity Father, Mother and Child God, Mary and Jesus Spirit, Body and Mind Primate, Human and Divine Faith, Food and Fitness Divinity with self, family and friends The life and legacy of Divinity in all of us Divine Living: Living 4 Others! The Divine Diet Movement: 3F: Faith, food and Fitness Integrating our Body, Mind and Spirit and our Primate, Human and Divine Living The trinity of divine living 1. Divinity and Diversity begins within our ecosystem that is our home and community- with self, family and friends. 2. Divine Love yourself first before you love and serve others. 3. Divine love means respect, dignity and connection to the Universal Divine God, who is just, omniscient, omnipresent and loves all his creation and humans equally. Defining Divine living: • Developing the habit, the option, and will power and the mindset to Be Divine at all times- (Living 4 Others). The trinity of Divine habit Our Divine body needs balanced nutrition, productivity and restful sleep Our Divine resources are our integrated Divine self (body, mind, and spirit) We need to integrate our lives in time, place and person, the three dimensions of life on earth and the universe. The trinity of Divine time Serving others with time and energy of life The 8:8:8 rule (8 hours sleep, 8 hours productivity and 8 hours leisure) The Science of Divine life Balanced food, balanced (isometric and isotonic exercise) and restful sleep, generates the good hormones, boosts our immunity and allows more blood flow to the brain that allows us to make better choice and better decision. Divine Diversity in faith, food, and fitness leads to Diversity in life that is Divine and gives us the Divine resources to serve others Biodiversity in food: Organic and balanced diet that has multiple colors, taste and biodiversity in food value. Divine Nutrition The Rainbow/Vibgryo Diet: Violent Indigo, Brown, Green, Yellow and Orange. The normal light and color spectrum Eating food of diverse colors and value, at least three colors per serving Our Divine Body The body is the holy temple of the Divine. Our BMI (Body Mass Index) is a critical measure of our health (BMI=Weight/height x height). 7 One in three (1:3) Americans are obese: BMI>30, sickness 8 The Dinosaur mind: brain shrinks as body size increases 9 Good habit: It takes 6 weeks to develop a habit (40 days); 40 days to a healthier you The Divine Life is a second to second, minute-to-minute, hour-to-hour, day-by-day positive experience. Faith, Food and Fitness for Diving Living The Trinity in Divinity and Diversity Father, Mother and Child God, Mary and Jesus Spirit, Body and Mind Primate, Human and Divine Faith, Food and Fitness Divinity with self, family and friends The life and legacy of Divinity in all of us Divine Living: Living 4 Others! The Divine Diet Movement: 3F: Faith, food and Fitness Integrating our Body, Mind and Spirit and our Primate, Human and Divine Living The trinity of divine living 1. Divinity and Diversity begins within our ecosystem that is our home and community- with self, family and friends. 2. Divine Love yourself first before you love and serve others. 3. Divine love means respect, dignity and connection to the Universal Divine God, who is just, omniscient, omnipresent and loves all his creation and humans equally. Defining Divine living: • Developing the habit, the option, and will power and the mindset to Be Divine at all times- (Living 4 Others). The trinity of Divine habit Our Divine body needs balanced nutrition, productivity and restful sleep Our Divine resources are our integrated Divine self (body, mind, and spirit) We need to integrate our lives in time, place and person, the three dimensions of life on earth and the universe. The trinity of Divine time Serving others with time and energy of life The 8:8:8 rule (8 hours sleep, 8 hours productivity and 8 hours leisure) The Science of Divine life Balanced food, balanced (isometric and isotonic exercise) and restful sleep, generates the good hormones, boosts our immunity and allows more blood flow to the brain that allows us to make better choice and better decision. Divine Diversity in faith, food, and fitness leads to Diversity in life that is Divine and gives us the Divine resources to serve others Biodiversity in food: Organic and balanced diet that has multiple colors, taste and biodiversity in food value. Divine Nutrition The Rainbow/Vibgryo Diet: Violent Indigo, Brown, Green, Yellow and Orange. The normal light and color spectrum Eating food of diverse colors and value, at least three colors per serving Our Divine Body The body is the holy temple of the Divine. Our BMI (Body Mass Index) is a critical measure of our health (BMI=Weight/height x height). 1. One in three (1:3) Americans are obese: BMI>30, sickness 2. The Dinosaur mind: brain shrinks as body size increases 3. Good habit: It takes 6 weeks to develop a habit (40 days); 40 days to a healthier you The Divine Life is a second to second, minute-to-minute, hour-to-hour, day by day positive experience. Faith, Food and Fitness for Diving Living Universal Divine Living: The Universe, the Divine, The Human Body, The Human Mind, the Human Spirit We are at the beginning of the eighth millennia (7500-8,500). Many consider this to be the beginning of the last days or the end of time. Many consider this is a special time of the expansion of knowledge about the universe and the cosmos. It is the end of ignorance and the beginning of knowledge, wisdom and instant information. The computer and Internet revolution and information super highway is the beginning of this new world of instant information, and the expansion of knowledge. The presence of ICT (Information, Communication Technology, and SMN (Social Media Network) is making these new beginnings really interesting. This is December in 7506 according to the Ethiopian Calendar, the oldest and perhaps the most accurate calendar since humans began to document time as we know it. We will review the Universal Diving Living series by looking at the new information we have on the Universe, the Divine, the Human Body, the Human Mind and the Human Spirit so as to understand this new Universal Divine Living, the beginning of the new Universal Order and the new Universal Divine Living. We will examine the latest information on the Universe, the Divine, the Human Body, the Human Mind and the Human Spirit. We will look at the scientific and material evidence of the universe in all its totality to discover what Universal Divine Life offers. The Universe- the Cosmos, the Expanding universe , age of the Universe , the Big Bang, Chronology of the Universe Universe For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). Part of a series on Physical cosmology • Universe • Big Bang • Age of the universe • Chronology of the universe Early universe[show] Expanding universe[show] Structure formation[show] Future of universe[show] Components[show] History[show] Experiments[show] Scientists[show] Social impact[show] • Astronomy portal • Category: Physical cosmology • V • T • E The Universe is commonly defined as the totality of existence,[1][2][3][4] including planets, stars, galaxies, the contents of intergalactic space, and all matter andenergy.[5][6] Similar terms include the cosmos, the world and nature. The observable universe is about 46 billion light years in radius.[7] Scientific observation of the Universe has led to inferences of its earlier stages. These observations suggest that the Universe has been governed by the same physical laws and constants throughout most of its extent and history. The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model that describes the early development of the Universe, which is calculated to have begun 13.798 ± 0.037 billion years ago.[8][9]Observations of a supernovae have shown that the Universe is expanding at an accelerating rate.[10] There are many competing theories about the ultimate fate of the universe. Physicists remain unsure about what, if anything, preceded the Big Bang. Many refuse to speculate, doubting that any information from any such prior state could ever be accessible. There are various multiverse hypotheses, in which some physicists have suggested that the Universe might be one among many universes that likewise exist.[11][12] Contents • 1 History o 1.1 Observational history o 1.2 History of the Universe • 2 Etymology, synonyms and definitions o 2.1 Broadest definition: reality and probability o 2.2 Definition as reality o 2.3 Definition as connected space-time o 2.4 Definition as observable reality • 3 Size, age, contents, structure, and laws o 3.1 Fine tuning • 4 Historical models o 4.1 Creation o 4.2 Philosophical models o 4.3 Astronomical models • 5 Theoretical models o 5.1 General theory of relativity o 5.2 Special relativity and space-time o 5.3 Solving Einstein’s field equations o 5.4 Big Bang model o 5.5 Multiverse theory • 6 Shape of the Universe • 7 See also • 8 Notes and references • 9 Bibliography • 10 Further reading • 11 External links o 11.1 Videos History Observational history Hubble eXtreme Deep Field (XDF) XDF size compared to the size of theMoon – several thousand galaxies, each consisting of billions of stars, are in this small view. XDF (2012) view – each light speck is agalaxy – some of these are as old as 13.2 billion years[13] – the visible Universe is estimated to contain 200 billion galaxies. XDF image shows fully mature galaxiesin the foreground plane – nearly mature galaxies from 5 to 9 billion years ago –protogalaxies, blazing with young stars, beyond 9 billion years. Throughout recorded history, several cosmologies and cosmogonies have been proposed to account for observations of the Universe. The earliest quantitative geocentricmodels were developed by the ancient Greek philosophers. Over the centuries, more precise observations and improved theories of gravity led to Copernicus’sheliocentric model and the Newtonian model of the Solar System, respectively. Further improvements in astronomy led to the realization that the Solar System is embedded in a galaxy composed of billions of stars, the Milky Way, and that other galaxies exist outside it, as far as astronomical instruments can reach. Careful studies of the distribution of these galaxies and their spectral lines have led to much of modern cosmology. Discovery of the red shift and cosmic microwave background radiation suggested that the Universe is expanding and had a beginning.[14] History of the Universe Main article: Chronology of the universe According to the prevailing scientific model of the Universe, known as the Big Bang, the Universe expanded from an extremely hot, dense phase called the Planck epoch, in which all the matter and energy of the observable universe was concentrated. Since the Planck epoch, the Universe has been expanding to its present form, possibly with a brief period (less than 10−32 seconds) of cosmic inflation. Several independent experimental measurements support this theoretical expansion and, more generally, the Big Bang theory. The universe is composed of ordinary matter (5%) including atoms, stars, and galaxies, dark matter (25%) which is a hypothetical particle that has not yet been detected, and dark energy (70%), which is a kind of energy density that seemingly exists even in completely empty space.[15] Recent observations indicate that this expansion is accelerating because of dark energy, and that most of the matter in the Universe may be in a form which cannot be detected by present instruments, called dark matter.[16] The common use of the “dark matter” and “dark energy” placeholder names for the unknown entities purported to account for about 95% of the mass-energy density of the Universe demonstrates the present observational and conceptual shortcomings and uncertainties concerning the nature andultimate fate of the Universe.[17] On 21 March 2013, the European research team behind the Planck cosmology probe released the mission’s all-sky map of the cosmic microwave background.[18][19][20][21][22] The map suggests the universe is slightly older than thought. According to the map, subtle fluctuations in temperature were imprinted on the deep sky when the cosmos was about 370,000 years old. The imprint reflects ripples that arose as early, in the existence of the universe, as the first nonillionth (10−30) of a second. Apparently, these ripples gave rise to the present vast cosmic web of galaxy clusters and dark matter. According to the team, the universe is 13.798 ± 0.037 billion years old,[9][23] and contains 4.9% ordinary matter, 26.8% dark matter and 68.3% dark energy. Also, the Hubble constant was measured to be 67.80 ± 0.77 (km/s)/Mpc.[18][19][20][22][23] An earlier interpretation of astronomical observations indicated that the age of the Universe was 13.772 ± 0.059 billion years,[24] and that the diameter of the observable universe is at least 93 billion light years or 8.80×1026 meters.[25] According to general relativity, space can expand faster than the speed of light, although we can view only a small portion of the Universe due to the limitation imposed by light speed. Since we cannot observe space beyond the limitations of light (or any electromagnetic radiation), it is uncertain whether the size of the Universe is finite or infinite. Etymology, synonyms and definitions See also: Cosmos, Nature, World (philosophy), and Celestial spheres The word Universe derives from the Old French word Univers, which in turn derives from the Latin word universum.[26] The Latin word was used by Cicero and later Latin authors in many of the same senses as the modern English word is used.[27] The Latin word derives from the poetic contraction Unvorsum — first used by Lucretius in Book IV (line 262) of his De rerum natura (On the Nature of Things) — which connects un, uni (the combining form of unus, or “one”) with vorsum, versum (a noun made from the perfect passive participle of vertere, meaning “something rotated, rolled, changed”).[27] An alternative interpretation of unvorsum is “everything rotated as one” or “everything rotated by one”. In this sense, it may be considered a translation of an earlier Greek word for the Universe, περιφορά, (periforá, “circumambulation”), originally used to describe a course of a meal, the food being carried around the circle of dinner guests.[28] This Greek word refers to celestial spheres, an early Greek model of the Universe. Regarding Plato’s Metaphor of the sun, Aristotle suggests that the rotation of the sphere of fixed stars inspired by the prime mover, motivates, in turn, terrestrial change via the Sun. Careful astronomical and physical measurements (such as theFoucault pendulum) are required to prove the Earth rotates on its axis. A term for “Universe” in ancient Greece was τὸ πᾶν (tò pán, The All, Pan (mythology)). Related terms were matter, (τὸ ὅλον, tò ólon, see also Hyle, lit. wood) and place (τὸ κενόν, tò kenón).[29][30] Other synonyms for the Universe among the ancient Greek philosophers included κόσμος (cosmos) and φύσις (meaning Nature, from which we derive the word physics).[31] The same synonyms are found in Latin authors (totum, mundus, natura)[32] and survive in modern languages, e.g., the German words Das All, Weltall, and Natur for Universe. The same synonyms are found in English, such as everything (as in the theory of everything), the cosmos (as in cosmology), the world (as in the many-worlds interpretation), and Nature (as in natural laws or natural philosophy).[33] Broadest definition: reality and probability See also: Essence–Energies distinction#Distinction between created and uncreated The broadest definition of the Universe is found in De divisione naturae by the medieval philosopher and theologian Johannes Scotus Eriugena, who defined it as simply everything: everything that is created and everything that is not created. Definition as reality See also: Reality and Physics More customarily, the Universe is defined as everything that exists, (has existed, and will exist)[citation needed]. According to our current understanding, the Universe consists of three principles: spacetime, forms of energy, including momentum and matter, and the physical laws that relate them. Definition as connected space-time See also: Eternal inflation It is possible to conceive of disconnected space-times, each existing but unable to interact with one another. An easily visualized metaphor is a group of separate soap bubbles, in which observers living on one soap bubble cannot interact with those on other soap bubbles, even in principle. According to one common terminology, each “soap bubble” of space-time is denoted as a universe, whereas our particular space-time is denoted as the Universe, just as we call our moon the Moon. The entire collection of these separate space-times is denoted as the multiverse.[34] In principle, the other unconnected universes may have different dimensionalities and topologies of space-time, different forms of matter and energy, and different physical laws and physical constants, although such possibilities are purely speculative. Definition as observable reality See also: Observable universe and Observational cosmology According to a still-more-restrictive definition, the Universe is everything within our connected space-time that could have a chance to interact with us and vice versa.[citation needed] According to the general theory of relativity, some regions of space may never interact with ours even in the lifetime of the Universe due to the finite speed of light and the ongoing expansion of space. For example, radio messages sent from Earth may never reach some regions of space, even if the Universe would live forever: space may expand faster than light can traverse it. Distant regions of space are taken to exist and be part of reality as much as we are, yet we can never interact with them. The spatial region within which we can affect and be affected is the observable universe. Strictly speaking, the observable Universe depends on the location of the observer. By traveling, an observer can come into contact with a greater region of space-time than an observer who remains still. Nevertheless, even the most rapid traveler will not be able to interact with all of space. Typically, the observable Universe is taken to mean the Universe observable from our vantage point in the Milky Way Galaxy. Size, age, contents, structure, and laws Main articles: Observable universe, Age of the universe, and Abundance of the chemical elements The size of the Universe is unknown; it may be infinite. The region visible from Earth (the observable universe) is a sphere with a radius of about 46 billion light years,[35] based on where the expansion of spacehas taken the most distant objects observed. For comparison, the diameter of a typical galaxy is 30,000 light-years, and the typical distance between two neighboring galaxies is 3 million light-years.[36] As an example, the Milky Way Galaxy is roughly 100,000 light years in diameter,[37] and the nearest sister galaxy to the Milky Way, the Andromeda Galaxy, is located roughly 2.5 million light years away.[38] There are probably more than 100 billion (1011) galaxies in the observable Universe.[39] Typical galaxies range from dwarfs with as few as ten million[40] (107) stars up to giants with one trillion[41] (1012) stars, all orbiting the galaxy’s center of mass. A 2010 study by astronomers estimated that the observable Universe contains 300 sextillion (3×1023) stars.[42] The Universe is believed to be mostly composed of dark energy and dark matter, both of which are poorly understood at present. Less than 5% of the Universe is ordinary matter, a relatively small contribution. The observable matter is spread homogeneously (uniformly) throughout the Universe, when averaged over distances longer than 300 million light-years.[43] However, on smaller length-scales, matter is observed to form “clumps”, i.e., to cluster hierarchically; many atoms are condensed into stars, most stars into galaxies, most galaxies into clusters, superclusters and, finally, the largest-scale structures such as the Great Wall of galaxies. The observable matter of the Universe is also spreadisotropically, meaning that no direction of observation seems different from any other; each region of the sky has roughly the same content.[44] The Universe is also bathed in a highly isotropic microwave radiation that corresponds to a thermal equilibrium blackbody spectrum of roughly 2.725 kelvin.[45] The hypothesis that the large-scale Universe is homogeneous and isotropic is known as the cosmological principle,[46] which is supported by astronomical observations. The present overall density of the Universe is very low, roughly 9.9 × 10−30 grams per cubic centimetre. This mass-energy appears to consist of 73% dark energy, 23% cold dark matter and 4% ordinary matter. Thus the density of atoms is on the order of a single hydrogen atom for every four cubic meters of volume.[47] The properties of dark energy and dark matter are largely unknown. Dark matter gravitates as ordinary matter, and thus works to slow the expansion of the Universe; by contrast, dark energy accelerates its expansion. The current estimate of the Universe’s age is 13.798 ± 0.037 billion years old.[9] The Universe has not been the same at all times in its history; for example, the relative populations of quasars and galaxies have changed and space itself appears to have expanded. This expansion accounts for how Earth-bound scientists can observe the light from a galaxy 30 billion light years away, even if that light has traveled for only 13 billion years; the very space between them has expanded. This expansion is consistent with the observation that the light from distant galaxies has been redshifted; the photons emitted have been stretched to longer wavelengths and lower frequency during their journey. The rate of this spatial expansion is accelerating, based on studies of Type Ia supernovae and corroborated by other data. The relative fractions of different chemical elements — particularly the lightest atoms such as hydrogen, deuterium and helium — seem to be identical throughout the Universe and throughout its observable history.[48] The Universe seems to have much more matter than antimatter, an asymmetry possibly related to the observations of CP violation.[49] The Universe appears to have no net electric charge, and therefore gravity appears to be the dominant interaction on cosmological length scales. The Universe also appears to have neither net momentum nor angular momentum. The absence of net charge and momentum would follow from accepted physical laws (Gauss’s law and the non-divergence of the stress-energy-momentum pseudotensor, respectively), if the Universe were finite.[50] The elementary particles from which the Universe is constructed. Six leptons and six quarks comprise most of the matter; for example, the protons and neutrons of atomic nuclei are composed of quarks, and the ubiquitous electronis a lepton. These particles interact via the gauge bosonsshown in the middle row, each corresponding to a particular type of gauge symmetry. The Higgs boson is believed to confer mass on the particles with which it is connected. Thegraviton, a supposed gauge boson for gravity, is not shown. The Universe appears to have a smooth space-time continuum consisting of three spatial dimensions and one temporal (time) dimension. On the average, space is observed to be very nearly flat (close to zero curvature), meaning that Euclidean geometry is experimentally true with high accuracy throughout most of the Universe.[51] Spacetime also appears to have a simply connected topology, at least on the length-scale of the observable Universe. However, present observations cannot exclude the possibilities that the Universe has more dimensions and that its spacetime may have a multiply connected global topology, in analogy with the cylindrical or toroidal topologies of two-dimensional spaces.[52] The Universe appears to behave in a manner that regularly follows a set of physical laws and physical constants.[53] According to the prevailing Standard Model of physics, all matter is composed of three generations of leptons and quarks, both of which are fermions. These elementary particles interact via at most three fundamental interactions: the electroweak interaction which includes electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force; the strong nuclear forcedescribed by quantum chromodynamics; and gravity, which is best described at present by general relativity. The first two interactions can be described by renormalized quantum field theory, and are mediated by gauge bosons that correspond to a particular type of gauge symmetry. A renormalized quantum field theory of general relativity has not yet been achieved, although various forms of string theory seem promising. The theory of special relativity is believed to hold throughout the Universe, provided that the spatial and temporal length scales are sufficiently short; otherwise, the more general theory of general relativity must be applied. There is no explanation for the particular values that physical constants appear to have throughout our Universe, such as Planck’s constant h or the gravitational constant G. Several conservation laws have been identified, such as the conservation of charge, momentum, angular momentum and energy; in many cases, these conservation laws can be related to symmetries or mathematical identities. Fine tuning Main article: Fine-tuned Universe It appears that many of the properties of the Universe have special values in the sense that a Universe where these properties differ slightly would not be able to support intelligent life.[14][54] Not all scientists agree that this fine-tuning exists.[55][56] In particular, it is not known under what conditions intelligent life could form and what form or shape that would take. A relevant observation in this discussion is that for an observer to exist to observe fine-tuning, the Universe must be able to support intelligent life. As such the conditional probability of observing a Universe that is fine-tuned to support intelligent life is 1. This observation is known as the anthropic principle and is particularly relevant if the creation of the Universe was probabilistic or if multiple universes with a variety of properties exist (see below). Historical models See also: Cosmology and Timeline of cosmology Many models of the cosmos (cosmologies) and its origin (cosmogonies) have been proposed, based on the then-available data and conceptions of the Universe. Historically, cosmologies and cosmogonies were based on narratives of gods acting in various ways. Theories of an impersonal Universe governed by physical laws were first proposed by the Greeks and Indians. Over the centuries, improvements in astronomical observations and theories of motion and gravitation led to ever more accurate descriptions of the Universe. The modern era of cosmology began with Albert Einstein’s 1915 general theory of relativity, which made it possible to quantitatively predict the origin, evolution, and conclusion of the Universe as a whole. Most modern, accepted theories of cosmology are based on general relativity and, more specifically, the predicted Big Bang; however, still more careful measurements are required to determine which theory is correct. Creation Main articles: Creation myth and Creator deity Many cultures have stories describing the origin of the world, which may be roughly grouped into common types. In one type of story, the world is born from a world egg; such stories include the Finnish epic poem Kalevala, the Chinese story of Pangu or the Indian Brahmanda Purana. In related stories, the Universe is created by a single entity emanating or producing something by him- or herself, as in the Tibetan Buddhism concept of Adi-Buddha, the ancient Greek story of Gaia (Mother Earth), the Aztec goddess Coatlicue myth, the ancient Egyptian god Atum story, or the Genesis creation narrative. In another type of story, the Universe is created from the union of male and female deities, as in the Maori story of Rangi and Papa. In other stories, the Universe is created by crafting it from pre-existing materials, such as the corpse of a dead god — as from Tiamat in the Babylonian epic Enuma Elish or from the giant Ymir in Norse mythology – or from chaotic materials, as in Izanagi and Izanami in Japanese mythology. In other stories, the Universe emanates from fundamental principles, such as Brahman and Prakrti, the creation myth of the Serers,[57] or the yin and yang of the Tao. Philosophical models Further information: Cosmology See also: Pre-Socratic philosophy, Physics (Aristotle), Hindu cosmology, Islamic cosmology, and Time From the 6th century BCE, the pre-Socratic Greek philosophers developed the earliest known philosophical models of the Universe. The earliest Greek philosophers noted that appearances can be deceiving, and sought to understand the underlying reality behind the appearances. In particular, they noted the ability of matter to change forms (e.g., ice to water to steam) and several philosophers proposed that all the apparently different materials of the world are different forms of a single primordial material, or arche. The first to do so was Thales, who proposed this material is Water. Thales’ student, Anaximander, proposed that everything came from the limitless apeiron. Anaximenes proposed Air on account of its perceived attractive and repulsive qualities that cause the arche to condense or dissociate into different forms.Anaxagoras, proposed the principle of Nous (Mind). Heraclitus proposed fire (and spoke of logos). Empedocles proposed the elements: earth, water, air and fire. His four element theory became very popular. Like Pythagoras, Plato believed that all things were composed of number, with the Empedocles’ elements taking the form of the Platonic solids. Democritus, and later philosophers—most notably Leucippus—proposed that the Universe was composed of indivisible atoms moving through void (vacuum). Aristotle did not believe that was feasible because air, like water, offers resistance to motion. Air will immediately rush in to fill a void, and moreover, without resistance, it would do so indefinitely fast. Although Heraclitus argued for eternal change, his quasi-contemporary Parmenides made the radical suggestion that all change is an illusion, that the true underlying reality is eternally unchanging and of a single nature. Parmenides denoted this reality as τὸ ἐν (The One). Parmenides’ theory seemed implausible to many Greeks, but his student Zeno of Elea challenged them with several famous paradoxes. Aristotle responded to these paradoxes by developing the notion of a potential countable infinity, as well as the infinitely divisible continuum. Unlike the eternal and unchanging cycles of time, he believed the world was bounded by the celestial spheres, and thus magnitude was only finitely multiplicative. The Indian philosopher Kanada, founder of the Vaisheshika school, developed a theory of atomism and proposed that light and heat were varieties of the same substance.[58] In the 5th century AD, the Buddhist atomist philosopher Dignāga proposed atoms to be point-sized, durationless, and made of energy. They denied the existence of substantial matter and proposed that movement consisted of momentary flashes of a stream of energy.[59] The theory of temporal finitism was inspired by the doctrine of Creation shared by the three Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The Christian philosopher, John Philoponus, presented the philosophical arguments against the ancient Greek notion of an infinite past and future. Philoponus’ arguments against an infinite past were used by the early Muslim philosopher, Al-Kindi (Alkindus); the Jewish philosopher, Saadia Gaon (Saadia ben Joseph); and the Muslim theologian, Al-Ghazali (Algazel). Borrowing from Aristotle’s Physics and Metaphysics, they employed two logical arguments against an infinite past, the first being the “argument from the impossibility of the existence of an actual infinite”, which states:[60] “An actual infinite cannot exist.” “An infinite temporal regress of events is an actual infinite.” ” An infinite temporal regress of events cannot exist.” The second argument, the “argument from the impossibility of completing an actual infinite by successive addition”, states:[60] “An actual infinite cannot be completed by successive addition.” “The temporal series of past events has been completed by successive addition.” ” The temporal series of past events cannot be an actual infinite.” Both arguments were adopted by Christian philosophers and theologians, and the second argument in particular became more famous after it was adopted by Immanuel Kant in his thesis of the first antinomyconcerning time.[60] Astronomical models[edit] Main article: History of astronomy Aristarchus’s 3rd century BCE calculations on the relative sizes of from left the Sun, Earth and Moon, from a 10th-century AD Greek copy Astronomical models of the Universe were proposed soon after astronomy began with the Babylonian astronomers, who viewed the Universe as a flat disk floating in the ocean, and this forms the premise for early Greek maps like those of Anaximander and Hecataeus of Miletus. Later Greek philosophers, observing the motions of the heavenly bodies, were concerned with developing models of the Universe based more profoundly on empirical evidence. The first coherent model was proposed by Eudoxus of Cnidos. According to Aristotle’s physical interpretation of the model, celestial spheres eternally rotate with uniform motion around a stationary Earth. Normal matter, is entirely contained within the terrestrial sphere. This model was also refined by Callippus and after concentric spheres were abandoned, it was brought into nearly perfect agreement with astronomical observations by Ptolemy. The success of such a model is largely due to the mathematical fact that any function (such as the position of a planet) can be decomposed into a set of circular functions (the Fourier modes). Other Greek scientists, such as the Pythagorean philosopher Philolaus postulated that at the center of the Universe was a “central fire” around which the Earth, Sun, Moon and Planets revolved in uniform circular motion.[61] The Greek astronomer Aristarchus of Samos was the first known individual to propose a heliocentric model of the Universe. Though the original text has been lost, a reference in Archimedes’ book The Sand Reckoner describes Aristarchus’ heliocentric theory. Archimedes wrote: (translated into English) You King Gelon are aware the ‘Universe’ is the name given by most astronomers to the sphere the center of which is the center of the Earth, while its radius is equal to the straight line between the center of the Sun and the center of the Earth. This is the common account as you have heard from astronomers. But Aristarchus has brought out a book consisting of certain hypotheses, wherein it appears, as a consequence of the assumptions made, that the Universe is many times greater than the ‘Universe’ just mentioned. His hypotheses are that the fixed stars and the Sun remain unmoved, that the Earth revolves about the Sun on the circumference of a circle, the Sun lying in the middle of the orbit, and that the sphere of fixed stars, situated about the same center as the Sun, is so great that the circle in which he supposes the Earth to revolve bears such a proportion to the distance of the fixed stars as the center of the sphere bears to its surface. Aristarchus thus believed the stars to be very far away, and saw this as the reason why there was no parallax apparent, that is, no observed movement of the stars relative to each other as the Earth moved around the Sun. The stars are in fact much farther away than the distance that was generally assumed in ancient times, which is why stellar parallax is only detectable with precision instruments. The geocentric model, consistent with planetary parallax, was assumed to be an explanation for the unobservability of the parallel phenomenon, stellar parallax. The rejection of the heliocentric view was apparently quite strong, as the following passage from Plutarch suggests (On the Apparent Face in the Orb of the Moon): Cleanthes [a contemporary of Aristarchus and head of the Stoics] thought it was the duty of the Greeks to indict Aristarchus of Samos on the charge of impiety for putting in motion the Hearth of the Universe [i.e. the earth], . . . supposing the heaven to remain at rest and the earth to revolve in an oblique circle, while it rotates, at the same time, about its own axis. [1] The only other astronomer from antiquity known by name who supported Aristarchus’ heliocentric model was Seleucus of Seleucia, a Hellenistic astronomer who lived a century after Aristarchus.[62][63][64]According to Plutarch, Seleucus was the first to prove the heliocentric system through reasoning, but it is not known what arguments he used. Seleucus’ arguments for a heliocentric theory were probably related to the phenomenon of tides.[65] According to Strabo (1.1.9), Seleucus was the first to state that the tides are due to the attraction of the Moon, and that the height of the tides depends on the Moon’s position relative to the Sun.[66] Alternatively, he may have proved the heliocentric theory by determining the constants of a geometric model for the heliocentric theory and by developing methods to compute planetary positions using this model, like what Nicolaus Copernicus later did in the 16th century.[67] During the Middle Ages, heliocentric models may have also been proposed by the Indian astronomer, Aryabhata,[68]and by the Persian astronomers, Albumasar[69] and Al-Sijzi.[70] Model of the Copernican Universe byThomas Digges in 1576, with the amendment that the stars are no longer confined to a sphere, but spread uniformly throughout the space surrounding the planets. The Aristotelian model was accepted in the Western world for roughly two millennia, until Copernicus revived Aristarchus’ theory that the astronomical data could be explained more plausibly if the earth rotated on its axis and if the sun were placed at the center of the Universe. “ In the center rests the sun. For who would place this lamp of a very beautiful temple in another or better place than this wherefrom it can illuminate everything at the same time? ” —Nicolaus Copernicus, in Chapter 10, Book 1 of De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestrum (1543) As noted by Copernicus himself, the suggestion that the Earth rotates was very old, dating at least to Philolaus (c. 450 BC), Heraclides Ponticus (c. 350 BC) andEcphantus the Pythagorean. Roughly a century before Copernicus, Christian scholar Nicholas of Cusa also proposed that the Earth rotates on its axis in his book, On Learned Ignorance (1440).[71] Aryabhata (476–550), Brahmagupta (598–668), Albumasar and Al-Sijzi, also proposed that the Earth rotates on its axis.[citation needed]The first empirical evidence for the Earth’s rotation on its axis, using the phenomenon of comets, was given by Tusi (1201–1274) and Ali Qushji (1403–1474).[citation needed] Johannes Kepler published theRudolphine Tables containing a star catalog and planetary tables using Tycho Brahe’s measurements. This cosmology was accepted by Isaac Newton, Christiaan Huygens and later scientists.[72] Edmund Halley (1720)[73] andJean-Philippe de Cheseaux (1744)[74] noted independently that the assumption of an infinite space filled uniformly with stars would lead to the prediction that the nighttime sky would be as bright as the sun itself; this became known as Olbers’ paradox in the 19th century.[75] Newton believed that an infinite space uniformly filled with matter would cause infinite forces and instabilities causing the matter to be crushed inwards under its own gravity.[72] This instability was clarified in 1902 by the Jeans instability criterion.[76] One solution to these paradoxes is the Charlier Universe, in which the matter is arranged hierarchically (systems of orbiting bodies that are themselves orbiting in a larger system, ad infinitum) in a fractal way such that the Universe has a negligibly small overall density; such a cosmological model had also been proposed earlier in 1761 by Johann Heinrich Lambert.[36][77] A significant astronomical advance of the 18th century was the realization by Thomas Wright, Immanuel Kant and others ofnebulae.[73] The modern era of physical cosmology began in 1917, when Albert Einstein first applied his general theory of relativity to model the structure and dynamics of the Universe.[78] Theoretical models[edit] High-precision test of general relativity by the Cassini space probe (artist’s impression): radio signals sent between the Earth and the probe (green wave) aredelayed by the warping of space and time(blue lines) due to the Sun’s mass. Of the four fundamental interactions, gravitation is dominant at cosmological length scales; that is, the other three forces play a negligible role in determining structures at the level of planetary systems, galaxies and larger-scale structures. Because all matter and energy gravitate, gravity’s effects are cumulative; by contrast, the effects of positive and negative charges tend to cancel one another, making electromagnetism relatively insignificant on cosmological length scales. The remaining two interactions, the weak and strong nuclear forces, decline very rapidly with distance; their effects are confined mainly to sub-atomic length scales. General theory of relativity[edit] Main articles: Introduction to general relativity, General relativity, and Einstein’s field equations Given gravitation’s predominance in shaping cosmological structures, accurate predictions of the Universe’s past and future require an accurate theory of gravitation. The best theory available is Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity, which has passed all experimental tests to date. However, because rigorous experiments have not been carried out on cosmological length scales, general relativity could conceivably be inaccurate. Nevertheless, its cosmological predictions appear to be consistent with observations, so there is no compelling reason to adopt another theory. General relativity provides a set of ten nonlinear partial differential equations for the spacetime metric (Einstein’s field equations) that must be solved from the distribution of mass-energy and momentum throughout the Universe. Because these are unknown in exact detail, cosmological models have been based on thecosmological principle, which states that the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic. In effect, this principle asserts that the gravitational effects of the various galaxies making up the Universe are equivalent to those of a fine dust distributed uniformly throughout the Universe with the same average density. The assumption of a uniform dust makes it easy to solve Einstein’s field equations and predict the past and future of the Universe on cosmological time scales. Einstein’s field equations include a cosmological constant (Λ),[78][79] that corresponds to an energy density of empty space.[80] Depending on its sign, the cosmological constant can either slow (negative Λ) or accelerate (positive Λ) the expansion of the Universe. Although many scientists, including Einstein, had speculated that Λ was zero,[81] recent astronomical observations of type Ia supernovae have detected a large amount of “dark energy” that is accelerating the Universe’s expansion.[82] Preliminary studies suggest that this dark energy corresponds to a positive Λ, although alternative theories cannot be ruled out as yet.[83]Russian physicist Zel’dovich suggested that Λ is a measure of the zero-point energy associated with virtual particles of quantum field theory, a pervasive vacuum energy that exists everywhere, even in empty space.[84] Evidence for such zero-point energy is observed in the Casimir effect. Special relativity and space-time[edit] Main articles: Introduction to special relativity and Special relativity Only its length L is intrinsic to the rod (shown in black); coordinate differences between its endpoints (such as Δx, Δy or Δξ, Δη) depend on their frame of reference (depicted in blue and red, respectively). The Universe has at least three spatial and one temporal (time) dimension. It was long thought that the spatial and temporal dimensions were different in nature and independent of one another. However, according to the special theory of relativity, spatial and temporal separations are interconvertible (within limits) by changing one’s motion. To understand this interconversion, it is helpful to consider the analogous interconversion of spatial separations along the three spatial dimensions. Consider the two endpoints of a rod of length L. The length can be determined from the differences in the three coordinates Δx, Δy and Δz of the two endpoints in a given reference frame using the Pythagorean theorem. In a rotated reference frame, the coordinate differences differ, but they give the same length Thus, the coordinates differences (Δx, Δy, Δz) and (Δξ, Δη, Δζ) are not intrinsic to the rod, but merely reflect the reference frame used to describe it; by contrast, the length L is an intrinsic property of the rod. The coordinate differences can be changed without affecting the rod, by rotating one’s reference frame. The analogy in spacetime is called the interval between two events; an event is defined as a point in spacetime, a specific position in space and a specific moment in time. The spacetime interval between two events is given by where c is the speed of light. According to special relativity, one can change a spatial and time separation (L1, Δt1) into another (L2, Δt2) by changing one’s reference frame, as long as the change maintains the spacetime interval s. Such a change in reference frame corresponds to changing one’s motion; in a moving frame, lengths and times are different from their counterparts in a stationary reference frame. The precise manner in which the coordinate and time differences change with motion is described by the Lorentz transformation. Solving Einstein’s field equations See also: Big Bang and Ultimate fate of the Universe Animation illustrating the metric expansion of the universe The distances between the spinning galaxies increase with time, but the distances between the stars within each galaxy stay roughly the same, due to their gravitational interactions. This animation illustrates a closed Friedmann Universe with zero cosmological constant Λ; such a Universe oscillates between a Big Bangand a Big Crunch. In non-Cartesian (non-square) or curved coordinate systems, the Pythagorean theorem holds only on infinitesimal length scales and must be augmented with a more general metric tensor gμν, which can vary from place to place and which describes the local geometry in the particular coordinate system. However, assuming thecosmological principle that the Universe is homogeneous and isotropic everywhere, every point in space is like every other point; hence, the metric tensor must be the same everywhere. That leads to a single form for the metric tensor, called the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker metric where (r, θ, φ) correspond to a spherical coordinate system. This metric has only two undetermined parameters: an overall length scale R that can vary with time, and a curvature index k that can be only 0, 1 or −1, corresponding to flat Euclidean geometry, or spaces of positive or negative curvature. In cosmology, solving for the history of the Universe is done by calculating R as a function of time, given k and the value of the cosmological constant Λ, which is a (small) parameter in Einstein’s field equations. The equation describing how R varies with time is known as the Friedmann equation, after its inventor, Alexander Friedmann.[85] The solutions for R(t) depend on k and Λ, but some qualitative features of such solutions are general. First and most importantly, the length scale R of the Universe can remain constant only if the Universe is perfectly isotropic with positive curvature (k=1) and has one precise value of density everywhere, as first noted by Albert Einstein. However, this equilibrium is unstable and because the Universe is known to be inhomogeneous on smaller scales, R must change, according to general relativity. When R changes, all the spatial distances in the Universe change in tandem; there is an overall expansion or contraction of space itself. This accounts for the observation that galaxies appear to be flying apart; the space between them is stretching. The stretching of space also accounts for the apparent paradox that two galaxies can be 40 billion light years apart, although they started from the same point 13.8 billion years ago[86] and never moved faster than the speed of light. Second, all solutions suggest that there was a gravitational singularity in the past, when R goes to zero and matter and energy became infinitely dense. It may seem that this conclusion is uncertain because it is based on the questionable assumptions of perfect homogeneity and isotropy (the cosmological principle) and that only the gravitational interaction is significant. However, the Penrose–Hawking singularity theorems show that a singularity should exist for very general conditions. Hence, according to Einstein’s field equations, R grew rapidly from an unimaginably hot, dense state that existed immediately following this singularity (when R had a small, finite value); this is the essence of the Big Bang model of the Universe. A common misconception is that the Big Bang model predicts that matter and energy exploded from a single point in space and time; that is false. Rather, space itself was created in the Big Bang and imbued with a fixed amount of energy and matter distributed uniformly throughout; as space expands (i.e., asR(t) increases), the density of that matter and energy decreases. Space has no boundary – that is empirically more certain than any external observation. However, that does not imply that space is infinite… (translated, original German) Bernhard Riemann (Habilitationsvortrag, 1854) Third, the curvature index k determines the sign of the mean spatial curvature of spacetime averaged over length scales greater than a billion light years. If k=1, the curvature is positive and the Universe has a finite volume. Such universes are often visualized as a three-dimensional sphere S3embedded in a four-dimensional space. Conversely, if k is zero or negative, the Universe may have infinite volume, depending on its overalltopology. It may seem counter-intuitive that an infinite and yet infinitely dense Universe could be created in a single instant at the Big Bang whenR=0, but exactly that is predicted mathematically when k does not equal 1. For comparison, an infinite plane has zero curvature but infinite area, whereas an infinite cylinder is finite in one direction and a torus is finite in both. A toroidal Universe could behave like a normal Universe withperiodic boundary conditions, as seen in “wrap-around” video games such as Asteroids; a traveler crossing an outer “boundary” of space going outwards would reappear instantly at another point on the boundary moving inwards. Illustration of the Big Bang theory, the prevailing model of the origin and expansion of spacetime and all that it contains. In this diagram time increases from left to right, and one dimension of space is suppressed, so at any given time the Universe is represented by a disk-shaped “slice” of the diagram. The ultimate fate of the Universe is still unknown, because it depends critically on the curvature index k and the cosmological constant Λ. If the Universe is sufficiently dense, k equals +1, meaning that its average curvature throughout is positive and the Universe will eventually recollapse in a Big Crunch, possibly starting a new Universe in a Big Bounce. Conversely, if the Universe is insufficiently dense, kequals 0 or −1 and the Universe will expand forever, cooling off and eventually becoming inhospitable for all life, as the stars die and all matter coalesces into black holes (the Big Freeze and the heat death of the Universe). As noted above, recent data suggests that the expansion speed of the Universe is not decreasing as originally expected, but increasing; if this continues indefinitely, the Universe will eventually rip itself to shreds (the Big Rip). Experimentally, the Universe has an overall density that is very close to the critical value between recollapse and eternal expansion; more careful astronomical observations are needed to resolve the question. Big Bang model Main articles: Big Bang, Timeline of the Big Bang, Nucleosynthesis, and Lambda-CDM model The prevailing Big Bang model accounts for many of the experimental observations described above, such as the correlation of distance and redshift of galaxies, the universal ratio of hydrogen:helium atoms, and the ubiquitous, isotropic microwave radiation background. As noted above, the redshift arises from the metric expansion of space; as the space itself expands, the wavelength of a photon traveling through space likewise increases, decreasing its energy. The longer a photon has been traveling, the more expansion it has undergone; hence, older photons from more distant galaxies are the most red-shifted. Determining the correlation between distance and redshift is an important problem in experimental physical cosmology. Chief nuclear reactions responsible for the relative abundances of light atomic nuclei observed throughout the Universe. Other experimental observations can be explained by combining the overall expansion of space with nuclear and atomic physics. As the Universe expands, the energy density of the electromagnetic radiation decreases more quickly than does that of matter, because the energy of a photon decreases with its wavelength. Thus, although the energy density of the Universe is now dominated by matter, it was once dominated by radiation; poetically speaking, all was light. As the Universe expanded, its energy density decreased and it became cooler; as it did so, the elementary particles of matter could associate stably into ever larger combinations. Thus, in the early part of the matter-dominated era, stable protons and neutrons formed, which then associated into atomic nuclei. At this stage, the matter in the Universe was mainly a hot, dense plasma of negative electrons, neutral neutrinos and positive nuclei. Nuclear reactionsamong the nuclei led to the present abundances of the lighter nuclei, particularly hydrogen, deuterium, and helium. Eventually, the electrons and nuclei combined to form stable atoms, which are transparent to most wavelengths of radiation; at this point, the radiation decoupled from the matter, forming the ubiquitous, isotropic background of microwave radiation observed today. Other observations are not answered definitively by known physics. According to the prevailing theory, a slight imbalance of matter overantimatter was present in the Universe’s creation, or developed very shortly thereafter, possibly due to the CP violation that has been observed by particle physicists. Although the matter and antimatter mostly annihilated one another, producing photons, a small residue of matter survived, giving the present matter-dominated Universe. Several lines of evidence also suggest that a rapid cosmic inflation of the Universe occurred very early in its history (roughly 10−35 seconds after its creation). Recent observations also suggest that the cosmological constant (Λ) is not zero and that the net mass-energy content of the Universe is dominated by a dark energy and dark matter that have not been characterized scientifically. They differ in their gravitational effects. Dark matter gravitates as ordinary matter does, and thus slows the expansion of the Universe; by contrast, dark energy serves to accelerate the Universe’s expansion. Multiverse theory Main articles: Multiverse, Many-worlds interpretation, Bubble universe theory, and Parallel universe (fiction) Depiction of a multiverse of seven”bubble” universes, which are separatespacetime continua, each having differentphysical laws, physical constants, and perhaps
  2. Your article GlobalBelaiJesus | Promoting GPS (Good Governance Progressive Prosperity Sustainable Security) in a Global Green Renaissance write very well, thank you share!

  3. We at Global Connect promote (IT)2= Innovations, Investments, Talent and Technologies across the globe, solar system and our expanding Universe!

    We believe our health (Mind, Body and Spirit) is the most important asset that needs to be protected, promoted and invested in here on earth and thereafter. What we do not follows us for eternity.

    We promote balanced and divine life that is living for others by serving others (the biological, social and ecological diversity of nature) who are Divine beings made in the image of the Universal Divine God.

    We promote Safety, Security and wellbeing via quality based excellence that is supported by accreditation, credentialing and continuous Quality Improvement protocol.

    We promote talent, ideas, technology and creativity for innovation in all things we do. We believe in connecting talent with GPS (Good, Product and Services) in a Divine and healthy environment that respects our dignity, wellbeing and future into eternity.

    Join our Global Connect Network for a Divine living and progressive prosperity here on earth and our divine life in perpetuity

    Come and share your dreams, vision, goals and aspirations with us and we will make it a reality.

    With regards

    Belai Habte-Jesus, MD, MPH
    Global Connect Inc.

    Healthcare Accreditation, Credentialing & Recruitment
    Global Connects promotes Safety, Quality and Excellence in health.
    We bring mobile health care to your residence and communities
    We work with health care organizations attain the highest quality and business standard.
    Global Connect promotes excellence
    1. Sustain Quality Standards. We promote quality by accreditation with the best accreditation systems like the Joint Commission, CHAPs and ACHC, etc.
    2. Credentialing with health insurance organization. We promote credentialing with public and private health insurance organizations
    3. Recruitment and Retention of health care professionals. We promote continuous recruitment and retention strategies of high quality health care professionals
    4. We promote compliance to local, state, federal and health professional standards by developing policy and procedures and operation manuals.
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  4. Blessing Nelson Mandela for Divine Eternal Life

    Good-bye to the Body and Welcome to the Spirit of Madeba, Tata, Nelson Mandela

    We at Global Connect are deeply saddened by the departure of Divine Madeba- Nelson Mandela but over joyed that his Divine work of serving others will continue forever.

    Mandela is one of the Greatest Sons of Africa, the Globe, the Solar System, the Milky Way and our expanding unique Universe!

    We will remember him second to second, minute to minute and day to day by replicating his Divine Life of serving others all the time be it in our own or imposed prisons or bestowed or achieved presidency of life. We will share and give opportunities to others by serving only one term and allowing the youth and women, the majority or the 99 per centers have their time and space on earth as well as the universe.

    Mandela’s work on racism and apartheid is over but the work of the vulnerable migrant workers or modern day slavery continues. Just as the native Americans gave refuge to discarded workers of Hudson Bay and Virginia Companies, by giving safety and livelihood to the migrant workers of Europe in America, as the Ethiopians gave refuge to the Jews after the fall of King Solomon’s kingdom and the Christians after the takeover of the church by the Romans and later, the prophet Mohammad family after the terror of his Saudi families, the present world needs to look after the current victims of Global Economic Terror that are being trafficked by ruthless merchants of slavery in Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas.

    The life of Mandela can only matter if we follow his example and serve the most vulnerable amongst us, the poor, the children, youth, women and the elderly and especially those noble migrant workers who are taking high risk with their lives to feed their families.

    Our Divine calling is to change the current ruthless modern slavery to Empowered Entrepreneurship of women, youth and migrant workers across the world. We cannot be silent observers of the rude and greedy xenophobic emerging political system sacrificing their future.

    Please read the Global CoFFee Network Campaign and share it with all your public and private associates.

    May the body of Mandela Rest in Peace and may His Divine Spirit live for ever amongst us!

    With my prayers and best wishes to all.

    Belai Habte-Jesus, MD, MPH
    Global CoFFee Network Campaign
    Global Conect Inc.


    Global Coalition of Fair and Free Economic Enterprises (CoFFee)

    Global CoFFee Network Campaign for Converting Modern Day Slavery to Empowered

    01 December 2013

    Dear Sir:/Madam

    Re: Challenging Modern Slavery With Empowering Enterprises by promoting youth and women Entrepreneurship for self-sustaining employment opportunities, enterprises, sustainable development and investment opportunities.

    Converting challenges into opportunities. We members of the Global CoFFee Network Campaign for converting modern day slavery to entrepreneurship for sustainable development and investment opportunities, are writing to request your support to our campaign to convert modern day slavery of global migrant workers by creating a “Resettlement and Entrepreneurship Fund” to facilitate Small Business Enterprises in their respective communities.

    Protecting Victims of global economic terror. The Global Economic Crisis and resultant depression of employment opportunities in many parts of the world, is creating a new wave of highly vulnerable migrants seeking gainful employment and survival opportunities across the world in highly dangerous, at times life threatening situations. The violent Saudi state terrorism and murder of vulnerable Ethiopian migrants in Saudi Arabia, and the death of many Ethio-Eritreans in the Mediterranean Sea is a case in point. The resultant economic uncertainty has also generated a series of xenophobic right wing extremist political zealots/terrorists ready to terrorize these vulnerable populations across Americas, Europe, Asia and the Arab world.

    Challenging current and future civil unrest and terror. This wave of migration is creating a series of challenges to the host countries and the immigrant communities that have resulted in modern day slavery type of human right abuses, torture and civil unrest. The recent experience of migrant workers in the Arabian and European Countries is a cause of serious civil unrest, abuse and terror and the loss of many lives in highly dangerous situations with a potential for a series of perpetual human rights abuse, new wave of conflict and perpetual global terror.

    Converting modern slavery into empowered entrepreneurship. A group of us have considered this serious modern day tragedy and have put together a Seven Point Strategy to Eliminate the threat of illegal migration, reduce the risk of social unrest and convert the challenges of modern day slavery into opportunities of entrepreneurship for sustainable development and investment opportunities.

    Seven point strategic solutions. Please find attached the Seven Point Strategies for Converting Global Modern Day Slavery to Entrepreneurship that promotes sustainable development and investment opportunities for your consideration. Kindly review and share it with your colleagues and sign below to support our campaign.

    Remember: It is Divine and the Right thing to do to change the lives of these vulnerable noble people towards empowered entrepreneurship!

    Thank you for your assistance and support for this mater,

    We remain:


    Global CoFFee Network Campaign to convert Modern Slavery into Empowered Entrepreneurship

    01 December 2013

    Seven Point Strategy to Convert Modern Day Slavery to Empowered Entrepreneurship
    The Global CoFFee Network Campaign to Empower Vulnerable Global Migrant Populations
    Our Goal: Challenging Modern Slavery with Empowering Enterprises- Promoting Youth and women Empowerment focused Entrepreneurship

    Re: A strategic solution- Entrepreneurial Global SBE Network (Small Business Enterprises)
    I. The Challenge: Changing the paradigm of migrant workers from Africa and Asia to entrepreneurs
    • Global Economic Crisis has generated an increasing number of African and Asian Emigrants perishing in the Mediterranean Europe, Arabian Gulf Terror Network, especially in Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Dubai, Qatar and United Arab Immigrates and South Africa, etc. Asset: Risk taking population that can benefit from CORT Options

    II. The Context: Lack of Employment, competency and Socio-Economic opportunities in their respective countries.
    (Our Principle: Eliminating Threat, Reducing Risks and converting challenges into opportunities)
    1. Modern Slavery-increasing number of Africans and Asians being deported from Saudi Arabia and nearby Arabia countries and the Mediterranean region in a highly inhumane and terrorist pattern- (the case of Ethiopian immigrants torture and terror in Saudi Arabia and nearby Arabian and Mediterranean countries.
    2. Empowered entrepreneurs. Converting modern day slaves into empowered entrepreneurs wherever they live.

    III. The Opportunity: Develop the culture of opportunity, dignity, productivity, self -help and small business enterprises
    1. Provide strategic opportunities in addressing the perpetual problems of lack of employment with Small Business Enterprises, supported and managed by the best global institutions such as World Bank, IMF, bilateral and multi-lateral development enterprises. Convert Challenges into opportunities. Avoid the fiasco of un accountable Endowment Fund Crisis and the Lords of Poverty Experience of rent seeking NGOs, and parasitic state based organizations who are selling these vulnerable people for profit in the first place.
    2. Avoid the Middle- men. Rent seekers, slaveholders, illegal merchants, lords of poverty, state operated mafias, speculators etc.who created this crisis in the first place. Use Direct mobile banking and technologies.

    IV. The Solution: Immediate, short and long-term Empowered entrepreneurial solutions. Convert challenges into opportunities
    1. Create a Global Development and Enterprises Fund managed and supported by the best talent in the business from local and international partners that are accessible, transparent, and accountable to local stakeholders.
    2. The Resettlement and Enterprise Fund should be geared towards job creation and resettlement of internal and externally displaced immigrant workers with a focus on youths and women the main victims of this tragedy.

    V. The Strategy: Empowered Entrepreneurial Immediate, short and long-term strategies. Eliminate Threat, Reduce Risk, and Convert challenges into opportunities by empowering youths and women, the hope of the future.
    1. Change the culture of hopelessness into opportunity (excellence and success) by changing the Kaffala/Talent Sponsorship Program of Arabian and European Countries respectively.
    2. CAT Communication. Complete, Accurate and Timely Communication via ICT and Multi-Media Network to galvanize support and investment in the most vulnerable populations in the immediate, short and long-term with appropriate business plan, budget, and operation and performance evaluation protocol.

    VI. Entrepreneurial fund: Resource Generation, Banking, Credit line, training/education and small business enterprises
    1. Diaspora involvement. Use Diaspora networks to initiate the start up funds and seek to get matching funds from local governments, private and public enterprises and international partners.
    2. Banking and credit line. Use the international and local banks for managing the funds with appropriate mobile banking system that is reported via competent social media network.
    3. Matching funds. Ensure that the local government matches funds and resources generated from Diaspora, international sources. Ensure that the current slaving countries contribute to this fund.
    4. Credit line and payment mechanism. Make a Credit line for migrant workers with the help of local banks to develop small business enterprises that are monitored carefully and to be paid over time.
    5. Avoid middle men/institutions. Avoid the culture of dependency and corruption by running the whole project like a business enterprises with budget, productivity reports and performance evaluation.
    6. Direct and proactive involvement. Regularize the migrant workers with the local economy by ensuring productivity, business interaction with local public and private enterprises.
    7. Productivity Report. Ensure a calendar based productivity report at weekly, monthly, quarterly and annual interval.
    VII. Model Entrepreneurs. Replicate the success story of the entrepreneurs across the cultural and national boundaries with improvements to ensure such modern day slavery will never take place again.

    Follow up Seven Point Smart Action Plan

    1. Develop Global Entrepreneurial Network that provide guidance, support and expertise to these funds
    2. Follow Good Business Practice of Performance Evaluation at Design, Operation and Outcome level.
    3. Develop organizational structure that is led by a Board of Governance, Professional/Quality Improvement Advisory Board
    4. Develop a Senior Management Team that regularly monitors performance at daily, weekly, monthly and quarterly interval.
    5. Develop a Calendar based Business Plan with budget, operational plan and performance evaluation and regular reporting activities
    6. Publish results at regular interval to public and privare stakeholders to ensure transparency and accountability.
    7. Develop An Annual Organizational Evaluation Tool for accountable reporting and lessons learnt implementation

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